Chris & Julie Petersen's Genealogy

William of England

Male 1153 - 1156  (3 years)


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  • Name William of England 
    Born 17 Aug 1153  , Normandy, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died 25 Dec 1156  Wallingford Castle, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Buried Reading Abbey, Reading, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I7139  Petersen-de Lanskoy
    Last Modified 27 May 2021 

    Father Henry II,   b. 5 Mar 1133, Le Mans, Maine, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 6 Jul 1189, Chateau Chinon, Chinon, Indre-et-Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 56 years) 
    Mother Eleanor of Aquitaine,   b. Abt 1124,   d. 31 Mar 1204, Poitiers, Vienne, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 80 years) 
    Married 18 May 1152  Bordeaux, Gironde, Aquitaine, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F2997  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Notes 
    • RESEARCH_NOTES:
      1. “Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial & Medieval Families,” Douglas Richardson (2013):
      “HENRY II OF ENGLAND (otherwise HENRY FITZ GEOFFREY, or HENRY FITZ EMPRESS), Knt., King of England, Duke of Normandy, Count of Anjou, and, in right of his wife, Duke of Aquitaine, born at Le Mans in Maine 5 March 1133. He was knighted at Carlisle by his great uncle, David, King of Scotland, at Whitsuntide 1149. He married at Bordeaux, France 18 May 1152 ELEANOR (or ALIENOR) OF AQUITAINE, former wife of Louis VII le Jeune (or le Pieux), King of France, Duke of Aquitaine [see FRANCE 6] (divorced 21 March 1152), and daughter and co-heiress of Guillaume X, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Poitou, by his 1st wife, Aénor, daughter of Amaury (or Aimery) I, Vicomte of Châtellerault [see AQUITAINE 4 for her ancestry]. She was born about 1124 (aged 13 in 1137). They had eight children (see below). By various mistresses, he also had a number of illegitimate children, including three sons, Geoffrey [Archbishop of York], William Longespée, Knt. [Earl of Salisbury], and Morgan [Provost of Beverley], and two daughters, including Maud [Abbess of Barking]. By the Treaty of Winchester in 1153, Henry was recognized as King Stephen's heir. He reached England 8 Dec. 1154, and was crowned King of England at Westminster 19 Dec. 1154, with direct rule over England and southern Wales, and a claim to the overlordship of northern Wales. His domain of England, Wales, and the French lands acquired from inheritance and marriage (ruled as separate components) was termed the "Angevin empire" (as his father was Count of Anjou). He had little difficulty in curbing the disorder of Stephen's reign and restoring the royal authority. He encouraged the development of juries of local men in the investigation of crimes, and trial of those accused by royal justices. His writs to sheriffs improved the disposition of claims over possession of property and benefices, thereby discouraging local self-help of violent ejection and usurpation. He was the first king to attempt to break down the feudal system of government by bringing its countless independent jurisdictions into subjection to one uniform judicial administration. In 1158 he confirmed a treaty with King Louis VII of France involving the marriage of Henry's son to the French king's daughter. In the summer of 1159 he launched an unsuccessful expedition against Toulouse, which he claimed as Duke of Aquitaine. His reassertion of the king's rights over the church, in particular that clerics were subject to his courts and not solely to ecclesiastical courts, led to the quarrel with his former chancellor, Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, who was murdered in his cathedral in Dec. 1170. In 1171 Henry invaded Ireland intent on conquest. By Christmas 1171 Waterford, Wexford, Limerick, and Cork were in his hands and all the Irish princes, except the King of Connacht, gave him hostages and promised tribute. In 1178 he reorganized the English curia regis by restricting its highest functions to a small inner tribunal of selected counsellors, which later grew into the court of the king's bench. His final years were marked by quarrels with and between his sons, stirred into rebellion by their mother, from whom he was separated. HENRY II OF ENGLAND, King of England, died testate at Château Chinon, Normandy 6 July 1189 in the midst of a rebellion by his sons. His widow, Eleanor, died at Poitiers (Vienne), France 31 March 1204. They were both buried in the church of the Abbey of Fontevrault (Maine-et-Loire).
      Note: Eleanor of Aquitaine had two daughters by her 1st marriage to Louis VII le Jeune (or le Pieux), King of France [see FRANCE 6], namely Marie of France (died 1198) (wife of Henry [I], Count Palatine of Troyes) [see BLOIS 4] and Alix of France (died c.1197) (wife of Thibaut [V], Count of Blois, Dunois, and Chartres, Seneschal of France [see WYDEVILLE 4]. References: Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France 20 (1840): 735 (Chronicon Guillelmi de Nangiaco). Recueil des Historiens des Gaules at de la France 12 (1877): 228 (Extrait d'une Chron. de France, etc.); 13 (1869): 308 i (Ex Roberti Abbatis Appendice ad Sigebertum), 565 (Præpositi Hannoniæ Chronico), 703,708-709 (Chron. of Alberic of Trois-Fontaines); 19 (1880): 336-337. Schwennicke Europæische Stammtafeln 2 (1984): 47 (sub Champagne & Brie). Van Kerrebrouck Les Capétians 987-1328 (2000): 91-105. Wheeler Eleanor of Aquataine: Lord & Lady (2003).
      Sandford Gen. Hist. of the Kings of England (1677): 59-72. Gallia Christiana 2 (1720): 1128 (Agnes de Barbezillo styled "aunt" famital of Queen Eleanor [of Aquitaine), wife of King Louis WI of France). Rawlinson Hist. & Antiqs. of the City, and Cathedral-Church of Hereford (1717): Addenda, 17 (Kalendar of Obits: "II Non. Julius [6 July]. Obitus Henrici Regis Anglie, filie Matildis."). Anselme Hist. de la Maison Royale de France 1 (1725): 76-77. Nichols Coll. of All the Wills (1780): 7-10, 10*-12* (will of King Henry II). L'Art de Vérifier les Dates 2 (1784): 348-365 (sub Comtes de Poitiers, Ducs de Aquitaine). Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France 13 (1786): 190 (Ex Radulfi de Diceto: Ralph de Fay styled "uncle" [avunculus] of Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine). Rymer Fædera 1 (1) (1816): 81-82 (Aimery VII, Vicomte of Thouars, styled "kinsman" by Queen Eleanor). Dugdale Monasticon Anglicanum 4 (1823): 573 (William [Fitz Roy], 4th Earl of Surrey (or Warenne), styled "kinsman" [cognati] by King Henry II). Banks Genealogical Hist. of Divers Fams. of the Ancient Peerage of England (1826): 308-313. Nicolas Testamenta Vetusta 1 (1826): 1-4 (will of King Henry II of England). Gray Scalacronica (1836): 278 (Ermengarde de Beaumont, wife of William the Lion, King of Scots styled "cousin" [cosyn] of King Henry II of England). Historiæ Dunelmensis Scriptores Tres (Surtees Soc. 9) (1839): Appendix, pg. 1, charter no. xixii (Hugh [du Puiset], Bishop of Durham, styled "kinsman" [cognatus] by King Henry II). Strickland Lives of the Queens of England 1 (1840): 304-378 (biog. of Eleanora of Aquitaine). Pertz Chronica et Annales ævi Salui (Monumenta Germaniæ Historica, Scriptores 6) (1844): (Roberti de Monte Cronica [Robert de Torigni]): 505 (sub 1156) & 506 (sub 1157: Thierry, Count of Flanders, and his wife, [Sibyl of Anjou], she styled "aunt" [amita] of King Henry II), 508 (sub 1158: Thibaut, Count of Blois, styled "kinsman" [cognatus]), 512 (sub 1162: William I, King of Sicily, styled "kinsman" [cognatum]), 514 (sub 1165: Philip, Count of Flanders, styled "kinsman" [consobrinum], 515 (sub 1166: [Godred], King of Man, styled "kinsman" on the part of King Henry II's mother, Empress Maud), 519 (sub 1170: Hugh, Earl of Chester, styled "kinsman" [cognate]; Earl Hugh's wife, [Bertrade], daughter of [Simon], Count of Evreux "kinswoman" [cognatam] on the part of King Henry II's father), 527 (sub 1179: Ralph brother of [Richard], Vicomte of Beaumont, styled "kinsman" [cognatus germanus]), 534 (sub 1184: Philip, Count of Flanders, styled "kinsman" [cognate]); 27(1925): 108 (Ex Gestis Henrici II. et Ricardi I.: Ermengarde, daughter of Richard, Vicomte of Beaumont, styled "kinswoman" by King Henry II). Hawley Royal Fam. of England (1851) 18-19. Luard Annales Monastici 2 (Rolls Ser. 36) (1865): 245 (Annals of Waverley sub AD. 1188 - Baldwin [de Revers], Earl of Cornwall, styled "kinsman" [consanguineus] of King Henry II). Mémoires de la Société des Antiquaries de l'Ouest 29 (1865): 372 (Aimery VII, Vicomte of Thouars styled "your cousin and our's" [votre cousin et au notre] by queen Eleanor of Aquitaine in letter to her son, King John dated 1200-1201; also see Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chattes 32 (1871): 412-413). Marchegay & Mabille Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou (1869): 33 (Chronicæ Sancti Albini Andegavensis: birth of King Henry II), 46 (Chronicæ Sancti Albini Andegavensis: death of King Henry II). Stubbs Chronica Magistri Rogeri de Houedene 2 (Rolls Ser. 51) (1869): 105 (Uchtred Fitz Fergus of Galloway styled "kinsman" of King Henry II; see Wyckoff Feudal Relations Between the Kings of England & Scotland Under the Early Plantagenets (1897): 83, footnote 1). Grasilier Cartulaires Inédits de la Saintonge 2: Cartulaire de l'Abbaye Royale de Notre-Dame de Saintes (1871): 13-16, 19-21, 35-36, 36 (charter of Eleanor [of Aquitaine], Queen of France dated 1151 names her "sister” [sororis], Aelith), 37, 51 (charter of Eleanor [of Aquitaine], Queen of France, dated 1140 names her "aunt" [amite], Agnes [de Barbezieux], Abbess of Saintes; charter witnessed by Aelith, "sister" [sorore] of Queen Eleanor), 52, 78. Delisle Chronique de Robert de Torigni 1 (1872): 192 (birth of King Henry II); 2 (1873): 7 (sub A.D. 1168: Mathieu, Count of Boulogne, styled "kinsman" [cognatum] of King Henry II of England). Wright Feudal Manuals of English Hist. (1872). Matthew of Paris Chronica Majora 2 (Rolls Set.) (1874): 285 (Ralph de Pale styled "uncle" [avunculus] of Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine). Montzey Hist. de is Fliche 1 (1877): 137-146. Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France 12 (1877): 426, 439 (Chron. of Geoffrey Vosiensis: Sarah daughter of Reynold, Earl of Cornwall and wife of Ademar, Vicomte of Limoges styled "kinswoman" [consanguineam] of King Henry II of England). Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France 15 (1878): 767-768 (P[etrus Raimundi], Abbot of Saint Maxent, styled "kinsman" [consanguineus] by Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of England in letters dated 1161). Eyton Court, Household & Intinerary of King Henry II (1878): 8 (Henry [de Sully], Abbot of Fécamp, styled "kinsman" [cognatus] by King Henry II). Stubbs Hist. Works of Gervase of Canterbury 1 (Rolls Ser. 73) (1879): 93 (birth of King Henry II), 140-141 (David I, King of Scots, styled "kinsman" [consanguineum] of King Henry II of England). Delisle Cartulaire Normand (1882). Bain Cal. Docs. Rel. Scotland 2 (1884): 15-17 (Robert de Courtenay, Knt., styled "kinsman" [cognatus] of Queen Eleanor). Hart Cartularium Monasterii de Rameseia 1 (1884): 106 (Silvio de Cresto styled "queen's kinsman" [nepoti Regina]). Birch Cat. Seals in the British Museum 1 (1887): 10-13 (seal of King Henry II - Obverse. King enthroned, holding sword and orb; generally ressembling the obverse of seals of Henry I. and Stephen, but with differences in arches on front of throne, and in the various proportions. Legend: + HENRICVS DEI • G[RATIA] • REX ANGLORUM. Four small points in cross placed as a stop between the words. Reverse. King on a horse to the right; hauberk, continuous coif, and chausses of chain-mail, here represented by rings. Conical helmet with nasal. Shield secured by strap passing round king's neck, and fastened by a ring into inner surface of leather. In right hand a long sword; in left hand the short strap of shield and reins. Horse's head-gear composed of chain-work. Legend: + HENR : DEI : GRA : DVX : NORM: [ ] ET : AQVIT : ET: COM : ANDEG.). Christie Annales Cestrienses (1887): 29-35 (Bertrade of Evreux, wife of Hugh, Earl of Chester, styled "cousin" of King Henry II in chronicle of the Abbey of S. Werburg at Chester). Great Roll of the Pipe 1164-1165 (Pipe Roll Soc. 8) (1887): 40 (Marchise styled "kinswoman" [cognate] of Queen Eleanor [perhaps her cousin, Marchise, daughter of Aldebert IV, Count de La Marche]). Gross Gild Merchant 2 (1890): 28-29 (William, Earl of Gloucester, styled "kinsman" [cognatus] by King Henry II). Delaville le Roulx Cartulaire Général de l'Ordre des Hospitaliers de S. Jean de Jerusalem 1(1894): 108, 125-128, 180-181, 312, 470-471, 480-482, 519, 527, 567-568; 2 (1897): 18-19. Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France 23 (1894): 579 (Notæ Monasterii Montis Sancti Michaelis: "7 Jul. [Obiit] Henricus secundus, rex Anglorum."). Archives Hist. de Département de la Gironde 30 (1895): 6-7 (charter of Eleanor). Beauchet-Filleau Dictionnaire historique et généalogique des Families du Poitou 2 (1895): 320 ("L'obituaire de Fontevrault place son décès le jour des ides de janvier. Dnus Radulfus princeps de Faia, avunculus Dnæ Alienordis Reginae. (bat. 54802 89.)) (author identifies Ralph de Fay as son of Aimery I, Vicomte of Châtellerault). Wigram Cartulary of the Monastery of St. Frideswide at Oxford 2 (1896): 116 (Empress Maud styled "sister" [soror] and her son, Henry [afterwards King Henry II of England] styled "nephew" [nepos] by Robert Fitz Roy, Earl of Gloucester in charter dated c.1142). Round Cal. Docs. Preserved in France 1 (1899): 473 (Andre de Chauvigny styled "kinsman" by Eleanor [of Aquitaine], Queen of England, and her son, King John, in letter dated 1199). Desc. Cat. Ancient Deeds 4 (1902): 69 (grant by King Henry II dated 1186-9). Broussillon Cartulaire de l'Abbaye de Saint-Aubin d'Angers 2 (1903): 84 (Raoul [de Beaumont], Bishop of Angers, styled "dearest kinsman" [charissimus cognatus] in letter by King Henry II of England). English Hist. Rev. 21 (1906): 78-93; 42 (1927): 569-572; 74 (1959): 193-213; 110 (1995): 652-655. C.Ch.R. 2 (1906): 104-105 (Mary, Abbess of Romsey, styled "kinswoman" [cognata/cognatam] by King Henry II). Jeayes Desc. Cat. Derbyshire Charters (1906): 244 (Maud [of Gloucester], Countess of Chester, styled "kinswoman" [cognata] by King Henry II in charter dated ?1175). D.N.B. 6 (1908): 593-596 (biog. of Eleanor of Aquitaine); 9 (1908): 452-463 (biog. of Henry II: "... his nature was full of passion... [he] was a great builder... Caen, Rouen, Angers, Tours were all adorned with royal palaces in his reign... probably the most highly educated sovereign of his day... genius for government"). Delisle Recueil des Actes de Henri II, Roi d'Angleterre et Duc de Normandie (1909): 352-354 (biog. of Eleanor [of Aquitaine], Queen of England: "Un des recueils de Gaignières (ms. latin 5419, p. 80) nous a conservé l'image de sceau dont elle continua a se servir pendant son veuvage. C'est un long sceau allongé et pointu sot lequel elle est représentée debout, tenant on oiseau sur la main gauche; il ne subsistait que la dernière partie de la légende: NORMANORVM DUCISSA ET ANDEGAVIE COMITISSA. Il y a aux Auxives nationales, attaché a one charte de l'année 1199, on exemplaire mutile de ce même sceau."). Great Roll of the Pipe 1184-1185 (Pipe Roll Soc. 34) (1913): 216 ([Maud de Bohun], wife of Juhel de Mayenne, styled "neptis Regis" [kinswoman of King Henry II]). Halphen & Poupardin Chroniques des Comtes d'Anjou et des Seigneurs d'Amboise (1913). C.P. 4 (1916): 314, footnote b (Baldwin de Reviers, 3rd Earl of Devon, styled "king's kinsman" in 1188), 314, footnote d (André de Chauvigny styled "kinsman" by Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine and her son, King John [see also Brial Monumens des Règnes de Philippe Auguste et de Louis VIII 2 (Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France 18) (1879): 89; Round Cal Docs. Preserved in France 1 (1899): 473]); 5 (1926): 117, footnote f (sub Essex) [Eustache, wife of Geoffrey de Mandeville, 2nd Earl of Essex, and Anselme Candavène, Count of Saint-Pol, styled "kinswoman" of King Henry II; see also Dugdale Monasticon Anglicanum 4 (1846): 142; Méms. de la Soc. des Antiqs. de Picardie 47 (1936): 182-184 (Eustache's mother named in charter as Isabel); Fossier Chartes de Coutume en Picardie (XIe-XIIIe Siècle) (Coll. de Docs. Inédits sur l'Hist. de France 10) (1974): 191-192 (Eustache named in charter as mother of Hugh (IV) Candavene, Count of Saint-Pol)]. Delisle & Berger Recueil des Actes de Henri II, Roi d'Angleterre, Duc de Normandie 3 (1927): 136 (William, Earl of Gloucester, styled "kinsman" [cognatus]), ([Raoul de Beaumont], Bishop of Angers, styled "kinsman" [cognatus] by King Henry II). Chartrou-Charbonnel L'Anjou de 1109 à 1151: Foulque de Jérusalem et Geoffroi Plantegenêt (1928). Rübel-Blass Ahnentafel Rübel-Blass 1 (1939): 253 (ancestry of Eleanor of Aquitaine). Speculum 30 (1955): 374-384. Boussard Le Gouvernement d'Henri II Plantagenet (1956). Powicke Handbook of British. Chron. (1961): 32-33. Coat of Arms 7 (1962): 18-24; n.s. 5 (1983): 153-156. Genealogists' Mag. 14 (1964): 361-368. Davis Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum 1066-1154 3 (1968). Charles Evans "Margaret of Scotland, Duchess of Brittany," in Mélanges Offerts à Szaboles de Vajay à l'Occasion de Son Cinquitième Anniversaire (1971): 187-191 (Margery [de Bohun], wife of Pedro Manrique, Count of Lara, styled "kinswoman" of King Henry II). Warren Henry II (1973): 216 (Roger [of Gloucester], Bishop of Worcester, styled "kinsman" by King Henry II, cites William FitzStephen, III, 103-106). Kibler Eleanor of Aquitaine, Patron & Politcian (1976). Paget Lineage & Anc. of Prince Charles 1 (1977): 14-15. Saillot Les Seize Quartiers des Reines et Impératrices Françaises (420-1920) (1977): 188-189 (ancestry of Eleanor of Aquitaine). Meade Eleanor of Aquitaine (1977). Schwennicke Europäische Stammtafeln 2 (1984): 11 (sub France), 47 (sub Champagne and Brie), 76 (sub Aquitaine), 83 (sub England); 3(4) (1989): 813 (sub Châtellerault). Fryde Handbook of British Chron. (1986): 36. Kemp Reading Abbey Cartularies 2 (Camden 4th Ser. 33) (1987): 6 (Reynold, Earl of Cornwall, styled "uncle" [avunculo] by Henry [II] later King of England, in charter dated 1147 or 1149). Hanna Cartularies of Southwick Priory 1 (Hampshire Recs. 9) (1988): 89-90 (charter of Queen Eleanor). Jour. Medieval Hist. 14 (1988): 321-336. Tyerman England & the Crusades 1095-1588 (1988): 48 ([Baldwin IV], King of Jerusalem, styled "kinsman" by King Henry II). Williamson Kings & Oueens of Britain (1991): 52-55 (biog. of Henry II:"... a man of action, athletic, energetic and self-disciplined.., well-grounded in law and history... undoubtedly a great king"), 55 (biog. of Eleanor of Aquitaine). Amt Accession of Henry II in England (1993). Meyer Culture of Christendom (1993): 137 (Canterbury Obituary Lists: "3 Kal. [Apr.] [30 March]. [Obiit] Alienor regina Anglie."). Mortimer Angevin England 1154-1258 (1994). Church Medieval Knighthood V. Papers from the 66 Strawberry Hill Conf. 1994 (1995): 68. Fryde & Greenway Handbook of British Chronology (1996): 36. Leese Blood Royal (1996): 189-200. Viator 27 (1996): 53 et seq. Vincent et al. Acta of Henry II & Richard 12 (List & Index Soc. Special Ser. 27) (1996): 67-69 (instances of Henry [de Sully], abbot of Fécamp, styled "king's kinsman'). Barlow Feudal Kingdom of England (1999). Van Kerrebrouck Les Capétians 987-1328 (2000): 91-105. Anglo-Norman Studies 23 (2001): 143-154. Wheeler Eleanor of Aquitaine: Lord & Lady (2003). Tanner Fams., Friends, & Allies (2004): 311 (France ped.). Hanna Christchurch Priory Cartulary (Hampshire Rec. Ser. 18) (2007): 124 (Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester, styled "kinsman" by King Henry II in charter dated 1154-71). Harper-Bill Henry II: New Interpretations (2007). Hosier Henry II (2007): 54. Cornwall Rec. Office: Arundell of Lanherne & Trerice, AR/20/1 (Robert [Fitz Count], son of [Robert Fitz Roy], Earl of Gloucester, styled "kinsman" [cognatus] by King Henry II). Online resource: The Henry Project: The Ancestors of King Henry II of England (http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm).
      Children of Henry II of England, by Eleanor of Aquitaine:
      i. WILLIAM OF ENGLAND, born in Normandy, France 17 August 1153. He died at Wallingford Castle, Berkshire about 25 Dec. 1156, and was buried at Reading Abbey, Berkshire. Sandford Gen. Hist. of the Kings of England (1677): 65-66. Dugdale Monasticon Anglicanum 3 (1821): 434-435 (undated charter of King Henry II dated at Reading to Hurley Priory, Berkshire made for the health of the souls of his late son, William, and his grandfather, King Henry I). Banks Genealogical Hist. of Divers Fams. of the Ancient Peerage of England (1826): 308-313. Hawley Royal Fam. of England (1851): 18-19. Matthew of Paris Matthæi Parisiensis, Monachi Sancti Albani, Historia Anglorum 1 (Rolls Set. 44) (1866): 307 (sub A.D. 1157: "In Adventu autem infirmatus Willelmus, primogenitus regis Henrici, obiit, diebus hujus anni scilicet Nataliciis; under dissentio est, utrum hoc vel anno praeterito obierit. Sepultus est autem apud Radingum."). Marchegay & Mabille Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou (1869): 38 (Chronicæ Sancti Albini Andegavensis: birth of William). Delisle Chronique de Robert de Torigni 1 (1872): 34 (sub A.D. 1156: "Obiit Guillermus, primogenitus filius Henrici regis Anglorum, et sepultus est Radingis ad pedes Henrici regis, proavi sui."). Wright Feudal Manuals of English Hirst. (1872). Schwennicke Europäische Stammtafeln 2 (1984): 83 (sub England). Fryde & Greenway Handbook of British Chronology (1996): 36.
      ii. HENRY OF ENGLAND (styled "the Young King"), born at Bermondsey, Surrey 28 Feb. 1155, Duke of Normandy, Count of Anjou and Maine, crowned joint King of England 14 June 1170. He married at Neubourg in Normandy 2 Nov. 1160 MARGARET (or MARGUERITE) OF FRANCE, 1st daughter of Louis VII le Jeune (or is Pieux), King of France, by his 2nd wife, Constance, daughter of Alfonso VII, King of Castile and Leon [see FRANCE 6 for her ancestry]. They had one son, William. He was recrowned together with his queen in 1172. He rebelled in 1173-74 and again in 1183. HENRY OF ENGLAND, joint King of England (with his father), died at Château Martel in Touraine 11 June 1183, and was buried in Rouen Cathedral. His widow, Margaret, married (2nd) shortly after 24 August 1186 (as his 4th wife) BELA III, King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, and Rama [see HUNGARY 8], son of Geza II, King of Hungary, Croatia, Dalmatia, and Rama, by his wife, Euphrosine, daughter of Mstislav II the Great, Grand Prince of Kiev. He was born about 1148. They had no issue. Bela III, King of Hungary, died 23 April 1196, and was buried at Székesfehervar. Following the death of her husband, Bela III, Margaret made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. She died at Acre shortly after 10 Sept. 1197. Sandford Gen. Hist. of the Kings of England (1677): 66-67. Banks Genealogical Hist. of Divers Fams of the Ancient Peerage of England (1826): 308-313. Hawley Royal Fam of England (1851): 18-19. Douet-D'Arcq Historiques et Critiques sur les Anciens Comtes de Beaumont-sur-Oise (Mémoires de la Société des Antiquaires de Picardie: Docs. Inédits 4) (1855): 50-51 (Henry the Young King of England styled "kinsman" [consanguinei] by Eleanor de Vermandois, Countess of Beaumont in charter dated 1184). Marchegay & Mabille Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou (1869): 38 (Chronicæ Sancti Albini Andegavensis: birth of Henry), 41-45 (Chronicæ Sancti Albini Andegavensis: death of Henry). Wright Feudal Manuals of English Hist. (1872). Brial Monumens des Règnes de Philippe Auguste et de Louis VIII 1 (Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France 17) (1878): 67, 630; 2 (Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France 18) (1879): 293 (sub 1197: "Tunc Regina Hungariæ, soror Philippi Regis Franciæ, mortuo matito, Ptolemaïdam transiit, ibique non multo post obiit."). Turner Cal. Charters & Rolls: Bodleian Lib. (1878): iv (rare charter of Young Henry dated c.1170, in which he uses the style "rex Angliæ et Dux Normanniæ et Comes Andegaviæ, Regis Henrici filius"). Deville Tornbeaux de la Cathédral de Rotten (1881): 161-162,164-165,210-211. Birch Cat. Seals in the British Museum 1(1887): 13 (seal of Henry son of King Henry II dated 1170-1182 - King, enthroned, with sceptre and orb; sides of throne terminate in animals' heads, as on the thrones on the French royal seals. Legend: HENRICVS REX ANGLOR DVX NORMANNOR ET COMES ANDEGAVOR.). Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France 23 (1894): 578 (Notæ Monasterii Montis Sancti Michaelis: "11 Jun. [Obiit] Henricus tertius, rex Anglorum."). Delaville le Roulx Cartulaire Général de l'Ordre des Hospitaliers de S. Jean de Jérusalem 2 (1897): 591-594, 602. Round Cal. Docs. Preserved in France 1 (1899): 382-384. English Hist. Rev. 39 (1924): 240-241. Landon Itinerary of King Richard I (Pipe Roll Soc. n.s. 13) (1935): 224-226. Schwennicke Europäische Stammtafeln 2 (1984): 11 (sub France), 83 (sub England), 154 (Arpaden). Fryde Handbook of British Chron. (1986): 36 (he "used style rex Anglorum... hence called by contemporaries and certain chroniclers King Henry III"). Smith English Episc. Acta 2 Canterbury 1162-1190 (1986): 110-111. Fryde & Greenway Handbook of British Chronology (1996): 36. Leese Blood Royal (1996): 189-200. Van Kerrebrouck Les Capétians 987-1328 (2000): 96-97, 104. English Hist. Rev. 116 (2001): 297-326 ("the sole associate king in English post-conquest history").
      Child of Henry of England, by Margaret of France:
      a. WILLIAM OF ENGLAND, born about 19 June 1177, died 22 June 1177. Benedict of Peterborough Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi Benedicti Abbatis (or Chron. of the Reigns of Henry II. & Richard I. A.D. 1169-1192) 1 (Rolls Ser. 49) (1867): 177 ("Eodem anno [1177] circa clausum Pentecosten, Margareta, guæ, at supradictum est, prægnans abiit ad regem Franciæ patrem suum, peperit filium, et vocatum eat nomen ejus Willelmus, sed infra triduum obiit Parisius ubi natus fuit; et quidam dicebant quod abortivus fuit."). Leese Blood Royal (1996): 189-200.
      iii. MAUD OF ENGLAND, born at London 1156. She married at Minden 1 Feb. 1168 (as his 2nd wife) HEINRICH XII der Löwe (or HENRY the Lion), Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, son and heir of Heinrich X, Duke of Bavaria, by Gertrude, daughter of Lothar III, Holy Roman Emperor. They had four sons, Heinrich [Count Palatine of the Rhine], Lothar, Otto (IV) [Count of Poitou, King of the Romans, Holy Roman Emperor], and Wilhelm [Count of Luneburg], and two daughters, Maud and Richza (wife of Waldemar II, King of Denmark). He was deprived of both Bavaria and Saxony in 1180, and spent his remaining years in exile at the court of his father-in-law, King Henry II, or at Danwarderode Castle in Braunschweig (or Brunswick). In 1194 he was guaranteed possession of his Saxon allodial lands. His wife, Maud, died at Braunschweig 28 June 1189. HEINRICH OF BRAUNSCHWEIG, former Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, died 6 August 1195. He and his wife, Maud, were buried in the collegiate church of St. Blaise, now Braunschweig Cathedral in Braunschweig, Germany. They are direct ancestors of House of Hanover, the royal house of England from 1714 to 1901. Sandford Gen. Hist. of the Kings of England (1677): 69-70. Banks Genealogical Hist. of Divers Fams of the Ancient Peerage of England (1826): 308-313. Hawley Royal Fam. of England (1851): 18-19. Green Lives of the Princesses of England 1 (1857): 214-262 (biog. of Matilda of England). Pertz Historici Germania sac. XII. (Monumenta Germania Historica, Scriptores 21) (1869): 115-116 (Arnoldi Chronica Salvorum: list of children). Wright Feudal Manuals of English Hist. (1872). Procs. Soc. of Antiqs. of London 2nd Ser. 6 (1876): 283-287. Pauli & Libermann Ex rerum Anglicarum scriptoribus sæc. XII. et XIII. (Monumenta Germania Historica, Scriptores 27) (1885): 110 (Ex Gestis Henrici II. et Ricardi I.: Heinrich, Duke of Saxony, styled "kinsman" [nepos] of Emperor Friedrich I. Barbarossa). Ströhl Deutsch Wappenrolle (1897): 72. Hohnstein Geschichte des Heroztums Braunschweig (1908): 91-140 (biog. of Heinrich der Löwe). Delisle Recueil des Actes de Henri II, Roi d'Angleterre et Duc de Normandie Introduction (1909): 384. Waltz Ottonis et Rahewini Gesta Friderici I. Imperatoris (Monumenta Germaniæ Histories, Scriptures rerum Germanicarum 46) (1912): 350 (Rahewini Gesta Friderici I. Imperatoris Appendix sub A.D. 1168: "... nam inter imperatorem et regem Angliæ fedus et amicicia fuit, data filia sua in uxorem Heinrico duci Bawariæ et Saxoniæ."). Rübel-Blass Ahnentafel Rübel-Blass 1 (1939): 284 (ancestry of Maud of England). Jordan Die Urkunden Heinrichs des Löwen Herzogs von Sachsen and Bayern (Monumenta Germaniæ Historica, Laienfürsten- und Dynastenurkunden der Kaiserzeit) (1941): 51-53 (Gebhard I, Count of Burghausen styled "kinsman" [cognatus] by Duke Heinrich), 107-108 (Otto VI, Count Palatine of Wittelsbach, afterwards Duke of Bavaria, styled "kinsman" [nepos] by Duke Heinrich), 181-182 (Friedrich II, Count Palatine of Saxony, Count of Sommerschenburg styled "kinsman" [cognatus] by Duke Heinrich). Foreville L'Eglise et le Royaute en Angleterre sous Henri II Plantagenet (1154-1189) (1943): 410, footnote 4. Appelt Die Urkunden Friedrichs I. (Monumenta Germaniæ Historica: Die Urkunden der deutschen Könige und Kaiser 10(1)) (1975): 18-19, 231-233, 347-349 (instances of Heinrich, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, styled "kinsman" [cognate/cognate] by Emperor Friedrich I. Barbarossa), 259-260, 332-335 (instances of Heinrich, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, styled "kinsman" [nepotem/nepos] by Emperor Friedrich I. Barbarossa), 364-365 (Heinrich, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, styled "kinsman" [consanguine] by Emperor Friedrich I. Barbarossa). Schwennicke Europäische Stammtafeln 1 (1980): 58 (sub Welfen); 2 (1984): 83 (sub England). Gens Nostra 46 (1991): 540-541. Kegel Die Jüngere Hildesheimer Briefsammlung (Monumenta Germaniæ Historica, Die Briefe Der Deutschen Kaiserzeit 7) (1995): 101-102 (letter of Heinrich of Braunschweig to Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa dated 1185-1188), 102-103 (Heinrich of Braunschweig styled "kinsman" [consanguineo] in letter from Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa dated 1185-1188). Fryde & Greenway Handbook of British Chronology (1996): 36. Jour. Medieval Hist. 22 (1996): 379-393. Leese Blood Royal (1996): 41-45. Wheeler Eleanor of Aquitaine: Lord & Lady (2003). Online resource: www.genealogie-mittelalter.de/bayern/heinrich_12_derloewe_herzog_von_bayern_1195_welfen/heinrich_12_der loewe_herzog_von_bayern_und_sachsen_+_1195.html.
      Children of Maud of England, by Duke Heinrich XII der Löwe:
      a. OTTO OF BRUNSWICK, 3rd son. He was educated at the court of his uncle, King Richard I of England, under whose experience he gained valuable experience in war. He was appointed Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Poitou, and Earl of Yorkshire. When Emperor Henry VI died in Sept. 1197, some of the German princes under the leadership of Adolph, Archbishop of Cologne, were anxious to find a rival to Philip, Duke of Swabia, who had been elected German king. Otto married (1st) 22 July 1212 BEATRIX OF HOHENSTAUFEN, daughter of Philip, Duke of Swabia. They had no issue. His wife, Beatrix, died 11 August 1212. He married (2nd) at Aachen 19 May 1214 MARIA OF BRABANT, daughter of Henri I, Duke of Lorraine and Brabant, Margrave of Antwerp, by his 1st wife, Machtild (or Mahaud), daughter and co-heiress of Mathieu of Flanders, Count of Boulogne [see BRABANT 5 for her ancestry]. They had no issue. OTTO IV, late Emperor, died at the Harzburg 19 May 1218, and was buried in the collegiate church of St. Blaise, now Braunschweig Cathedral in Braunschweig, Germany. His widow, Maria, married (2nd) in July 1220 WILHELM (or WILLEM) I, Count of Holland [see HOLLAND 5]. She died between 9 March and 14 June 1260. Gallia Christiana 2 (1720): 477-478 (Richard I, King of England, styled "uncle" [avunculus] in charter of Otto, Duke of Aquitaine). Rymer Fædera 1(1) (1816): 28-29, 87-88, 93, 104, 108, 114 (instances of Otto, King of the Romans, styled "nephew" [nepos] by King John of England). Huillard-Bréholles Hist. Diplomatica Friderica Secundi 3 (1852): 37-48 (Otto of Saxony [former Emperor Otto IV] styled "kinsman" [consanguineus] by Emperor Friedrich II in 1227), 57-60 (Otto [IV], late Emperor, styled "kinsman" [consanguineum] by Emperor Friedrich II in 1228). Luard Annales Monastici 2 (Rolls Ser. 36) (1865): 290 (Annals of Waverley sub A.D. 1218: "Otho imperator Alemanniæ, nepos Ricardi et Johannis regum obiit."). Piot Cartulaire de l'Abbeye de Saint-Trond 1 (1870): 199-200 (charter of Henri [II], Duke of Lorraine and Brabant dated 1240, names his "dear sister" [charissima soror], Maria, former Empress of the Romans). Stubbs Chronica Magistri Rogeri de Houedene 3 (Rolls Ser. 51) (1870): 298-299 ("Eodem anno [1195] Willelmus rex Scottorum ægrotavit, in villa sua quæ dicitur Clacmanan et statuit Othonem filium Henrici ducis Saxoniæ, nepotem Ricardi regis sibi successurum in regnum Scottorum, ita quod ipse Otho filiam suam primogenitam in uxorem cum regno duceret. Et quamvis rex plures haberet qui voluntati suæ in hoc consentirent, tamen comes Patricius et alii multi contradixerunt ..."). Pauli & Libermann Ex rerum Anglicarum scriptoribus sac. XII et XIII. (Monumenta Germania Historica, Scriptores 27) (1885): 385 (F Gervasii Tilleberiensis Otiis Imperialibus: William Longespée, Earl of Salisbury, styled "uncle" [avunculum] of Emperor Otto IV). Doyle Official Baronage of England 3 (1886): 740 (sub York). Thatcher & McNeal Source Book for Mediæval Hist. (1905): 228 (Otto, King of the Romans, styled "nephew" by King John of England in 1202). Hohnstein Geschichte des Herzogtams Braunschweig (1908): 141-149 (biog. of Kaiser Otto IV). Encyclopædia Britannica 20 (1911): 375 (biog. of Otto IV, Roman emperor). Nicholson Love, War & the Grail (2001). Online resource: www.genealogie-mittelalter.de/deutschland_koenige_2/otto_4_deutscher_koenig_1218_welfen/otto_4_von_ braunschweig_deutscher_koeni8-+_1218.html.
      b. MAUD (or MATHILDE) OF BRUNSWICK, born in 1172. She married (1st) in July 1189 GEOFFREY III, Count of Perche, lord of Toddington, Bedfordshire and Aldbourne and Wanborough, Wiltshire, son of Rotrou III, Count of Perche, by Mathilde, daughter of Thibaut IV, Count of Blois. They had two sons, Geoffrey and Thomas [Count of the Perche]. GEOFFREY III, Count of the Perche, died 5 April 1202. His widow, Maud, married (2nd) before 1203 (as his 1st wife) ENGUERRAND DE COUCY, seigneur of Coucy, and, in right of his wife, Count of the Perche, son and heir of Raoul de Coucy, seigneur of Coucy, by Alix, daughter of Robert I, Count of Dreux. She died in 13 Jan. 1209/10. Placitorum in Domo Capitulari Westmonasteriensi Asservatorum Abbrevatio (1811): 55. Rotuli litterarum patentium in turri Londinensi asservati 1201- 1216 (1834): 18 (Maud, Countess of the Perche, styled "niece" [nepti] by King John of England in 1202). Lepinois & Merlet Cartulaire de Notre-Dame de Chartres 2 (1863): 21 (charter of Maud, Countess of Perche, dated June 1202, names her late husband, Geoffrey, and her son, Thomas), 22. Herald & Genealogist 6 (1871): 241- 253 ([Maud], Countess of Perche styled "niece" [neptis] by King John, cites Rot. Normann. p. 87.). Procs. Soc. of Antiqs. of London 2nd Ser. 6 (1876): 283-287. Brial Monumens des Règnes de Philippe Auguste et de Louis VIII 3 (Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France 19) (1880): 436-438 (J. de Pertico [Enguerrand de Coucy, Count of the Perche] styled "your kinsman" [consobrinum tuum] in letter from Pope Innocent III to King Philippe Auguste of France in 1203). Money Hist. of Newbury (1887): 62 (Perche ped.). Procs. Suffolk Inst. of Arch. & Nat. Hist. 11(1903): 304-305. Delisle Recueil des Actes de Henri II, Roi d'Angleterre et Duc de Normandie Introduction (1909): 374 (biog. of Geoffrey de Perche). Leese Blood Royal (1996): 41-45. Thompson Power & Border Lordship in Medieval France: County of the Perche 1000-1226 (2002). Kathleen Thompson "Matilda, countess of the Perche (1171-1210): The expression of authority in name, style and seal" available at www.unicaen.fr/mrsh/crahm/revue/tabularia/thompson.html.
      iv. RICHARD OF ENGLAND (nicknamed Cæur-de-Lion or the Iionheart), Knt., King of England, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, Count of Anjou, 3rd but eldest surviving son, born at Oxford 8 Sept. 1157. In 1169 he was affianced to marry Alice (or Alix) of France, daughter of Louis VII le Jeune (or le Pieux), King of France, by his 2nd wife, Constance, daughter of Alfonso VII, King of Castile and Leon [see FRANCE 6 for her ancestry]. She was born in 1160. In 1169 he did homage to King Louis for his mother's inheritance, the duchy of Aquitaine, and, in the following year, he was acknowledged as Duke. In 1173-4 he joined his brothers in their rebellion against their father. In the period, 1175-77, he established his authority in Aquitaine, forcing the Count of Toulouse to do him homage. In 1177 King Louis demanded the immediate marriage of Richard and his daughter, Alice, but the matter was submitted to arbitration. On his older brother, Henry's death in 1183, Richard became heir to the English crown. His father called on him to give up the duchy of Aquitaine to his younger brother, John, which led to a fresh war. In 1185, on his father's orders, he resigned the duchy to his mother, Queen Eleanor, who was released from her ten years of captivity. In 1187 the French king, Philippe Auguste, led an army into Barry and besieged Richard and John at Châteauroux. A great battle was averted only by the intervention of the nobles. In 1188 Richard did homage to the French king for all his French possessions, including Normandy, Anjou, and Aquitaine. In 1189 war broke out again. King Henry, his father, refused to assent to Richard's marriage to Alice, or to acknowledge Richard as his heir. In July 1189 Henry was forced to sign a treaty yielding every point. On Henry's death 6 July 1189, Richard succeeded as King of England, and was crowned at Westminster Abbey 3 Sept. 1189. He immediately set about organizing an army to join the French and Germans on the Third Crusade, whose aim was to recover Jerusalem, captured from the westerners by the Muslims in 1187. Richard left England 11 Dec. 1189; secured Acre and Jaffa and defeated the Muslims in the Battle of Arsuf, but his forces were not sufficiently strong to gain Jerusalem. He had to be content with making a truce with the Islamic leader, Saladin, who much admired him. In March 1190/1 he voided his marriage contract with Alice of France. He married at Limassol, Cyprus 12 May 1191 BERENGERE (or BERENGUELA) OF NAVARRE, daughter of Sancho Vi el Sabio, King of Navarre, by Sancha, daughter of Alfonso VII, King of Castile. She was born about 1163. They had no issue. On Richard's journey home, he was imprisoned in Germany by the Duke of Austria, whom he had rashly insulted in the Holy Land. He was released in 1194 on payment of a huge ransom; returned to England 13 March 1194. His second Coronation was solemnised in Winchester Cathedral 17 April 1194. In October 1196 he made peace with Count Raymond VI of Toulouse, renouncing all claims to the county of Toulouse and the subject county of Rouergue; he also returned Quercy and gave the Agenais as part of the dowry for his sister Joan's marriage to Raymond. In 1199, during a minor siege at Chalus in Limousin, RICHARD I, KING OF ENGLAND was fatally injured by a crossbow bolt; and died there testate 6 April 1199. He was buried at Fontevrault Abbey (Maine-et-Loire), France. Following Richard's death, the borough of Wilton, Wiltshire formed part of his widow, Berengere's dower, but she did not enjoy her full tights as indicated by a papal letter to King John in 1209. In 1204 Bérengère ceded all her rights to the castles of Falaise, Domfront, and Bonneville-sur-Touque to King Philippe Auguste of France, and Chateau-du-Loir to Guillaume des Roches, in exchange of the vill of le Mans and its dependencies and 1,000 marks sterling. In 1216 she founded a chapel of religious hospitaliers of Jerusalem at Thoré in Maine. She was co-heiress in 1226 to her cousin, Guillaume, Bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne, Count of Perche. In 1230 she founded a Cistercian abbey at l'Epau, near Le Mans. She died 23 Dec. 1230, and was buried at at l'Epau Abbey. Sandford Gen. Hist. of the Kings of England (1677): 73-80. Martene & Durand Veterum Scriptorum et Monumentorum 1 (1724): 1045-1046 (charters of Queen Bérengère of England). Nichols Coll. of All the Wills (1780): 12. Dugdale Monasticon Anglicanum 5 (1825): 266 (Obit. of Tintem Abbey: "Ricardus Rex Angliæ primus obiit xxvii. die Mardi"; "Berengerus et comitissa soror ejus obiit xxiij. die Decembris."). Banks Genealogical Hist. of Divers Fams of the Ancient Peerage of England (1826): 313-314. Brequigny Table Chronologique des Diplomes, Charles, Titres et Actes Imprimés concernant l'Histoire de France 4 (1836): 357. Palgrave Docs. & Recs. Ill. the Hist. of Scotland 1(1837): xxviii-xxix (William the lion, King of Scots styled "kinsman" [consanguineo] by King Richard I of England). Archæologia 27 (1838): 109-112. Green Letters of Royal & Ill Ladies (1846): 30-34 (two letters of Bérengère, Queen of England). Hawley Royal Fam. of England (1851): 18-19. Riley Annals of Roger de Hoveden 2 (Rolls Ser. 51) (1853): 120 (Hugh du Puiset, Bishop of Durham, styled "our dearly beloved cousin" by King Richard I). Guigniaut Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France 21(1855): 604 (Chron. of Alberic of Trois Fontaines (sub anno 1230): "... Obiit decimo calendas Januarii [23 Dec.] regina Berengaria, domina Cenomanensis, relicta quondam regis Angliæ Richardi"). Migne Innocentii III Romani pontificis opera omnia (Patrologia Ser. Latina 215) (1855): 1538-1539. Arbois de Jubainville Hist. des Ducs et des Comtes de Champagne 5 (1863): 195, 229-230, 238. Teulet Layettes du Trésor des Charles 2 (1866): 181-182 (Bérengère, Queen of England, styled "aunt" [matertera] of Thibaut, Count of Champagne). Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France 13 (1869): 132 (Ex Gervasii Dorobernensis Monachii/Chronico de Regisbus Angliæ Sui Temporis: [sub A.D. 1169] "Richardus quoque filius Regis Angliæ accepit in uxorem filiam Regis Franciæ [Adelam], quam habuit de Ella Regis Hispanorum, et suscepit Ducatum Aquitaniæ, fecitque hominium Regi Franciæ super honore Ducatus."). Lalore Cartulaire de l'Abbaye de Boulancoutt (1869): 95 (Obituaire: "23 Dec. - solemnel pour dame Bérangère de Castille, reine d'Angleterre, et dame Blanche, sa soeur, comtesse de Champagne"). Marchegay & Mabille Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou (1869): 39 (Chronicæ Sancti Albini Andegavensis: birth of King Richard I), 151 (Chronicon Sancti Sergii Andegavensis: death of King Richard I). Wright Feudal Manuals of English Hist. (1872). Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France 12 (1877): 228 (Extrait d'une Chron. de France), 383 (Ex Roderico Toletani Archiepiscopi); 2 (Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France 13) (1869): 708-709 (Chron. of Alberic of Trois-Fontaines). Montzey Hist. de la Flèche 1 (1877): 147-159. Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France 19 (1880): 447 ([Blanche of Navarre], Countess of Troyes, styled "sister" [sororem] of Queen Bérengère in letter by Pope Innocent III to King John dated 1204). Delisle Cartulaire Normand (1882): 19. Birch Cat. Seals in the British Museum 1(1887): 13-14 (seal of King Richard I - Obverse. King enthroned: closely fitting tunic, loose surcoat with embroidered edges at neck and arms, and cloak. Open crown of three points fleury. In right hand a sword held erect; in left hand an orb topped by a cross fleur-de-lisée. Throne of elaborate pannelled work, of four stages of arcading with intervening head-mouldings, the back splayed away, and footboard enriched with carvings of quatrefoils, and a corbel on seven arches. In the field, on either side of king's head, a crescent enclosing an estoile of seven points wavy. On either side of throne a sprig of the planta genista, or broom. Legend: + RICARDVS DEI GRACIA REX ANGLORVM. Reverse. King on horseback to right. Hauberk and surcoat of mail armour, conical helmet, large broad sword, bowed shield on which a lion rampant contoume. Horse-trappings: head-gear, ornamental saddle and breast-band. Legend: + RICARDVS DVX NORMANNORVM ET AQVITANORVM ET COMES ANDEGAVORVM.). Meyer L'Hist. de Guillaume le Marechal 1 (1891): 338-340, esp. lines 9392-9432 (André de Chauvigny styled "king's kinsman"). Delisle Manuscrits Latins et Français ajoutés aux Fonds des Nouvelles Acquisitions Pendant les Années 1875-1894 2 (1894): 509-510 (Calendrier of Maubuisson Abbey) ("X kal. januarii [23 Dec.]. Obiit Berengaria regina et soror ejus."). Delaville le Roulx Cartulaire Général de l’Ordre des Hospitaliers de S. Jean de Jérusalem 1 (1894): 556-557 (charter of King Richard I dated 1189-1190); 2 (1897): 179-180. Wyckoff Feudal Relations Between the Kings of England & Scotland Under the Early Plantagenets (1897): 89-90 (William the lion, King of Scotland styled "dearest cousin" by King Richard I of England in 1189), 92-93 (William the Lion, King of Scotland styled "friend and cousin and liegeman" by King Richard I of England in 1194). Molinier Obituaires de la Province de Sens 1(2) (Recueil des Historiens de la France - Obituaires) (1902): 645 (Abbaye de Port Royal: "x. cal. [23 Dec.]. Ce jour est fait l’anniversaire de Berangarie, royne [1229], et de Blanche, contesse, et non en convent."), 655 (Abbaye de Maubuisson: "[23 Dec.]. x kal. jan. Obiit. Berengaria regina et soror ejus."). Vallée Cartulaire de Château-du-Lair (Société des Archives Hist. du Maine 6) (1905): 80-81. D.N.B. 16(1909): 1022-1031 (biog. of Richard I: "... He was a stern ruler.., where his rights were not questioned, he was generous to a fault... In warfare he seems to have combined dash and prudence to a remarkable degree... He was sincere in his desire to free the holy sepulcher... a man of many accomplishments"). Hatton Book of Seals (1950): 170. Sanders English Baronies (1960): 14. Powicke Handbook of British Chron. (1961): 33. VCH Wiltshire 6 (1962): 8-9. Coat of Arms 7 (1962): 18-24 (arms of Richard as Duke: a sharply-convex shield with a single lion rampant on the visible portion; arms of Richard as King: "A later great seal, brought into use certainly by 1198 and possibly as early as 1195, bears three lions passant guardant in pale"). Chaplais Diplomatic Docs. 1 (1964): 18-20 (Baldwin, Count of Flanders and Hainault styled "kinsman" [consanguineum] by King Richard I in 1197). Stones Anglo-Scottish Relations 1174-1328 (1965): 12-14 (William the lion, King of Scotland, styled "kinsman" by King Richard in 1189), 18-19 (William the Lion, King of Scotland styled "friend and kinsman" [amico et consanguineo] by King Richard in 1194). Paget lineage & Anc. of Prince Charles 1 (1977): 15. Jour. Medieval Hist. 6 (1980): 185-198; 23 (1997): 351-365. Bull. Inst. Hist. Research 53 (1980): 157-173. Schwennicke Europäische Stammtafeln 2 (1984): 56 (sub Navarre), 83 (sub England). Fryde Handbook of British Chron. (1986): 36-37. Mitchell Berengaria, Enigmatic Queen of England (1986). King & Ridyard Law in Mediæval Life & Thought (Sewanee Mediæal Studies 5) (1990): 21-42. Williamson Kings & Queens of Britain (1991): 55-56,65 (biog. of Richard Coeur de Lion). Meyer Culture of Christendom (1993): 127 (Canterbury Obituary Lists: "8 Idus April [6 April]. Obiit Ricardus Rex Anglie, qui dedit Boscum de Blen cum pertinentiis suis Ecclesie Christi."), 137 (Canterbury Obituary Lists: "8 Idus Apr. 16 April]. Obiit Richardus rex Angliae."). Nottingham Medieval Studies 39 (1995): 37-53; 43 (1999): 79-89. Fryde & Greenway Handbook of British Chronology (1996): 36-37. Leese Blood Royal (1996): 57-58,189-200. French Hist. Studies 21 (1998): 517-542. Trindade Berengaria: In Search of Richard the Lionheart's Queen (1999): 23 (Queen Bérengère's "long years of widowhood" reveal "a strong, courageous woman, independent, solitary, battling against difficult political and economic circumstances, with little interest in the trappings of a courtly existence, sustained by her faith in Christ and her royalty to the See of St Peter, not afraid to assert her rights against powerful enemies, both lay and clerical."), 183 (Queen Bérengère styled "kinswoman" by King Louis IX of France). Van Kerrebrouck Les Capétians 987-1328 (2000): 97,105. Online resources: www.ctv.es/USERS/sagastibelza/berenguela/berenguela_tumba.htm.
      Illegitimate child of Richard I, by an unknown mistress, ___:
      a. PHILIP FITZ ROY (otherwise PHILIP DE COGNAC), in right of his wife, of Cognac, Merpins, and Jarnac. He married AMELIE DE COGNAC, daughter of Itier V, seigneur of Cognac, Villebois, and Jarnac. They had no issue. Adémar, Count of Angouleme, did homage to him in 1194, and also after his father's death. Amélie died before 1199. Philip reportedly killed Adémar V, vicomte of Limoges, in 1199, in revenge for his father's death. In 1201 he sold the castle and honour of Cognac (Charente), France to his uncle, King John. The same year he received a gift of 50 marks from King John. PHILIP FITZ ROY was living in 1211. Sandford Gen. Hist. of the Kings of England (1677): 80. Bull. de la Soc. des Antiqs. de l'Ouest et des Musées de Poitiers 12 (1845): 415. Roger of Hoveden Annals of Roger de Hoveden 2 (1853): 464-465 ("In the same year [A.D. 11991, Philip, bastard son of Richard, king of England, to whom the said king, his father, had given the castle and the manor of Cuinac, slew the before-named viscount of Limoges, in revenge for his father."). Comptes d'Alphonse de Poitiers (Archives Hist. du Poitou 4) (1875): 21-22 ("... Tempore domini comids Pictavensis Henrici, qui fuit rex Anglie, quittavit pater comitis Audomaris Engolismensis, in aula Pictavensi, Bardon, dominum Coignyaci, de homagio quod petebat ab ipso de Coygnyaco, et eo presente et concedente, fecit homagium dominus Coygnyaci domini comiti Pictavensi, de Cognyaco et pertinentiis; et credo quod adhuc vivunt multi qui hoc viderunt. Filius dicti domini Cognyaci fecit similiter homagium Richardo Pictavensi, de Coygnyaco et pertinentiis; quo domino Cognyaci mortuo, dedit rex Richardus comes Pictavensis dominam Amellyam unicam heredem Coygnyaci, quam habebat in ballo, ratione comitatus Pictavensis, in uxorem cuidam filio suo notho, scilicet Philippo de Coygnyaco; qua defuncta sine liberis, tenuit dictus comes Richardus dictum castrum et eum tradidit Roberto de Torniant, senescallo suo Pictavensis."). Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes 1 (1883): 271. Boissonade Quomodo Comites Engolismenses ega Reges Anglia, et Francia se Gesserint 1152- 1328 (1893). Richard Hist. des Comtes de Poitou 2 (1903): 330. Furness I. & Death of King John (1919): 6-9. Boissonade L'Ascension, le Déclin et la Chute d'un Grand Etat Féodal du Centre-Ouest: Les Taillefer et les Lusignans (Bull. et Méms. de la Soc. Arch. et Hist. de la Charente) (1935). Great Roll of the Pipe Michaelmas 1201 (Pipe Roll Soc. n.s. 14) (1936): xix, 283 ("Philipp° f[ilio] R. Richardi"). Martin-Civat Les Seigneuties de Cognac, Jarnac et Metpins dons l’Empire Anglo-Angevin aux XIIe et XIIIe Siècle (Congrès des Socs. Savantes de Cognac) (28 April 1956). Henderson Richard Coeur de Lion (1959): 242. Shakespeare Quarterly 11 (1960): 137-146. Powicke Loss of Normandy (1961): 32-33. Notes & Queries 207 (1962): 274-275. NEHGR 119 (1965): 94-102. Le Château Royal of Cognac (Mems./Institut d'Hist. et d'Arch. de Cognac et du Cognaçais) 2 (1972): 5. Shakespeare Studies (1976): 59-70. Given-Wilson Royal Bastards of Medieval England (1984): 126-127, 179. Debord La Soc. Laïque dans les Pays de la Charente Xe-XlIe Siècle (1984): 486-488. Schwennicke Europäische Stammtafeln 3(4) (1989): 769 (sub Limoges). Evergates Feudal Soc. in Medieval France (1993): 58-59. Fryde & Greenway Handbook of British Chronology (1996): 36-37. Leese Blood Royal (1996): 57-58. Bernard et al. Hist. du Poitou et des Pays Charentais (2001): 151. Erickson Royal Panoply: Brief Lives of the English Monarchs (2006): 46.
      v. GEOFFREY OF ENGLAND, 4th son, born 23 Sept. 1158, in right of his wife, Duke of Brittany and Earl of Richmond. He married about July 1181 (by dispensation, they being related in the 3rd and 4th degrees of kindred) CONSTANCE OF BRITTANY [see BRITTANY 6], daughter and heiress of Conan IV, Duke of Brittany, Earl of Richmond, by Margaret, daughter of Henry of Scotland, Earl of Northumberland [see BRITTANY 5 for her ancestry]. She was born about 1162. They had three children (see below). In 1178 he was knighted at Woodstock by his father. In 1184 they founded a chaplaincy in Rouen Cathedral for the soul of his late brother, Henry. In 1185 they issued an assize regulating the succession of lands in Brittany. GEOFFREY, Duke of Brittany, Earl of Richmond, was killed in a tournament at Paris 19 August 1186, and was buried there in the quire of Notre Dame Cathedral. His widow, Constance, married (2nd) 3 Feb. 1188 (or 1189) (as his 1st wife) RANULPH, Earl of Chester [see CHESTER 5.i], Judge in the King's Court, 1193, Constable of Sermilly Castle, 1201-4, Constable of the Tower of Avranches, 1203, Warden of the Peak Castle and Forest, 1215, Steward of the Town and Honour of Lancaster, 1216-23, Constable of Fotheringay Castle, 1221-2, Steward of the Honour of Leicester, 1222, and, in right of his wife, Duke of Brittany and Earl of Richmond, son and heir of Hugh, Earl of Chester, hereditary Vicomte of Avranches, by Bertrade, daughter of Simon de Montfort, Count of Evreux, seigneur of Montfort-l'Amaury [see CHESTER 5 for his ancestry]. They had no issue. In 1196 Ranulph captured Constance en route to her 6n5li7ing negotiations with King Richard I and confined her at Benvron for at least a year. Soon after her release, she sought the annulment of their marriage which was granted in 1199, presumably on grounds on consanguinity. She married (3rd) before October 1199 (as his 1st wife) GUY DE THOUARS [see BRITTANY 6], in right of his 1st wife, Count (or Duke) of Brittany, Earl of Richmond, younger son of Geoffroi IV, Vicomte of Thouars, by his wife, Aumur (or Aumou) [see AQUITAINE 3.ii.a for his ancestry]. They had three daughters, Alix (wife of Pierre de Braine (nicknamed Mauclerc), Knt., Duke of Brittany, Earl of Richmond), Marguerite, and Katherine (wife of André III de Vitré, seigneur of Vitré). Constance, Duchess of Brittany, died testate at Nantes 4 (or 5) Sept. 1201, and was buried at Villeneuve. In 1202 he joined King Philippe Augustus, and his English lands were confiscated. He served as regent of Brittany on behalf of his daughter, Alice, from 1203 to 1213. He married (2nd) EUSTACHE DE MAULEON, widow of Guillaume V, Vicomte of Aunay, and daughter of Pierre d'Argenton. They had two sons, Pierre de Chemillé, Knt. [seigneur of Chemille, Mortagne, and Brissac] and Thomas de Chemillé, Knt. In October 1203 he was granted the castles of Chemillé and Brissac by King Philippe Auguste of France. In 1204 he led the Breton invasion of southern Normandy. In 1206 King Philippe Auguste of France granted him le Broherec, la Cornouaille, and le Pouher. GUY DE THOUARS died at Chemillé 13 April 1213, and was buried at Villeneuve. His widow, Eustache, married (3rd) RENAUD DE MAULEVRIER. She was living in 1244. Sandford Gen. Hist. of the Kings of England (1677): 67-68. Gallia Christiana 2 (1720): 1333 (abstract of charter of Guy de Thouars dated 1208 naming his mother, Aumuz, and his wife, [Constance] Countess of Brittany). Anselme Hist. de la Maison Royale de France 1(1725): 445-461 (sub Bretagne). Morice Méms. pour Servir de Preuves a l’Hist. de Bretagne 1 (1742): 37-38, 822 (dower of Katherine of Brittany, wife of André III de Vitré), 912-913, 917, 919-920 (instances of Pierre de Chemillé styled "uncle" [avunculus] by Jean, Duke of Brittany, in 1238, 1240, 1241), 930-931 (Thomas de Chemillé styled "brother" [fratri] by Pierre de Chemillé). Morice Histoire Ecclésiastique et Civil de Bretagne 1 (1750): xvii-xviii (Counts of Penthievre ped). Banks Dormant & Extinct Baronage of England 1 (1807): 218-220. Hanshall Hut. of the County Palatine of Chester (1823): 21-23. Dugdale Monasticon Anglicanum 5 (1825): 325 (charter of Ranulph, Earl of Chester dated 1230), 574-575 (Jerveaux Abbey - Genealogy of the Counts of Richmond). Banks Genealogical Hist. of Divers Fams of the Ancient Peerage of England (1826): 308-313. Coll. Top. et Gen. 2 (1835): 247-249. Extracta e Vanis Cronicis Scocie (1842): 70 ("Henricus, regis Dauid filius, comes Huntyntoune et Northumbrie vxorem duxit Adam filiam Willelmi senioris, sororis Willelmi junioris comitis de Warenna, et sororem comitis Roberti Legecesterensis, et Walranni comitis de Melent, cuius mater fait soror Rodulphi comitis de Perona, regis Francorum Ludouici consanguinea, ex qua suscepit tres inclitos filios Genuit eciam idem princeps Henricus totidem Elias ex uxore sua predicta Ada, scilicet, Adam, que lege conjugii tradita est comiti Holandie Fiorentino: secundam, Margaretam Conano duci Britannie comiti de Richmonth nuptam, ex qua genuit filiam nomine Constanciam Gaufrido, comiti Ancligauie, fratri regis Anglie Richardi Primi, disponsatam, de qua Gaufridus genuit alum nomine Arthurum, postea in mare mersum, vnam eciam filiam, Aleciam nomine, que a Petro Mauclerk concepit et peperit filium, normna Johannem, postea ducem Britannie, et aliam filiani nomine Alienoram, que cum Arthuro fratre in mare periit."). Hawley Royal Fam. of England (1851): 18-19. Mémoires de la Société des Antiquaries de l'Ouest 29 (1865): 365-369 (re. Thouars fam.). Stubbs Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi Benedicti Abbaris 1 (Rolls Ser. 49) (1867): 207. Marchegay & Mabille Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou (1869): 45 (Chronicæ Sancti Albini Andegavensis: death of Geoffrey). Wright Feudal Manuals of English Hist. (1872). Annual Rpt. of the Deputy Keeper 35 (1874): 8-9 (charter of Ranulph, Earl of Chester). Demay Inv. des Sceaux de la Normandie (1881): 5 (seal of Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany, Earl of Richmond dated 1185 - Le duc à cheval, vêtu du haubert, coiffé d'un heaume a timbre arrondi; lance au gonfanon. [Légende] *GAVFRIDVS HENRICI REGIS FILIVS DVX BRI Revers: Le duc à cheval, couvert d'un immense bouclier, brandissant son épée. [Légende] *GAVFRIDVS HENRICI REGIS FILIVS COMES RICHEMVNDIE), 5-6 (undated seal of Constance, Duchess of Brittany, Countess of Richmond - Dame debout, coiffée en tresses, revêtue d'un sur ___ ajusté du corsage, des hanches et des bras, at recouvert d'une chape, un faucon sur le poing, en fleuron dans la main droite. [Légende:]* CONSTANCIA DVCISS … [COM]ITISSA RICH[EMUN]DIE). Ormerod Hist. of the County Palatine & City of Chester 1 (1882): 33-41. Robertson Materials for the Hist. of Thomas Becket 6 (Rolls Ser. 67) (1882): 170-174. Bull & Mémoires de la Société Archéologique du Département d'Ille-et-Vilaine 17 (1885): 370-371, 371-372 (charter dated 1182-85 of Geoffrey son of King Henry, Duke of Brittany, Count of Richmond; charter granted with consent of his wife, Constance), 373 (charter dated 1183-86 of Constance, Duchess of Brittany, Countess of Richmond to the church of Rouen), 374- 376 (charter dated 1187 of Constance, Duchess of Brittany, Countess of Richmond to Saint-Gildas de Ruis Abbey), 376-377 (charter dated 1189 of Constance, Duchess of Brittany, Countess of Richmond to Saint-Gildas de Ruis Abbey), 377-378 (charter dated 1193 of Constance, Duchess of Brittany, Countess of Richmond to Saint-Melaine of Rennes Abbey), 379-380 (charter dated 1198 of Constance, Duchess of Brittany, Countess of Richmond), 380-381 (charter dated 1199 of Constance, Duchess of Brittany, Countess of Richmond to Notre Dame près Aurai Priory), 383-384 (charter dated 1199-1201 of Guy de Thouars, Duke of Brittany, Earl of Richmond and his wife, Constance, Duchess of Brittany to Melerai Abbey), 384-387 (foundation charter dated 1201 by Constance, Duchess of Brittany, Countess of Richmond for Villeneuve Abbey), 387 (charter dated 1187-1201 by Constance, Duchess of Brittany, Countess of Richmond to Buzai Abbey), 388-390, 391-392 (charter dated 1205 of Guy de Thouars, Count of Brittany to the monks of Villeneuve), 394-397 (charter dated 1207 by Guy de Thouars, Count of Brittany to the canons of Nantes), 397-406, 406-407 (charter dated 1212 of Guy de Thouars, Count of Brittany), 408, 409 (charter dated 1201-13 of Guy, Duke of Brittany to the nuns of Saint-Sulpice les Rennes). Doyle Official Baronage of England 1 (1886): 365-366 (sub Chester); 3 (1886): 107-109 (sub Richmond). Annales Cestrienses (Lanc. & Cheshire Rec. Soc. 14) (1887): 40-41 (Chron. of St. Werburg sub 1188: "Rannulphus comes cestrie Cui etiam dedit Henricus rex anglie in uxorem relictam v Kl. [recte Galfridi filii sui] Cui comitissam britannie filia Alani [recte Conant] Comitis britannie nominee Constancia et toto comittatu de Richemund quam ipse comes Cestrie Rannulphus desponsavit in die Sancte Werburge virginis, id est, tertia nonas Februarii [3 Feb.] apud ..."), 46 (Chron. of St. Werburg sub 1200: "Rannulphus comes Cestrie desponsavit uxorem filiam Radulphi de Feugis, nomine Clementiam, relicta comitissa Britannie, nomine Constancia."). La Borderie Recueil d’Actes Inédits des Ducs et Princes de Bretagne (XIe, XIIe, XIIIe Siecles) (1888). Birch Cat. Seals in the British Museum 2 (1892): 378 (seal of Constance, Duchess of Brittany, Countess of Richmond dated 1190-1198 - Pointed oval. To the right. Standing, with tightly-fitting dress, long fur-lined cloak fastened at the throat, in the right hand a lily-flower, on the left hand a hawk with long jesses.). Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France 23 (1894): 579 (Notæ Monasterii Montis Sancti Michaelis: "23 Aug. [Obiit] Gaufridus comes."). Rosenzweig Cartulaire général de Morbihan 1 (1895): 190-191 (charter of Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany and Earl of Richmond, dated between 1182-1183). Inventaire Sommaire des Archives Départementales antérieures a 1790, Loire-Inférieure 2(2) Ser. C & D (1898): 147. Molinier Obituaires de la Province de Sens 1(1) (Recueil des Historiens de la France, Obituaires 1) (1902): 220 (Livre d'Anniversaires des XIVe-XVe Siedes: "18 August - [Obiit] Gaufridi, comitis Britanie [1186]."). Wrottesley Peds. from the Plea Rolls (1905): 531-532. C.P.R. 1232-1247 (1906): 355. Dunbar Scottish Kings (1906): 58-70. Delisle Recueil des Actes de Henri II, Roi d'Angleterre et Duc de Normandie Introduction (1909): 103-106, 371-372 (biog. of Geoffrey Fitz Roy, Count of Brittany). VCH Hertford 3 (1912): 441-458. Farrer Early Yorkshire Charters 2 (1915): 195 (chart). Le Moyen Age 35 (1924-5): 63-70. Farnham Leicestershire Medieval Peds. (1925): 11 (ped. of Earls of Chester). Brunel et al. Recueil des Actes de Philippe Auguste Roi de France 2 (1943): 542. C.P. 10 (1945): 780 (chart), 794-805 (sub Richmond). Annales de Bretagne 53 (1946), 1-27. Painter Scourge of the Clergy: Peter of Dreux, Duke of Brittany (1969). BIHR 50 (1977): 112-115. Ellis Cat. Seals in the P.R.O. 2 (1981): 13 (seal of Ranulph, Earl of Chester dated c.1200 - A shield of arms: a lion passant. Legend: + SIGILLVM [R]A[NVF]I COMMS CESTRIE). Schwennicke Europäische Stammtafeln 2 (1984): 75 (sub Brittany), 83 (sub England); 3 (1989): 810 (sub Thouars); 14 (1991): 136 (sub Vitré). Given-Wilson Royal Bastards of Medieval England (1984): 109 (One contemporary described Geoffrey as "a hypocrite in everything, a deceiver and a dissembler"). Hist. Research 63 (1990): 1-16. Fryde & Greenway Handbook of British Chronology (1996): 36. Leese Blood Royal (1996): 45-47. Everard Charters of Duchess Constance of Brittany & her Fam. (1999). Everard Brittany & the Angevins (2000). Van Kerrebrouck Les Capétians 987-1328 (2000): 347-360. Jones Between France & England (2003): 38-40. Wheeler & Parsons Eleanor of Aquitaine: Lord & Lady (2003): 101. Richard Eales, `Ranulf (HI), sixth earl of Chester and first earl of Lincoln (1170-1232)', in Oxford Dict. of National Biog. (2004). Bull & Léglu World of Eleanor of Aquitaine (2005). Guéraud Contribution a "Etude du Processus coutumier au Moyen Age (2008): 250 (charter of Aimery VII, Vicomte of Thouars, dated after 1173 names his mother, Aumou, his wife Sibyl; his brothers, Guy, Hugues, Geoffroi, and Raymond; and his sisters, Marie and Amabil), 251 (chart), 305.
      Children of Geoffrey of England, by Constance of Brittany:
      a. ELEANOR OF BRITTANY, born 1182-4.She was brought up by her uncle, King Richard I, and by her paternal grandmother, Eleanor of Aquitaine. In 1193 she was contracted to marry Leopold, son of the Duke of Austria. She was sent out in 1194 in charge of Baldwin de Bethune, who turned back when he heard of Leopold's death. In 1195 it was provided she should marry Louis, son and heir of King Philippe Auguste of France, but this project also failed. She was captured at Mirebeau 1 August 1202, and subsequently imprisoned by her uncle, King John. In 1208 there was an open attempt to liberate Eleanor, led by the Bishops of Nantes, Vannes, and Cornouaille. King John frustrated all efforts to liberate her and severely punished most of her adherents. She remained in prison under King Henry III. She died testate 10 October 1241 probably at Bristol, and was buried at St. James convent, Bristol, whence her body was transferred to the convent of Amesbury, Wiltsh