Chris & Julie Petersen's Genealogy



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Gust and Lucy had 9 children but only the one lived. Some are buried in Minn. Probably at Cass Lake
and some in Klickitat, Wash. 
Stiendorf, May (I2400)
son of a Luthern minister from Omaha, Nebraska 
Engler, Garlin (I2578)
"Mother of 17 Children Dies At Blairstown"
Benton County news
Special to Daily Times
Blairstown, Oct. 31-Mrs. Emma Kimm, 81 years old, widow of G. H. Kimm, died Friday morning at her Blairstown home of pneumonia following an illness of only a few days. Her husband's death occured six weeks ago.
Services will be held sunday at 2.00 p.m. in the Presbyterian church here, with the Rev. J.B. C. Peck conducting the rites. Burial will be in Mound cemetery at Watkins. Six grandsons, who were pallbearers for Mr. Kimm, will act as casket bearers for their aged grandmother Mrs. Kimm was the mother of seventeen children.
Emma Schneider, daughter of Gregory and Regina Schneider, was born Feb. 26, 1850, at Deavertown, Ohio, coming to Iowa, when a small child with her parents. She was married Dec.. 26, 1876 at Marengo. the Kimms moved to a farm northeast of Blairstown in 1886 from a place near Norway. They went to Huron, S. D., in 1010 retuning here last year.
Fourteen children surviving are: Henry, Archie, Martin, Matt, and Gus H., of Blairstown, Charles of Coggon, Mrs. Laura Hotchkiss and Mrs. Ella Merrifield of Cedar Rapids, Aurthur of Wolsey, S, D., Mrs. Emma Lowe. Mrs. Allce Boone, Mrs. Maggie Johnson, Mrs. Abbie Wodstrichill and John, of Huron S.D.. The family includes sixty grandchildren and forty-five great grandchildren.
Other relatives living are four sister Mrs. A. S. Kimm of Blairstown, Mrs. John Lauger of Des Moines, Mrs Rose Bansch of Atkinson, Neb., and Mrs. Laura Swick of Watkins, her twin.

Family F541
44 in 1850 
Simpson, Robert (I284)
ACTION: Is Saltese Cemetery in Greenacres, WA?


BURIAL: Saltese Cemetery 
Kuhns, LeRoy W. (I1545)
6 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I2876)
13. This note concerns the problems with Dr. James B. Adair's book "Adair History and Genealogy" in regards to the origin of James Adair and his brother Joseph. Unfortunately, many of this author's wrong conclusions continue to persist in online genealogies even to this day.
"Migration of Adairs to America began during the early mid-1700s. They came from the Ulster counties in Northern Ireland, and from Galloway, Scotland," wrote Dr. James Barnett Adair in his 1924 book "Adair History and Genealogy." Adair's book indicates these Adairs stopped in Maryland, New Jersey, and (in larger numbers) Pennsylvania, later scattering to South Carolina and other southern states. My own research does place Joseph Adair, the brother of James Adair, in Delaware in association both with some legal dealings for the Ramage family and with a marriage record to Sarah Lafferty.
Dr. Adair in his book purports that a Thomas Adair (who came from county Antrim in Ireland about 1730 to Chester County, Pa.) was believed to have three sons (James, Joseph, William) born in Ireland and who traveled to this country as single men. He further indicates Thomas came with his sons to Laurens Co., South Carolina. However, researchers have not found any proof to connect a Thomas Adair with James and Joseph Adair who acquired land patents in 1768 on waters of Duncan Creek, which is now in Laurens County, So. Carolina; neither have they found proof of any early Thomas Adair in Laurens Co. East of Adair's settlement in Laurens Co. was the better known Waxaw Colony, settled by other Pennsylvania Scot-Irish and of which a William Adair and his son John Adair were a part. This John Adair later achieves note by becoming Governor of Kentucky. There is no proof that James and Joseph of Laurens Co., had a brother William or that this William was that brother. On the other hand, we are somewhat confident that James and Joseph were brothers based on Mildred Brownlee's well-documented work quoted elsewhere in this database. This has now been confirmed as of 2015 by DNA analysis conducted by Shawn and Lois Potter. It is also Dr. Adair's unsupported contention that Thomas was the son of Alexander Adair, and grandson of Rev. Patrick Adair of County Antrim in Ireland, that Rev. Patrick married his cousin Miss Jean Adair daughter of the first Sir Robert Adair, that Rev. Patrick Adair had four sons and one daughter with his third son being Alexander Adair the father of the supposed [imaginary] immigrant Thomas Adair. He further states that neither the names of Alexander's wife nor the name of the wife of Thomas Adair are known.
It should be noted that Dr. Adair in his book for these early Adairs cannot be relied upon since there are many proven errors and Adair fails to document or provide his sources if indeed he had any to begin with for these early Colonial American Adairs. My research in South Carolina, PRONI in Belfast, and Edinburgh at the National Library in Scotland confirms that Dr. Adair took any reference to any Adair and fancifully wove them into a forced genealogy. Unfortunately, this fanciful work has misled and continues to mislead generations of Adair family researchers. We are confident that James and Joseph were brothers and that they were from Ireland as part of the larger movement of Scots to Ireland and then to America Our James Adair is described as an Irishman by his contemporaries. The ethnicity of the surname Adair is definitely of County Galloway in the western tip of Scotland near Portpatrick at the nearest point to Northern Ireland. We also find Adairs across the narrow strait in Ulster near Ballymena where there was an Adair manor. There is however no reference to our two brothers that has ever been found in either locality in spite of a thorough search in Archives in both countries. Even though our James appears to have been very educated knowing both Hebrew and Latin and both brothers were apparently trained in the coopering craft, we have found no record for them overseas. Their era overseas was one in which there was a paucity of records and they seem to predate the earliest Scottish Church records. Most of the early settlers of upcountry South Carolina were Scot-Irish and several familiar families appear to have come together to Laurens Co., S.C. from Pennsylvania (i.e. Ramages, McCrearys, Ewings, and Hannas). There are no extant immigration records for our Adairs from Europe; consequently, I have tried to use these associated families by following them overseas to see if they were possibly associated with Adairs before America -- I certainly have also found their surnames in County Galloway in Scotland, but I have failed to date in seeing them in association with our two Adair brothers.
Dr. Adair, in his book, continues his fanciful work by purporting that the Indian trader, James Adair, was granted land in the Laurens Co. area directly from King George II of Great Britain due to his commercial influence and patronage. He indicates this land was beyond the Indian frontier of that time. Supposedly James influenced his father Thomas and his two brothers, William and Joseph, to come from Pennsylvania to settle on the land. In going from the settlements to see this land, they found no roads, no surveys and no white settlements; just a virgin forest, but a beautiful country. So they cut out a road as they went in order that they might find their way out again. After examining the land, and selecting their locations, some of the party went to work to build houses and clear land for cultivation, while others were sent back to Pennsylvania after their livestock which they drove overland on foot from the Susquehanna River to Duncan Creek. Their corn mill was also brought along and set up for operation by nailing it to a tree. It was something like an old-fashion coffee mill. It was a curiosity to the Indians, who had been accustomed to grind their corn by rubbing it between two stones. This colony obtained their supply of corn the first year by trading with the Indians.
Besides already determining there was no father named Thomas, we find Dr. Adair has made other errors in the above story. The land James and Joseph obtained in the 1760s was directly from the South Carolina government and at the same time in conjunction with each other which does not support James granting land to his family. Additionally, this area was never called Adair Colony since Duncan had been the first into that part of the land and it was he that apparently influenced many of his previous acquaintances from Pennsylvania to immigrate to South Carolina. James Adair may, however, have been aware of and even one of the of the earliest settlers of available land in Laurens County due to his knowledge of the area from his past Indian trading activity.
Respected family researcher Jett Hanna comments: "Mildred Brownlee has done a lot of very good analysis of the Laurens County Records and some state records. She also located a petition in the Duke library that is signed by many of the Adairs during the Revolution ... Her work is Brownlee, "Early Adairs of Laurens County South Carolina" (1990), and is in the Laurens County Library. She has put together a very plausible tree for the Laurens County Adairs ... After reviewing Brownlee's work, it is clear how sloppy the "Adair History and Genealogy" is."

14. Various mentions of "Joseph Adair" and "James Adair" in Colonial Pennsylvania records before Joseph traveled the "Great Wagon Road" to South Carolina in the mid-1760s. These are the earliest records that we have thus far on our Joseph Adair in America. Note that the name Joseph Adair is extremely rare and basically non-existent in the earliest Scottish Church records for all of Scotland -- so any mention of Joseph Adair in Colonial Pennsylvania and South Carolina seems to be so far confined to the brother of our James Adair. (In fact any occurrence of the name Joseph Adair in Scotland may well be the best key to finding the pre-American presence of both James and Joseph in Ireland and Scotland. The name James Adair on the other hand is somewhat common, which complicates our efforts to find our specific James Adair. I present the following abstracts of early mentions of both Joseph and James in Colonial Pennsylvania to provide context and to see if we can find our early James by following the pre-South Carolina presence of his brother Joseph. While this gives a great picture of Joseph, the references to James seem to show that he was not a real presence in Pennsylvania and that we are probably looking at one or more other James Adairs. What is interesting is the wealth of references on Joseph, but the scarcity of James Adair, which we may possibly consider to be attributable to his movements as an Indian trader in southeast America. By not having a real presence in Pennsylvania, it seems to backhandedly confirm the presence of our James elsewhere. I find no direct dealings between the two brothers even though we are confident of their brotherly relationship in South Carolina. James only occurs in notes "J" and "N" below. Note also that the date Joseph Adair arrived in South Carolina is unknown, but he is listed with those who united in 1763/1764 to build a house of worship (George Howe, D.D.'s "History of the Presb. church in SC). The June 9, 1896, issue of the "Laurens Advertiser," noted the celebration of the 130th anniversary of the Duncan Creek Presbyterian Church, which it indicates was "organized in the summer of 1766." The abstracts:
A. 1739 Joseph: Abstracts from Benjamin Franklin's "Pennsylvania Gazette 1728-1748," part 1, p. 216, compiled in 1975 by Kenneth Scott, shows that in 1739 the "following persons have unclaimed letters at Post Office in Philadelphia since November 2 past: Adaire, Joseph."
B. 1739 Joseph: January 4, 1739, The Pennsylvania Gazette: List of Letters which have been brought into the Post-Office at Philadelphia, since the 2d of November past, and remain unredeem'd: Joseph Adare, Cooper, phi." (Note: phi=Philadelphia)
Comment: This is significant because of the mention of cooper as Joseph's profession.
C. 1740 James: "The Pennsylvania Genealogical Magazine," v. 19 (1952-1954), pp. 303-305, "Register of Baptisms 1701-1746, First Presbyterian Church, at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania." The magazine notes: "...the "original of the record is in the Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadelphia. It is published here to complement the Calendar of the Marriages, 1701-1745, in the Pennsylvania Archives, 2nd series, vol. IX... Other publications of contemporary Philadelphia Church Records include the Calendar of marriages from the register of Christ Church (founded in 1695 as the first parish of the Established Church of England), in the Pennsylvania Archives, 2nd series, vol. VIII; the Baptism and Burials of 1709-1760 from the same register in the 'Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography,' vols. 12-1 and 1-7 respectively; and a digest of the minutes and registers of Philadelphia Monthly meeting of Friends, in Hinshaw, 'Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy,' vol. II. "In this register of baptisms is found evidence of considerable missionary travelling by the Rev. Jedidiah Andrews, (the first minister, who served from 1698 until his death in May 1747) as far north as Staten island, New York, and south as Cape May, New Jersey. [A list of place names is included and described in the article.]" The two children born to a James Adair:
a. Charity, dau. of James Adair, b. 3rd inst., bapt. 6 Jul 1740.
b. Jane, dau. of James Adair, b. 28 ult., bapt. 3 Jun 1742.
Comment: Note that even though we cannot prove the above James Adair is the same as ours, it is a possibility that needs to be further researched. See note J below for the presence of a different James Adair who died in Bucks County, PA, in 1760 (but without any children listed in his probate).
D. 1741: Philadelphia County Administration Book "D," 2 Jul 1737-8 April 1743, page 181: #75: Letter of Administration to John Morrison, of Philadelphia, labourer, and Joseph Adair, of Philadelphia, cooper, administrators of Robert McCleland, 31 Jul, 1741. (Source: Pennsylvania Genealogical Magazine, v. 28 (1973-4), p. 261.)
Comment: This is significant because of the mention of cooper as Joseph's profession.
E. 1743 Joseph: The article "History of Lancaster County's Highway System (From 1714 to 1760)," by H. Frank Eshleman, 1922, p. 64, as reported in the FHL book "Papers Read before the Lancaster County Historical Society," Vol., 24, No. 3: "1743-Road, Unicorn to Kinseyville (Miles Ford): "In pursuance of an order issued at May session 1743 (2 D. 100) a report was made dated July 1 and presented to August Court of a road from a road called Brown's Road in Drumore Township, to Miles Ford on Octorara in Little Britain. It began where the Brown's Road forked toward James Gillepsie's and it took a general southerly course and passing William Montgomery's and passing Samuel Gibson's reached Little Conowingo about 5 miles from starting point. Farther on, it reached Samuel Scott's. It then passed on south by Joseph Adaire's and Robert Gleim's. Farther on about 3 miles by a very crooked course from its crossing over Little Conowingo it intersected the road from Caleb Pennel's to Miles Ford and then followed that road to Miles Ford and on into Maryland. It was reviewed in part a year later in 1744 (2 D. 33) but not greatly changed. Its starting point was about half a mile east of Unicorn and a mile and half west of Puseyville at which place Brown's Mill stood."
F. 1747 Joseph: The records of Holy Trinity (Old Swede's) Church, Wilmington, Del, From 1697 to 1773 and Catalogue and Errata of the Records of Holy Trinity (Old Swedes) Church, Wilmington, Del., from 1697-1773, translated from the Original Swedish by Horace Burr, with an Abstract of the English Records from 1773 to 1810." Reprinted, two volumes in one, for Clearfield Company, Inc. by Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, MD, 1999: marriage record of Joseph Adare (Adair) and Sarah Lafferty in Sep 1747.
G. 1748 Joseph: The article "History of Lancaster County's Highway System (From 1714 to 1760)," by H. Frank Eshleman, 1922, p. 66, as reported in the FHL book "Papers Read before the Lancaster County Historical Society," Vol., 24, No. 3: "1748-Road, Chestnut Level to Peach Bottom. At August sessions 1748, a road was laid out from near Chestnut Level Church running south by east, half a mile and then to a road laid out through a Maryland tract called Slate Hill. Thence it follows the Maryland road, south-east to Conowingo Creek and goes on by an old road leading from Joseph Adair's to Porter's Store. This road, making use of several old roads duplicates roads already laid out (2 D. 105)."
Comment: I have a copy of the warrant map as copied from the book "The Warrant Maps of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Including an Every-Name Index," by Geri Gilbert, 2005, Masthof Press, 219 Mill road, Morgantown, PA 19543-9516.
H. 1750 Joseph: The book by Ellis, Franklin, and Samuel Evans, "History of Lancaster County, 1883," pp. 848-866, Chapter LVI, Fulton Township: "This township was formed in the year 1844 by a division of Little Britain township; taking its name from Robert Fulton (the celebrated inventor of the steamboat), who was born within its territorial limits. It is bounded on the east by Little Britain; on the south by Mason and Dixon's line, separating it from the State of Maryland; on the west by the Susquehanna River..." The following surnames from Laurens Co., SC, also appear in the same township at the same time: McCrearys, Hannas, and Ewings. Similar information is also from "Pennsylvania Archives," printed in 1897, vol. 24, 3rd Series, pg. 352. There are two Adair entries as follows:
i. "Joseph Adair also occupied a large tract in the southeastern section of the township, his survey being returned 422 acres by warrant of Aug. 20, 1750. He sold 287-3/4 acres to Samuel Coulson, Oct. 29, 1764, the balance having been previously transferred to James Hanna. Coulson failed soon after, and the sheriff sold the above (with other land of his) to David Jenkins, Aug. 7, 1767."
ii. "Other Land-Warrants issued prior to 1800. - Joseph Adaire, Aug. 20, 1750, 250 acres, next to Michael and Robert Smith; 422 acres acres surveyed, now in Fulton township, near the State line, now belongs to the Jenkinses and others. Included in the above is 134-1/4 acres patented to James Hanna, Nov. 7, 1763. Book AA, vol. iii. page 525, etc." (Also same information is from "Pennsylvania Archives," printed in 1897, vol. 24, 3rd Series, pg. 352.)
Comment 1: I have a copy of the warrant map as copied from the book "The Warrant Maps of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Including an Every-Name Index," by Geri Gilbert, 2005, Masthof Press, 219 Mill road, Morgantown, PA 19543-9516. From other sources noted below, Joseph Adair was in the southeastern corner of modern Fulton Twp. An 1864 map of the area on file with me shows several Hannas and Jenkins in that area, which are names with whom he had land dealings.
Comment 2: The book "The Ramage Family of Laurens, South Carolina," 1999, Martis D. Ramage, Jr., 4218 Ridgemont Drive, Belden MS, 38826, FHL film 2055402, Item 2, pp. 9-10: "Joseph Adair, father of Jean Adair Ramage. Joseph Adair received a warrant of 259 acres in Little Britain Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania in 1750. In 1764, Joseph Adair sold his property in Lancaster County to Samuel Coulson. It should be noted that one of the deeds in Lancaster County (Deed Book 3, page 246) indicates that Joseph Adair's wife was named Sarah (maiden name thought to be Lafferty). Other records in Lancaster County indicate that Joseph Adair's profession was a 'cooper.' Joseph Adair was never listed on a tax list in Lancaster County after 1764."
I. 1753 Joseph: The book "Futhey and Cope, History of Chester County," 1881, pp. 162-200, Townships and Boroughs, Etc.; West Fallowfield Taxables, 1753, lists several dozen men including "Joseph Adair." No other Laurens Co., SC, related surnames appear on the list except a James Huston.
J. 1753 James: Http:// shows James Adair on the 1753 List of Taxables for Sadsbury Township of Chester County. Chester County was due east of Lancaster County adjoining the State of Delaware. On the same list is Andrew McCleary who may in fact be the Andrew McCreary who was associated with the early Adairs in Laurens Co., SC, in the 1760s. Sadsbury and West Fallowfield are adjoining townships in Chester County and both are right on the county line with Lancaster County.
Comments: There is another James Adair that shows up in early records of southeastern Pennsylvania two counties north in Bucks County (Falls Township). He is not our James since his probate in Bucks County, Book No. 3, p. 33, indicates a will date of 2 Jul 1760 with a proven date of 19 Nov 1760. His wife was executrix and sole legatee. As reported in the book "Abstracts from the Pennsylvania Gazette, 1748-1755," by Scott and Clarke (FHL 974.811-B38sa), this same James of Falls Twp. shows up four times in 1752 as giving a deposition in a matter dealing with a Richard Perot of Penn's Manor being robbed. Since Bucks County James died in 1760 in Pennsylvania, he would not have been our James who lived two or more decades longer. Subject to the Indian activities of our James in 1753, there is a possibility that the tax list James could be ours due to the proximity to Joseph and Andrew McCreary -- or it may be an earlier appearance of the Bucks County James Adair or even a totally different James Adair.
K. 1754-1758 Joseph: FHL book "A New Index Lancaster Co., Pennsylvania before the Federal Census; Volume 3 Index to the 1750 Tax Records," by Gary T. Hawbreaker and Clyde L. Groff. Joseph Adair shows up three times in Little Britain Township: "Joseph Addair, 1754; Adair 1756; 'Cooper' in 1758." This is significant since Joseph's profession in South Carolina is also listed as a cooper. The book notes that Lancaster County was created in 9 Jun 1729 from Chester County. Lancaster originally had 17 townships, which eventually further divided. The southernmost township was originally known as Drumore, then it divided in half in 1738 with the southern half known as Little Britain. Little Britain further divided in 1844 with the western half named Fulton. The three southernmost original townships, Martic, Sadsbury, and Drumore were considered the Presbyterian and Quaker area with the northern townships more Germanic. The book notes that these tax records are the earliest available records for Lancaster County after it was founded in 1729. These records are located in the Lancaster County Historical Society. It also notes that many of the Scot-Irish surnames are gone by 1780 since whole congregations of Scot-Irish Presbyterians would migrate down the Great Wagon Road through the valley of Virginia into the upcountry of North and South Carolina. The book also notes the following about Little Britain Township: "The records of 'Little Brittain' begin in 1754 with Jams. Dixson the collector. The next available list is for the 1756 (there are two lists) and John Atchison is the collector. Appeal is to be made "In the Court House" on 20 Dec 1756. John Allison is the collector for 1757." The first settlements in the area were 1714.
Comment regarding the land of the "Southern End" from an article appearing in the "Philadelphia Weekly Press," 21 Jun 1872: The principal mineral constituents of the soil of the lower Lancaster county are silica, clay, slate, micaeous earth, and serpentine, ingredients unaided by fertilizers that are anything else then favorable to an abundant yield of farm products. Hence it is plain that our ancestors, unacquainted with our modern fertilizers, were not so successful in acquiring from the products of the farm the accumulated wealth of their German neighbors, who had anticipated the English and Irish emigrant by settling to the north in fertile valleys of the Pequea and Conestoga."
L. 1755 Joseph: FHL book "New Castle County Delaware Land Records 1755-1762," by Carol J. Garrett, 1999, notes in the Introduction: "The patent which granted William Penn territory, soon to be called Pennsylvania, was signed by King Charles in 1681. Delaware, as a part of Pennsylvania was referred to as the Lower Three Counties." On p. 102 is noted the following connection between Joseph Adair and the Ramage family: "359. Power of Attorney. 9 Sept 1755. Jannet Tate, John Ramage and Josiah Ramage, all of the Co. of Cumberland in the Province of Penn., yeomen, have ordained our trusty friend, Joseph Adaire of the Co. of Lancaster, yeoman, our true & lawful Attorney for us or either of us, and in our names ... to the lands, tenements and real estate whatsoever belonging to Joseph Ramage, late of Newcastle Co., dec'd, by his last Will and Testament bearing date 30 Dec 1730. Signed: Jannet Ramage, John Ramage, Josias Ramage. Wit: Daniel Clark, William McCall. Rec: 29 Aug 1759 (S1-595)."
Comment: From Jett Hanna 10 Jul 2005 in commenting on Joseph Adair with Power of Attorney for the Ramages in Delaware: From the Delaware Archives probate site: Ramage, Joseph - 1754-1756 - New Castle County. It looks to me like Joseph Adair was not involved in a 1730 probate, but rather was given a power of attorney to deal with the estate in 1750s. I'll bet that Josiah was intestate, and they didn't resolve the land title until the 1750s. Joseph Adair is probably appointed administrator in a later probate, maybe this one.
M. 1759 Joseph: FHL book 975.11R29m "New Castle County Delaware Land Records 1762-1765," by Carol J. Garrett, 2000, p. 152: "405. Deed. 23 Aug 1759. Jannet Tate (late Jannet Ramage), spinster, John Ramage and Josiah Ramage, all of the Co. of Cumberland in Province of Pennsylvania, yeomen, for the sum of 110 pounds, sold unto Robert Barr of Miln Creek Hun. in Co. of Newcastle on Delaware, farmer, a tract of land in sd place containing 114 acres and 30 perches, together with all and singular, this is whereas Josiah Ramage, late of Miln Creek in sd Co., in his lifetime was seized of a parcel of land situate in sd place, on the north side of the land late of Thomas Brackin (being also a corner of the land late of John Read). It bounded the land late of William Emmit, crossing by the land late of John Brackin to land late of sd Thomas Brackin. It contained 114 acres and 30 perches of land. Then so seized, sd Josiah Ramage made his Last Will dated 30 Dec 1730 and devised (viz) 'to make my two sons (John and Josiah) to come of age of 21. I leave to them all the whole plantation in which I now dwell equally to be divided between them.' Whereas sd Jannet Tate, John Ramage and Josiah Ramage by their letter of Attny dated 29 Dec 1755, did ordain Joseph Adair of the Co. of Lancaster, yeoman, their lawful attorney, they impowered him to sell sd tract of land and premises. Signed: Jannet Tate, John Ramage, Josiah Ramage (by Joseph Adair, their attny). Wit: Thomas McKean, Daniel McConnell. Ack: Aug Term 1759. Rec: 10 Jan 1764. (W1-138)"
N. 1763 James: "The Pennsylvania Gazette," 13 Jan 1763, List of Letters remaining in the Post Office in Philadelphia: James Adair, Lancaster County.
Comment: As noted in note "J" above, there was an unrelated James Adair in early Pennsylvania whose death is documented in 1760 -- so this entry must pertain to a different and later James. Since James Adair the trader did travel around a bit, it could possibly be our James. Lancaster County is the location of where his brother Joseph was living at this time in Fulton Township.
O. 1768 Joseph: "The Pennsylvania Gazette," 4 Feb 1768, List of Letters remaining in the Post Office in Philadelphia: Joseph Adair, Philadelphia.
P. 1768 Joseph: "The Pennsylvania Gazette," 28 Apr 1768, List of Letters remaining in the Post Office in Philadelphia: JOS. Adair, Philadelphia.
Q. 1769 Joseph: "The Pennsylvania Gazette," 26 Oct 1769, List of Letters remaining in the Post Office in Philadelphia: Joseph Adair, Philadelphia.

15. The name James Adair occurs often in Colonial America. It is apparent that there were more than one James Adair in Colonial and Revolutionary War South Carolina. The following are miscellaneous references to the various James Adairs of South Carolina who may or may not be our James Adair:
A. Reviewed the several volumes of "Passenger and Immigration Lists Index" at the FHL in Salt Lake City. Most all early Adair records are from the 1800s and too late to be of value. There are no matching records for the earliest Joseph and James Adair of Laurens Co., South Carolina. The records earlier than the Rev. War appear very spotty and incomplete. There are however these Adair entries coming thru Charleston, South Carolina. Subject from where the ships carrying the two James Adairs came, could they possibly our James traveling about in promotion of his book?
Alexdan, 1767, 3627.37 p187
Alice, 1767, 3627.37 p184
James, 1763-1764, 3627.37 p67
James, 1767, 3627.37 p187
Jane, 1763-1764, 3627.37 p67
Jane, 1767, 3627.37 p70
Margaret, 1767, 3627.37 p187
Mary, 1767, 3627.37 p187
B. The book "A Compilation of the Original Lists of Protestant Immigrants to South Carolina 1763 -1773," compiled by Janie Revill, 1981, FHL 975.7 R326, p. 13, lists a James Adair as an "Irish Protestant lately arrived on the encouragement of the bounty" with payment of passage done through certificates granted to "James Egger Commander of the ship they came over on." No other Adairs listed; however, other name entries include both males and females from which we can conclude James immigrated alone. I inadvertently did not copy the page with the date; however, the succeeding entry is dated 2 Mar 1764 in the Council Journal 30, page 42-45. May be same James as listed in previous note "A" above. Our James already had children and would not be immigrating from Ireland at such a late date to claim an immigration bounty.
C. See separate notes in my database for James Adair with "Unconnected Adairs" in which I include some references to William Adair of Waxhaw, South Carolina in Chester County. William was the father to John Adair who later achieved notoriety in the War of 1812 and as Governor and Senator of Kentucky. William had three sons named John, James, and William Jr. who fought in the Revolutionary War. James Adair of Chester County area shows up in same area after the War and is not our James.
D. Citation unknown but the following is from a photocopy in my possession from some privately published family history: "General Francis Marion - One of the great Partisan Leaders of South Carolina, was of Huguenot descent. He was known as the Swamp Fox, because he operated in the swampy forests of the state. His strategy was to dash out quickly with his superbly mounted men, surprise and cut the enemy's supply lines, kill their men and release American prisoners, then swiftly back again to 'the thick recess of the deep swamps.'" The author then lists a few of Marion's soldiers including a "Jas. Adair." It should be noted that Marion was from the lower country of South Carolina and operated in the same area; our Adairs were in the upper country. Our James was probably too old to be the James involved; however, maybe his son James or his nephew James (son of Joseph, Sr.) could have been possibly involved but more research would need to be done to prove it. Most of Marion's men were irregulars from the countryside as militia and not necessarily trained soldiers. The movie "The Patriot" with Mel Gibson is loosely based on elements of General Marion.
The "Swampfox" website lists four Adairs who served as officers: James, John, Joseph, and William. All four are listed as Lieutenants. The site references "Kinfolks" 1269, 1236, and 1233 respectively for the first three Adairs and William has the reference of De Saussure's "List of South Carolina Officers in the War of the Revolution" as published in the Charleston Year Book of 1893, page 209. Listed as non-commissioned officers and privates are the following Adairs with references as noted:
Alexander Adair, stub indent S347: served in militia.
Benjamin Adair, stub indent S348; Annuitant's Claims: served in the militia, last a horse in service, and was killed on 10 Mar 1781.
Isaac Adair, stub indent S346; Annuitant's Claims: served in Picken's Brigade (one source says Marion's Brigade) and was killed in April 1781.
James Adair, stub indent Y1522.
James Adair, Jr.
William Adair.
See the next entry for more on this group of men.
E. From the Internet: "Stub Indents are another important resource. When South Carolina paid claims for goods, services, or damages from the Revolutionary War, they were paid with certificates called indents. Rather like stub checkbooks, the certificates were in two parts: one part was issued to the claimant as compensation; the other part was a stub on which pertinent information, such as the claimant's name, the nature of the claim, and the amount paid was recorded. The state retained the stub of the indents, and they are found at the South Carolina Department of Archives and History in Office of the Commissioners of the Treasury, Stub Indents and Indexes, 1779-1791, 22 vols."
The following indents are for various Adairs and are from "Accounts Audited of Revolutionary Claims Against South Carolina," ed. by A.S. Salley, The Historical Commission of South Carolina, 1935, copy at FHL. Many of these men would be our relatives considering their location in Laurens Co and the Ninety Six District as this area was originally called:
a. Vol. 1, #20: No. 347 S; Alexander Adair; addressed to Charleston from Laurens Co. 3 Aug 1786. Alexander gives Robert Scott the power to receive the indent; subscribing witness was James Montgomery; rec'd. 14 Jun 1785. Based on militia duty as a private "before and since the reduction of Charlestown"; mentions Col. Anderson's return.
b. Vol. 1, #21: No. 348 S; Benjamin Adair; dated 24 Mar 1785; subscribing witness was John Magee, received 14 Jun 1785; based on "a horse lost in public service in 1779"; no locality shown for Benjamin; mentions Col. Robert Anderson's return.
c. Vol. 1, #22: No. 346 S; Isaac Adair; addressed 5 May 1785 from "Ninety Six District"; empowered Capt. James Dillard to receive payment; subscribing witness was James Montgomery; rec'd 14 Jun 1785; based on militia duty as a private "before and since the reduction of Charlestown"; mentions Col. Anderson's return.
d. Vol. 1, #23: No. 350 S; James Adair; addressed 18 Sep 1785 from "Ninety Six District, Laurens Co."; empowered John Hunter, Esq. to receive payment; subscribing witness was James Montgomery; rec'd 14 Jun 1785; based on militia duty as a private "before and since the reduction of Charlestown" and as wagon master for Col. Ja's Williams from 29th Mar 1780 to 20 May for 52 day; mentions Col. Rob't Anderson's return.
e. Vol. 1, #24: No. 340 W; James Adair, Junr; addressed 7 Sep 1783; received 8 Aug 1785; for "flour supplied the militia in 1783 also for recovery of Horses lost in 1779"; also mentions "flour for the use of the widows and distressed families in Col. Casey's Reg't"; also mentions "horses lost at Augusty [Augusta] under the Command of General Williamson 11 of may 1779"; subscribing witness was Robert Hanna.
f. Vol. 1, #25: No. 1522 Y; James Adare, addressed 27 Jun 1787; based on "120 days Militia duty in Gen'l: Marion's Brigade in 1781, also for a Gun impressed; mentions Lt. Col. Hugh Horry.
g. Vol. 1, #26: No. 349 S; John Adair; addressed 15 Sep 1785 from "96 District"; empowered John Hunter to receive payment; subscribing witness was James "Adear"; rec'd 14 Jun 1785; based on militia duty as a private "before and since the reduction of Charlestown"; mentions Col. Anderson's return.
h. Vol. 1, #27: 1955 X; Joseph Adair; addressed 20 May 1785; empowered John Hunter to receive payment; subscribing witnesses included Robert Anderson, J.P., Col. Levi Casey, and Charles Saxon; based on "Joseph Addairs Commissary Commencing 20th of August 1781 and ending the 1sd of March 1782" including sundries, flour, Indian corn, fodder, "Rations and Necessarys for 2 Wounded Men belonging To Gen'l Greens Army 49 days," "1 Gun & Accoutements lost at Savannah," "Corn & Fodder for Col. Jones of Georgia," "Rations for 9 Horses of Capd. Mac bee Comp'y," "Oats for Col. Washington's Men," work with wagon and team.
i. Vol. 1, #28: No. 106 I; William Adair; addressed 27 Jul 1783; several different men received endorsements in 1786 and 1787 including John Adair, Philip Hart, and John Lewis Gervais; based on service as adjutant for Col. Lacey's Regt. for 60 days June 18, 1780, and 30 days Feb. 12, 1781; subscribing witness was Joseph Palmer, J.P.
Note also that John Adair shows up empowered to collect in behalf of William Kay and John Edward Auston. He also shows up as "John Adair, J.P." the subscribing witness of Ambros Ball.
F. The book "Roster of South Carolina Patriots in the American Revolution," by Bobby Gilmer Moss, lists the following James Adairs. The first James appears to be a conglomeration of two or three persons with the last part of the entry perhaps being the author James Adair's son. I am not who are the other James Adairs but they may be the same as others elsewhere in this particular note. I do not have the abbreviation list as to the sources the author give:
"James Adare, Sr., S9264, b. 8/15 May 1752, Bucks Co., Pennsylvania, d. 18 Aug 1818, m. Hannah ___. He entered the service during 1776, while residing in York District, and served under Capt. Frank Ross and Col. Neel. In the same year, he joined a unit under Capt. John McCool and Col. Hopkins. In 1777, he was under McCool and Hopkins and was wounded at Horseshoe Battle on War Woman Creek. He was discharged as a result. Later, he appears in Picken's brigade as one who recovered horses lost at Briar Creek. During 1782, he was under Capt. James Dillard, Col. Casey and Gen. Pickens. He supplied food for distressed widows and families for Casey's unit and was a wagon master for Col. James Williams from 29 March to 20 May 1780. A.A. 21; Patriot Index."
Other James Adairs:
"James Adare. He served 120 days in the militia under Gen. Marion during 1780 and 1781. At one time, he was under Lt. Col. Hugh Horry. Kinsfolk, 1269; A.A. 21; S350; Y1522."
"James Adair, Jr., b. c. 1755, d. July 1835, m. Anna ___. He served in the militia. Patriot Index."
G. As a matter of interest, there were other Adairs in South Carolina closer to Charleston. The following is from letters dated Jul 1981 and 9 Jan 1982 of Barbara Langdon, hired researcher for Ron B. Hales. She notes that there are "two distinct groups of Adairs, one group in the area of Charleston and the other in Laurens County." She identifies some of these "Charleston" Adairs; however, I do not believe there was any direct relationship with our Adairs in Laurens County.
Barbara notes her research is from the South Carolina Library from the book "History of Williamsburg," by Wm. W. Boddie, The State Co., Columbia, SC, 1923:
P. 115: Soldiers in Marion's Brigade: Alexander Adair, Benjamin Adair, James Adair, John Adair.
P. 118: John Adair furnished supplies (Revolutionary War).
Pp. 142, 153, 154: Samuel Adair in Williamsburg, 25 March 1789. Claims granted to: 1735 William Hamilton; present proprietor: Samuel Adair; Lot# 390.
P. 153: In 1800 the following men or their heirs owned lots in Williamsburg: Samuel Adair, Lot #391.
Barbara also notes:
"Williamsburg Census: 1790: Adair, Samuel 1-3-3-14."
"State Grants 1784-1821," (unpublished): "James Adare, Georgetown District, 100 acres, 5 March 1787."
"There are numerous references to Adairs in the areas north of Charleston which in the 18th century were Georgetown and Williamsburg. The men in this area were often involved in General Francis Marion's Brigade during the Revolution. The Revolutionary War Records are available, but they contain mostly pay vouchers. The records in these areas, Horry and Williamsburg Counties, were destroyed during the Civil War. Horry and Williamsburg Counties sent their courthouse records inland to Chesterfield County for safety during Sherman's march to the sea. Horry and Williamsburg were among the surviving courthouses. Chesterfield burned."
Barbara also comments on Laurens Co.: "The index to the Laurens County Land Records are not only incorrect and incomplete, they are often illegible."

16. Various quotes collected as of 20 Apr 2003 concerning James Adair the Indian Trader and Author:
A. From an unsourced online encyclopedia: "Adair, James, Indian trader and author, lived in the 18th century. He resided among the Indians (principally the Chickasaws and Cherokees) from 1735 to 1775, and in the latter year published his "History of the American Indians." In this he attempted to trace the descent of the Indians from the Jews, basing his assumption upon supposed resemblances between the customs of the two races. At that time such a hypothesis was regarded as visionary, but the idea has since found many supporters, among them being Boudinot in his "Star of the West."
Comments: I have found on a copy of the "Star of the West" which was written by Elias Boudinot from notes of the deceased James Adair. Elias was a president of the Continental Congress. It is a remarkable book. It was first published in 1816 and reprinted in 1970. It is a remarkable book because it somewhat "anticipates" the precepts of the "Book of Mormon," which also purports part of the American Indian ancestry to be of Israelite origin. James spent most of his life with the southeastern Indians and provides written history of their ceremonies, language, traditions, and etc. long before they had much contact and interaction with the whites. He documents and makes a case of his conviction that the American Indians were and are of Israelite ancestry. The Book of Mormon also documents in detail the same except that James had it figured out several decades before the metal plates from which the Book of Mormon was translated were found. The Adair family (and associated families of Mangums and Richeys) were converted as a large group once the Mormon religion found them in Alabama and Mississippi. Was this coincidence or can we speculate that they may have already been prepared by the writings of James Adair? Was it coincidence that many Adairs and Mangums go on to be famous Indian missionaries with Jacob Hamblin in southern Utah and Arizona? One other coincidence is the name Elias Boudinot, the author of the book, who met the Cherokee Indian chief Major Ridge's nephew. This nephew adopted the name Elias Boudinot as his own and worked for the same cause as Major Ridge. He was also assassinated with the Ridges in connection with the Cherokee Trail of Tears. His life is interesting and is given in detail at . Chief Ridge's daughter Nancy marries William Richey, whose son James Richey marries James Adair's great-granddaughter Margaret Ann Adair. Again, are all these Indian connections coincidence in light of James Adair?
B. From "Who Was Who in Native American History." by Carl Waldman, 1990: "Adair, James (d. 1783). Trader, anthropologist; reformer. James Adair was an Irish trader out of South Carolina who lived among the Chickasaws for nearly 40 years in the mid-1700s. He took several Indian wives by whom he had many children. He used the Chickasaws, Cherokees, Catawbas, Creeks, and other tribes of the Southeast as informants for his book "The History of the American Indians," published in 1775 after his return to England. Although he provided much ethnographic information plus valuable suggestions for Indian policy, Adair also made the erroneous case for the Native Americans as descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel.
Comment: The death date of 1783 is in error and the death was in Laurens, SC, sometime from 25 Feb 1784 to 12 Feb 1796.
C. From "Who's Who in American History, The Historical Volume (1607-1896)": "Adair, James: Indian trader; author, b. County Antrim, Ireland, circa 1709. Came to America 1735; traded with the Catawba and Cherokee Indians 1735-44, with Choctaw Indians 1744-51; moved to District 96, Laurens County SC 1751; commanded band of Chickasaws as Captain during Indian War 1760-61. Author: The History of the American Indians (maintaining Indians are descendants of ancient Jews), 1775. Died NC circ 1783."
Comment: The death in North Carolina is in error and the death was in Laurens, SC, sometime from 25 Feb 1784 to 12 Feb 1796. The death in NC is confusion with a separate Robert Adair who only has a surname in common.
D. From "The Dictionary of American Biography": "Adair, James (c1709-1783), pioneer Indian trader, author, is said to have been born in County Antrim, Ireland. The dates given above are merely conjectural. The known facts of his life are few, gathered in the main from the personal incidents narrated in his book, "The History of the American Indians" (1775) and occasional references in South Carolina chronicles. A recent book, "Adair History and Genealogy" (1924), by J.B. Adair, gives many biographical details purporting to be based on family tradition, but few of them are verifiable by any available records. It is certain that Adair was highly educated. By 1735 he had come to America, probably entering at the port of Charleston, SC. In that year he engaged in trade with the Catawbas and Cherokees, continuing with them until 1744. He then established himself among the Chickasaws, whose villages were on the headwaters of the Yazoo, in Mississippi, where he remained for about six years. During the latter part of this period he frequently visited the Choctaws, in an effort to counteract the influence of the French and to win them to an alliance with the English. The effort was successful, but it involved him in difficulties with other traders and with James Glen, royal governor of South Carolina from 1743 to 1756, which resulted, he asserts, in his financial ruin. In 1751 he moved to District Ninety-six (the present Laurens County), SC, and resumed trade with the Cherokees, remaining there until about the end of 1759. His activities during these years covered a wide range. He was several times called in council by Gov. Glen, with whom he could never agree and whom he heartily detested. Among the Indians he was a diplomat and a peace maker, but he was also a fighter - "a valiant warrior," says Logan; and when he could not compose their quarrels he not infrequently took sides in their wars. At various times he was engaged in conflicts with the French. In the Indian war of 1760-61 he commanded a band of Chickasaws, receiving his supplies by way of Mobile. In 1769 he visited New York City. Either then or a few years later he probably voyaged to London. Of his later life nothing authentic is recorded. He was, as the conclusion of his book amply shows, a vigorous defender of the rights of the colonies, but there appears to be no mention of him in Revolutionary annals. He is said to have been married and to have had several children and also to have died in North Carolina shortly after the close of the Revolution. Adair is chiefly known through his history of the Indians. Primarily it is an argument that the Indians are the descendants of the ancient Jews. The theory was accepted by Elias Boudinot, one-time president of the Continental Congress, who gave it hearty support in his book, "A Star in the West" (1816). Adair's work has outlived its thesis. Its' account of the various tribes, their manners, customs, their manners, and vocabularies, its depiction of scenes and its narration of incidents in his own eventful career, give it a permanent value. It is a record of close and intelligent observation, and its fidelity of fact has been generally acknowledged. The book must have required many years of toil. In his preface he says that it was written "among our old friendly Chickasaws" (doubtless during his second period of residence with them) and that the labor was attended by the greatest difficulties. Though some passages may subsequently have been added, it was probably finished by the end of 1768. In the "Georgia Gazette," of Savannah, October 11, 1769, appeared an item dated February 27th of that year, apparently copied from a New York newspaper, announcing the arrival of Adair in New York and saying that "he intends to print the Essays." The care with which the book is printed indicates that he gave it personal supervision through the press. From the dedication it is evident that he had the friendship of the noted Indian traders, Col. George Galphin and Col. George Croghan (with the former of whom he may for a time have been in partnership) and Sir William Johnson; and from various references it is certain that he was highly respected by those who knew him. Logan credits him with the quick penetration of the Indian audacity, cool self-possession, and great powers of endurance, and Volwiler says that he was one of the few men of ability who personally embarked in the Indian trade. Sources -- J. H. Logan, "A Hist. of the Upper Country of SC" (1859); John Thos. Lee, letter in the Nation Aug 27, 1914; manuscript notes supplied by Robt. L. Meriwether; brief references in A.T. Volwriter, "Geo. Croghan and the Westward Movement, 1741-1782" (1926) and Edward McCrady, "Hist. of SC under the Royal Government" (1899).
Comment: The death date of 1783 is in error and the death was in Laurens, SC, sometime from 25 Feb 1784 to 12 Feb 1796.
E. From "Family Traces" by David and Kathy Grooms: "John was the son of James Adair, an explorer and trader who lived among the Cherokees for over forty years, along with his two white sons, John and Edward, sons of an English woman. James Adair, one of the first traders among the Cherokees, was a member of the powerful Fitzgerald family, Adair or Adare being the name of the ancient family estate. He was a younger son, leaving home against his parents' wishes, to explore for himself the excitement of the new-world. He arrived in Charleston in 1735 and by the year 1736, he entered North Carolina and settled in the most western recesses among the Cherokee people. He was forthright, honest and had a genuine respect for the Cherokee people. He took to wife a Cherokee bride and had several children by her. He spent the remainder of his life among his new people. James was firmly convinced that the historic Indians known to him as the Cherokee, were relics of the "Ten Lost Tribes of Israel," and devoted his life to proving by systematic comparisons of language and customs, that the Indians were close kin to the ancient Hebrews. One of the myths handed down through the generations, was one of crossing a dry sea-bed as the waters were held back by a "Great Spirit." The name of this leader who led his people across the dry sea-bed, had been over the centuries, changed to the Cherokee form, but translated to English, meant "Moses." At this time, the Cherokee had no written language. These myths were handed down by word of mouth. They also had no knowledge of the Holy Bible until the white men brought it to them in the late 1700s. James Adair filled a large portion of his book "History of the American Indians" with his findings and theories..."
Comment: There are several errors in this summary. Modern DNA testing shows James Adair's wife, Eleanor, was of Native American blood of the Chickasaw tribe. Links to Fitzgerald family are unproven and conjectural; the author probably relied on the unreliable author Dr. J.B. Adair for this. Nothing is known of James' parentage, early life in presumably Ireland, nor of his arrival in America.
F. From "The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research," p. 213: "Payments for Colonial Services," continued from Vol. 4, page 167. To pay Captain James Adair, for leading the Chickesaws at New Savanna, during the time he shall be in actual service, 200 00 00. Volume VIII. Winter, 1980 Number 1. "Laurens County Estate Book A-1" (continued from Vol. VII, page 225), pp. 98-100: An account of the sale of the Estate of Joseph Greer decd., 15 of August 1794; purchasers: Andrew McCrary, Joseph Greer, Joseph Adair, John Hansel, Saml McComuthey, Thos McCrary, Joseph Greer, Wm Hunter, John Login, John Elmore, Minasa Willson, Benj. Adair, Newton Higgins, John Gray, Robert Scott, John Owens, James Rammage, Hugh Skelton, Saml Bishop, James Dillard, John Rammage, James Dillard, Robert Grier, Bazzel Prater (cooper tooles), James Adair Senr., John Watson, Simon Tedford, Jonas Greer, J. A. Elmore, George Ross, Ben Adair, Joseph Parks, Wm Price, Wm Gray., Robert Greer. Total 56 13 9."
G. From "The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research": "William Adear ... a plantation or tract of Land Containing two hundred and Sixty acres Situate as Supposed when run out to be in Tryon County in the Province of North Carolina on the waters of fishing Creek, Joining his own Land ... Gillispies Corner ... Joining Thomas Scott's Land ... Also a plantation or tract of Land Containing 200 Acres Situate as Supposed above on the waters of the South fork of fishing Creek, Joining Robert Kerr's land ... James Williamson's Corner ... Craft's Corner ... Joining McClean's land ... both which tracts of Land were Originally granted by his Excellency William Tryon Esqr then Govr of N. Carolina the 4th day of May 1769, the 260 Acres to William Watson and the 200 Acres to William Bratton, which each Conveyed by Deed of Release bearing date the 22d of January 1771 to William Adear the Mem'st ... but by a late resurvey of the boundary line by order of his present Majesty the above two tracts of land fall within the Province of South Carolina in Craven County ... (sworn) the 10th day of April 1773, del'd Sepr 22d 1774 to James Adair (vol. 12, p. 154)."
Comment: This James Adair is most likely not our James.
H. It is reported that there is massive compilation of material with a wealth of information pertaining to many Adair lines in the Texas Archives Genealogy Library by Harry and Leo Z. Adair. Three volumes of the Leo Z. Adair scrapbooks are supposedly also at the Connecticut State Library in Hartford. There may be other repositories for this information as well.

17. Stories follow that I have assembled involving our ancestral Mangum and Adair Families in the Laurens County area of South Carolina in the American Revolutionary War.
In John Mangum the Patriot's application for his American Rev. War pension, he mentions serving with several of the following commanders. He specifically states he was with Col. Joseph Hayes when he was killed and that he received a wound under the hands of the Tory leader William Cunningham aka "Bloody Bill." The following accounts help understand John's and the Adair family's patriotic commitment and puts some flesh to names. See separate notes in the Adair family notes for John Mangum's Adair family comrades in arms who signed the James Williams Petition which would mean that the Adair and Mangum families probably first came in contact both knowing and serving under James Williams. Both modern Laurens and adjoining Newberry Counties were in the old District Ninety Six of South Carolina.
"A Laurens County Sketchbook," by Julian Stevenson Bolick, FHL book 975.731-H2b, p. 9, in speaking of the American Revolutionary War: "The people, cut off as they were from the coast and seat of government [KP note: at Charles Town or Charleston as it was later known], were not aware of the many grievances of the colonists toward the mother country. Naturally, in the months to follow, many of the Up Country people remained loyal to England, and particularly those who had been given large grants by the king. These people became known as Tories, and a gentleman's agreement was reached among some of the colonists whereby the Tories in the Carolina "Back Country" should remain in a state of neutrality. Since this agreement was made without the knowledge of Robert Cunningham, a man of high esteem and immense influence among his neighbors in Ninety Six District, he did not feel bound by the agreement. Thus, he continued to urge opposition to the revolutionary movement to the point of being apprehended on an occasion by a group of men dressed as Indians. Learning of Robert's proposed confinement in Charles Town, his brother Patrick gathered a body of friends and set out in pursuit of the group. The pursuers failed to overtake the first group, but Patrick and his men learned of, and captured, 1000 pounds of powder being sent as a present to the Cherokee Indians by the governor. Because of the proximity of the Cherokees, it was customary to make gifts from time to time to the Cherokee Nation to encourage friendship. An amount of gunpowder, included with cloth and trinkets, was intended to be only enough to meet the Indians' needs for hunting, and not a sufficient quantity to incite them to attack the settlers...
"Unbiased recounting of history must include here the distasteful authority and influence exerted by two Tory leaders over their followers in dealing with their enemies, the Whigs [KP note: pre-Revolution]. The two 'Bloody Bills', William Bates and William Cunningham, headed the list of atrocities ... Cunningham ... belonged to one of the best families in the province. A cousin of Robert and Patrick Cunningham, Bill was the only member of the family to depart from its high standard of chivalry and honor ... William was a Whig at the beginning of the struggle ... William was ordered to the Low Country, was whipped for some minor offense and was placed in chains. His work of pillage and murder apparently was a retributive vengeance on those who had wronged him, especially his former commander in arms.
"So, the good citizens and the bad citizens were divided in their partisanship. Before the end of hostilities, the great plantations where hospitality had been dispensed in generous and gracious manner were closed to friendship because of divided loyalties and sympathies. These homes included White Hall, home of Andrew Williamson; Rosemont and Peach Hill, Cunningham seats and Mount Pleasant, owned by James Williams. In many cases, animosity continued. In the election of 1778, Colonel Williams and Cunningham engaged in gentlemanly fisticuffs, in which the wife of the Colonel seized Cunningham by his queue before friends could come between them. The fact that Cunningham was elected to office was evidence of the strong Tory influence in the district. It will be recollected here that Robert Cunningham had been arrested by Colonel James Williams in 1775 and sent to Charles Town, where he refused to recognize the authority of the Provincial Congress. His arrest created indignation in the "Back Country", and three years later his friends gave full support to his candidacy.
"Logan's History of the 'Upper Country of South Carolina' characterizes this area as reek. While the armed forces on the coast had been occupied with the defense of Fort Moultrie, the western frontier of the state had become ablaze with Indians on the warpath [KP note: the neutrality of the Indians was broken when the British and their allies could use strong persuasion]. Inhabitants along the Saluda River had taken refuge in an old fort known as Lyndley's, located on Rabun Creek. Early morning of July 15, 1776, 88 Indians and 102 white men attacked the safety station. Major Jonathan Downes with 150 men had arrived at the station the evening before. The latter were on a mission to join forces with Major Williamson in an effort to suppress the Indians who erroneously had been told that their gift of gunpowder and lead captured so recently would be used by the Whigs to kill them. The attack on the fort was repulsed and thirteen prisoners, all whites dressed as Indians, were sent to Ninety Six for confinement.
"On another occasion, Major Downes, commanding a small force of Whigs, happened to come upon an armed aggregation of Indians in the Scuffletown area. Tradition says that the Major overcame the Indian chief in a hand-to-hand fight, and that he took off his suspenders, tied the Indian's hands behind his back and left the fighting field with the captured chieftain astride Downes' horse.
"In August of 1780, the Battle of Musgrove's Mill was fought about twelve miles north of the present city of Laurens on the Enoree River. Major Downes again served gallantly; in this encounter was, also, Colonel Joseph Hayes, who was among those massacred at Hayes Station the following year. In the home of Major Edward Musgrove a garrison of 500 British troops maintained headquarters. They were regimented soldiers retrained by platoons. The Major, too old for active duty, remained neutral in his sympathies; but his family took a very active part with sons fighting on both sides. On that August day the Whigs took up position within one mile of the mill and were in the process of planning an attack when a skirmish between a British patrol and a Whig reconnaissance group brought the entire British garrison to the scene. Young Captain Shadrack Inman asked permission to take 25 men and act as a decoy to draw the Tories into a three-pronged trap formed by force commanded by Colonel Isaac Shelby on the right, Colonel Elijah Clarke on the left and Colonel James Williams in the center. Shadrack Inman was shot seven times following the retreating British. A simple stone marks the spot where he fell.
"The battle is said to have been one of the hardest ever fought in the county with small arms alone '...the smoke so thick as to hide a man at a distance of twenty rods. With the aid of Tories, the British had hoped for a quick victory in the South; instead they suffered heavy losses and their strength in South Carolina's Up Country had been badly shaken.
"November, 1781, will be remembered as a month of terror for the Whigs and their families in the Ninety Six District at the hands of William Cunningham, who had left Charles Town in August for the purpose of inflicting punishment on the Whigs. Crossing Saluda River, 'Bloody Bill' and his band of 300 ruthless followers attacked Hayes Inn, a station which before had been known as Edge Hill, on the stagecoach route through this part of the Up Country. The exact date of this attack is not known, but McCrady in his 'History of South Carolina in the Revolution' traces the movements of the group of Tories. On November 7, 1781 thirty Whigs had taken refuge in an unfinished log house without door or windows on a small stream called Cloud's Creek in Edgefield County. Two of the thirty escaped, the rest being slaughtered after they had surrendered. Mr. McCrady states 'it was a fine morning after the massacre at Cloud's Creek, when at ten o'clock a party led by John Hood rode up to the station (Edge Hill) at full gallop...' Hayes Inn was burned by shooting out of a musket a ramrod tipped with flax, saturated in tar and set afire. The flaming roof caused suffocation and terror among those inside. "Captain Daniel Williams, with a group of patriots, had rested overnight at the inn. The Captain, only eighteen years of age, and Colonel Joseph Hayes, owner and operator of the inn, were promptly hanged from a pole of the fodder stack. The pole broke; and Cunningham, continuing the cruelty with gave him the name 'Bloody Bill,' cut the half strangled men to pieces with his sword. The encounter is recorded as 'Hayes Station Massacre,' a terrifying experience related by the one survivor...
"It was such odious treatment of human beings that prompted General Nathanael Greene of the Whig side to make the following declaration: 'The inhabitants hunt one another like wild beasts. If a stop cannot be put to these massacres, the country will be depopulated in a few more months, as neither Whig nor Tory can live." In the District of Ninety Six alone, there were 1400 hundred widows and orphans as a result of the war." 
Adair, James (I3679)
8 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I2579)
1. Censuses:
1850 US: The book "The Howard Leytham Stoker Von Dollen Family Histories," FHL 929.273 H833a, by Doris Lewis, 2017 So. 80th Ave., Omaha, Nebraska, 68124, pp. 107+: "The Missouri census, taken in Lafayette County on August 26th, 1850, lists Perry as 26 years old, born in Illinois and a farmer by occupation. Hannah was 22, Elizabeth 3 and Eliza. In the summer of 1851, the family moved to Pottawattamie County, Iowa, where Perry soon died... I find only two other Omans at this time in the area, both in Council Bluffs, during the 1850 census. Eliza Oman, age 35, was perhaps a relative since Perry named a daughter Eliza, and next door to her was George Oman, who was a leader of a group of Latter Day Saints who traveled on to Utah.

1852 Iowa: husband not listed in FHL book heads of household index for the 1852 Iowa census.

1860 US: Grove, Pottawattamie, Iowa, 14 Jul 1860, 841/769:
James Sexton, 48, farmer, $1200/250, KY.
Hannah Sexton, 33, housewife, IN.
Elizabeth Sexton, 13, MO.
Eliza Sexton, 11, MO.
Minta Sexton, 6, IA.
Emily Sexton, 4, IA.
John Sexton, 2, IA.
George Sexton, 1/12, IA.

1870 US: Council Bluffs Post Office, Kane Township, Pottawattamie, Iowa, p. 172b, dwelling 58, family 59; the following families were neighbors: Simeon Graybill, Margaret Stoker, George Graybill, William L. Graybill, Phillip Gatrost:
Geo. Graybill, 47, farmer, $9600 real estate, $2200 personal property, OH.
Hannah, 44, keeping house, IN.
Geo. W., 23, farmer, $200 personal property, IA.
Isaac, 17, IA.
Massie, 15, IA.
Cathrin, 11, IA.
Lydia J., 10, IA.
Julia, 6, IA.
Samuel, 4, IA.
Zenas, 2, IA.
Hannah Sexton, 15, IA.
Emily J. Sexton, 14, IA
John Sexton, 11, IA.
George Sexton, 10, IA.
John Graybill, 19, IA.

1880 US: Garner, Pottawattamie, Iowa; NA film T9-0361, p. 23A:
George Graybill, farmer, self, 55, OH NC NC.
Hannah, wife, 52, IN NC SC.
George, son, single, farmer, 33, IA OH IN.
Isaah, son, single, farmer, 25, IA OH IN.
Catherine, dau, 22, IA OH IN.
Julia, dau, 16, IA OH IN.
Samuel, son, 14, IA OH IN.
Zenas, son, 11, IA OH IN.
John Sexton, single, stepson, farmer, IA IL IN.
Margett Graybill, gdau, 4, IA IA UT.
Birdie Graybill, gdau, 2, IA IA UT.

1900 US: Norwalk Township, Pottawattamie, Iowa, p. 251A:
Hannah Graybill, Dec 1826, 73, widow, IN SC NC.
Samuel, son, Nov 1866, 33,S IA OH IN, farmer.
Zenos B., son, Mar 1869, 31, S, IA OH IN, farmer.

1. Oman family history mentioned in the book "The Howard Leytham Stoker Von Dollen Family Histories," FHL 929.273 H833a, by Doris Lewis, 2017 So. 80th Ave., Omaha, Nebraska, 68124, pp. 107+; has three of photos of Hannah Smith - one taken just after her marriage with George Graybill, one with her second husband, James Sexton, taken during the Civil War, and one as an older woman with three generations of descendants.

1. See notes of father John Smith for extensive biography on entire family including this individual and their spouses.

2. The book "Mormon Redress Petitions, Documents of the 1833-1838 Missouri Conflict," edited by Clark V. Johnson, contains a copy of the "Scroll Petition" dated 28 Nov 1843 at Nauvoo, IL addressed to the U.S. Congress by members of the LDS Church who had property destroyed by Missouri mobs in the 1830's. Included with over a couple thousand signatures are those of Jno. and Sarah Smith and some of his children from his first wife who was deceased at the time of the petition: Hannah, Elizabeth, Stephen. Jos., and Rhoda A.

3. Mentioned in granddaughter Julia Stoker's biography per two sources: and FHL book 977.747-H2n: "History of Harrison County, Iowa," 1891, pp. 959, 960: "Miss Julia Stoker - The biographies of successful women are unusual in works of this character, yet there are, in every community, a few women, who, by virtue of their superior ability and keen business judgement, are entitled to recognition far beyond that usually accorded to the sterner sex. But it is altogether extraordinary to find a young woman who has shown such wonderful executive ability as Miss Julia Stoker, a successful capitalist and the manager of her deceased father's great estate. Miss Julia Stoker was born on August 9, 1890, in Washington township, Harrison county, Iowa, the daughter of Orsan and Elizabeth (Omen) Stoker. They were the parents of ten children, eight of whom are living. Orsan Stoker was born on January 25, 1843, in Hancock county, Illinois, the son of Ellen and Margaret (Judd) Stoker. Orsan Stoker came to Harrison county, Iowa, in 1862, and bought land in Washington township. He made improvements upon this land, among which was a log cabin, sixteen feet square and here he and his family lived a few years, when the log cabin was replaced by a better house. He was an extensive breeder of Poland China hogs and Shorthorn cattle. Throughout his life, he was an energetic farmer and stockman. He built a splendid house near the town of Yorkshire, Iowa, later in life, and at the time of his death in 1908, owned nine hundred and seventy-four acres in Harrison and Pottawattamie counties. He was a member of the church of Latter-Day Saints and the Masonic fraternity. Orsan Stoker's wife, the mother of Miss Julia, was born in 1847, in Holt county, Missouri, the daughter of Perry [Omen] and Hannah (Smith) Graybill, the latter of whom was married three times [Perry being first husband]. She is now living on the old home place. Julia Stoker attended the eight grades of the Yorkshire school and has always remained on the home farm. She now manages all of her mother's interests and looks after all her affairs. Miss Stoker owns one hundred and fifty-seven acres of land, near Persia, in Washington township. She is very much in love with the work that has fallen to her lot to perform and is very competent for this work. She is a member of the church of Latter-Day Saints, well known in the community where she lives, and widely admired for her many sterling qualities."

4. The following partial quote is included in the biography of Stephen Smith, brother of this individual, per FHL film 934962, items 3 and 4, "History of Pottawattamie County, Iowa," by Field and Reed, 1907, pp. 1066-1067 [see notes for Stephen Smith in this database for full quotation]: "Stephen Smith, now living retired but still residing on his farm on section 27, Grove township, came to Pottawattamie county about the 1st of November, 1847. On this day he arrived in Council Bluffs, where he spent the winter. In the following April his father arrived in Macedonia township, bringing his family with him, and there he built the first house within what is now the borders of the township. John Smith, the father, resided there for eight years or more, and in the fall of 1853 or 1854 became a resident of Grove township, settling on section 8, where he continued to reside until his death occurred, in 1870, when he was 72 years of age... His birth had occurred in North Carolina and he had resided for some time in Indiana prior to coming to Iowa. The wife, who bore the maiden name of Elizabeth Martha Koonts, was born in Indiana, and from that state they removed to Adams county, Illinois, where the death of Mrs. Smith occurred, in 1840. Stephen Smith was born in Henry county, Indiana, January 28, 1836. His father wedded a second time, having wedded Miss Sarah Winegar in Adams county, Illinois, after losing his first wife. She accompanied her husband to Pottawattamie county and died here in 1882 [error; should be 1880]. By the two marriages there were seven sons and six daughters. Those of the family who came to Pottawattamie county were: Mary, Patience, Hannah, Elizabeth, Lydia, Rhoda [error: Lydia Rhoda is one individual and not two], Anna, Stephen, Joseph, Hiram, Carlos and Abraham. [Note: I believe Anna being included in this list to be an error in that it appears she died in Indiana as an infant.] Two brothers of the family died in early Childhood. Of the children Stephen, Lydia, and Abraham are still living, the sister being a resident of Cheyenne county, Kansas, while the brother makes his home in northwestern Nebraska. Stephen Smith was eleven years of age when he came with his father to Pottawattamie county..."

5. The book "The Howard Leytham Stoker Von Dollen Family Histories," FHL 929.273 H833a, by Doris Lewis, 2017 So. 80th Ave., Omaha, Nebraska, 68124, pp. 90-91: "Cooking for such a large family presented its problems. Over a dozen loaves of bread were made at one time, and a half dozen pies. Hannah commented later in life, she never wanted to make another pie."

6. Oman family history mentioned in the book "The Howard Leytham Stoker Von Dollen Family Histories," FHL 929.273 H833a, by Doris Lewis, 2017 So. 80th Ave., Omaha, Nebraska, 68124, pp. 107+, has the following biographies of Orson Stoker, son of Eller and Margaret (Judd) Stoker, who married Elizabeth Oman: "Orson... grew up on the family farm in Garner Township. In 1863, when 20 years old, he bought government land at $7.00 an acre in Harrison County, Washington Township, section 32. Andrew Graybill, William Graybill, William Spears and Orson bought 320 acres in one body and helped one another clear the land. In 1867, he built a log house where he brought his new bride, Betty Oman, the following January. The oldest five children were born in this log house on Mosquito Creek, and Jess commented later it had quite a number of cracks, requiring one to shake the snow off of the quilts in the morning if it had snowed in the night. In 1879, Orson built the big family home just west of the cabin. The road at this time ran east and west and the house stood east of the present Highway 64 and across the road from William Darrington's home now. Because of his many daughters and numerous men on the premises, the second story was separated into male and female sleeping quarters by a solid wall, with separate stairways from each side. Because of the many out buildings, elevators and granaries, strangers often stopped at the farm thinking they had reached Yorkshire. Orson owned more than 1000 acres in Harrison County when he died in 1908 from an infectious carbuncle on the neck. He had diabetes, as did many of his children. Elizabeth Massie Oman, or Omen, as it is sometimes spelled, was born in Lexington, Lafayette County, Missouri, in 1847, the first child born to Perry and Hannah Oman. A number of babies born to Latter Day Saint parents were born in Lafayette County, so there was probably a pocket of church members there. Two years later Betty's younger sister was born in Holt County, Mo. The Missouri census, taken in Lafayette County on August 26th, 1850, lists Perry as 26 years old, born in Illinois and a farmer by occupation. Hannah was 22, Elizabeth 3 ½ and Eliza ½. In the summer of 1851, the family moved to Pottawattamie County, Iowa, where Perry soon died. He may be buried in the old Mormon Cemetery, now Fairview in Council Bluffs, of the Stoker-Graybill Cemetery east of the Bluffs, or in Wheeler's Grove, where many Smiths were living, including Hannah's father, in a large Mormon community. I find only two other Omans at this time in the area, both in Council Bluffs, during the 1850 census. Eliza Oman, age 35, was perhaps a relative since Perry named a daughter Eliza, and next door to her was George Oman, who was a leader of a group of Latter Day Saints who traveled on to Utah. Betty's younger sister Eliza Annette was called 'Net.' When Net was 16 she met George Tucker at a dance in Council Bluffs, and they were married three weeks later. The Tucker family had come to Council Bluffs, then called Kanesville, in 1849. The first night of arrival they camped outside of town and the father was killed trying to stop house thieves from stealing the horses. The mother and a younger brother contacted smallpox later and died, leaving George and a sister, orphans. In 1861, when 17, George volunteered in the Fourth Iowa Infantry, Company B. He served in the following battles: Pea Ridge, Chick Bayou, Arkansas Post, Jackson, Champion Hill, Vicksburg, Big Black River, Dalton, Taylor's Ridge, Mission Ridge, Columbia River, Bentonville, the Atlanta campaign, the march to the sea, and the campaign that ended in Johnston's surrender. After the war he delivered oxen and wagons to Denver, returning with cattle. Returning from such a drive in the midst of a violent snow storm, he found a dance in progress in Council Bluffs. Dances had been discontinued during the war years, which made one quite an event after the war. George went to the dance and met Net. They never had children but were dear aunt and uncle to all of Orson and Betty's children. They lived their entire married life within a few miles of Neola. In the early years of marriage they lived in a log cabin on Mosquito Creek near Yorkshire, the last few years they lived in Neola, where George was the banker. The Stoker look is a familiar phrase to us who have it, but I was surprised to find that photographs show it was the Smith women who had it. Maybe it is really a Smith look, or an Eller look, of a Koons look, but wherever it came from, Grandma Betty Stoker had it." More on Orson Children: "Orson used to bring home bolts of material, so each family member had a dress or a shirt made out of the same material. He also brought barrels of clams and my grandmother said as she walked in the smoke house she could hear hundreds of clams clicking shut when the light hit. They were all excellent cooks, good eaters, hard workers, but would drop everything for a good ridge game. They had as much fun at 70 as at 17. When the grandchildren were ready for high school, which is in Neola, they moved in with Grandma Stoker, who had moved to Neola in her later years. There were times when she had as many as six teenagers boarding with her..." [The book lists 10 children born of this couple with numerous photographs. Three of the photos are especially noteworthy since they are of Hannah Smith - one taken just after her marriage with George Graybill, one with her second husband, James Sexton, taken during the Civil War, and one as an older woman with three generations of descendants.]

7. Her family with James Sexton is remarked upon in he book "The Howard Leytham Stoker Von Dollen Family Histories," FHL 929.273 H833a, by Doris Lewis, 2017 So. 80th Ave., Omaha, Nebraska, 68124, pp. 110-111: "James Sexton was born in Ireland, came to America when nine years of age. Hannah was a widow with two children when they married; after James' death during the Civil War, she was again a widow, with six children [four from James]:
1. Arminta Sexton, b. 7 Sep 1856 at Pottawattamie Co., IA; d. 20 Apr 1945; m. John W. Downs.
2. Emily Sexton, b. Pott. Co., m. Willis Downs.
3. John Sexton, m. Fannie Downs.
4. James Sexton, b. Eva Heath."
FHL book 929.273 P684pn: "Graybill/Stoker/Eller/Smith/Koons/Pitt Connections," by Norman E. 'Gene' Pitt, 1996, pp. 125-140 adds a fifth child between John and James by the name of George. Also notes that John was known as John "Jack" and Arminta is "M. Araminta." The three oldest married into the Downs family: John, Willis and Fannie respectively.

8. FHL Book 929.273EL54h "George Michael Eller and Descendants of His in America," compiled by James W. Hook, 1957, also on FHL film 896571, item 2, p. 150: Notes children of first marriage to Mr. Oman or Omen:
Nettie Oman (or Omen) m. George Tucker.
Betty Oman (or Omen) m. O. Stoker.
Children of second marriage:
Elizabeth Sexton, aged 13 in 1860, child prob. of first marriage.
Eliza Sexton, aged 11 in the 1860 census. Same prob. as Jeannette shown in family records.
M. (probably Araminta) Sexton, aged 6 in 1860. She prob. married John Downs.
Emily Sexton, aged 4 in 1860.
John (Jack) Sexton, aged 2 in 1860.
George Sexton, aged 2 mo. in 1860.
James Sexton."

9. FHL book 929.273 P684pn: "Graybill/Stoker/Eller/Smith/Koons/Pitt Connections," by Norman E. 'Gene' Pitt, 1996, pp. 72-75, extensive downline of this family is in the book: "George Washington Graybill, b. 25/26 Jun 1821, Bloomfield Twp., Jackson Co., OH; d. 5 Mar 1900, Pottawattamie Co., IA; md. (1) 1841, Bloomfield Twp., Jackson Co., IN to Mary Smith; md. (2) 1862 to Hannah Smith... Mary Smith was b. 16 Sep 1823, Henry Co., IN; d. Feb 1860, Pottawattamie Co., IA. Mary and Hannah were sisters. Mary died just 3 weeks after Lydia was born. Hannah was b. 1828, Wayne co., IN; d. 16 Feb 1903, Underwood, Potta. Co., IA; bur. Potta. Co., IA. Mary's sisters and various other relatives were living in the same county. George was 16 when his family left Ohio for Missouri. He was living in Kane Twp., Potta. Co., IA in 1870. George's and Mary's children were Hannah, Brigham Young, George Henry, Polly Purley, John 'Jack', Isaiah, Mattie 'Massie', Sarah, Catherine and Lydia. George's and Hannah's children were Julia Ann, Samuel and Zenis." [Note there are many mistakes with this author's report including both marriage dates and places as well as birth and death dates for Hannah.

10. A partial quote from the book "Our Stoker Family Histories 1731-1881," Vol. II, comp. and ed. by Elayne Stoker, 2004, printed by Stevenson's Genealogy Center, Provo, UT, from an article entitled: "Polly Stoker":
"Vivian Graybill, of Independence, Missouri, has worked on the Graybill genealogy for many years and since he plans to publish a book with a great amount of detailed information I will not list the names of their complete families. I will note the names of Michael and Polly's children and how they relate to other families in this book. I do have most family names if anyone wants to check it. [Kerry's note: the author lists each child and grandchild of Polly. See her file for the complete listing. I include only the immediate family in this individual's note.]
"George Washington Graybill, b. 6/25/1821, Jackson Co., Ohio. m. Mary Smith. Mary died Feb. 16, 1860, when 35 years of age.
1. Brigham Graybill, b. 5/10/1840
2. Hannah Graybill, b. 8/5/1842
3. George Graybill, b. 1847
4. Polly Graybill, b. 1849
5. John Graybill, b. 5/12/50
6. Isaiah Graybill, b. 1/30/54
7. Mattie Graybill, b. 2/3/55
8. Sarah Graybill, b. 4/ /56
9. Catherine Graybill, b. 12/25/58
10. Lydia Graybill, b. 1/31/60
m. (2) Hannah Smith Oman Sexton, the twice widowed sister to Mary. Hannah had two children by Perry Oman, one my great grandmother, and four children by James Sexton. These families are listed in the Smith section. She had three children after this marriage. Cooking for such a large family presented its problems. Over a dozen loaves of bread were made at one time, and a half dozen pies. Hannah commented later in life, she never wanted to make another pie. Hannah and George lived by Underwood and they are both buried in the cemetery west of town.
11. Julia Ann Graybill, b. Jan. 24, 1864
12. Samuel Graybill, b. Oct. 24, 1865
13. Zenis Graybill, b. Mar. 14, 1867"

1. Per gravestone.

2. The book "The Howard Leytham Stoker Von Dollen Family Histories," FHL 929.273 H833a, by Doris Lewis, 2017 So. 80th Ave., Omaha, Nebraska, 68124, p. 101, uses a variant dates of 16 Sep 1827 at Wayne Co., IN and death date of 16 Feb 1903 at Underwood, IN. Even though Doris is a descendant of Hannah, neither date jives with the tombstone. I use the tombstone since Doris' dates are undocumented. As far as Wayne County, IN as birthplace, it is as likely as Henry Co., IN which I use based upon the biography of her father John Smith [quoted in his notes] - he lived in Henry Co. at about this time. Neither birthplace location is documented and is subject to change based on further research.

1. Per FHL book 977.771 V2p" Pottawattamie Co., IA Early Marriages 1848-1869": "Geo. W. Graybill and Hannah Sexton, 15 Feb 1863." Also confirmed because of children's ages in 1880 census.

2. Per 18 May 2002 database "doigk," first marriage was to Perry Oman with two children born [Nettie Oman and Betty Oman]. Second marriage was to James Sexton with 7 children [Elizabeth, Eliza, M.. Emily, John, George, James]. Geo. Graybill was 3rd marriage. According to Oman/Smith descendant Doris Lewis in her book "The Howard Leytham Stoker Von Dollen Family Histories," FHL 929.273 H833a, p. 101, Perry Oman died in 1851 in Pottawattamie Co., IA. Betty Oman's full name was Elizabeth Massie Oman and she married Orson Hyde Stoker; Doris Lewis gives an extensive downline of Orson and Betty with many family photos as well.

3. Mentioned in the FHL book 929.273 P684pn: "Graybill/Stoker/Eller/Smith/Koons/Pitt Connections," by Norman E. 'Gene' Pitt, 1996, pp. 125-140, mentions that James came to America at age 9 from Ireland and that he died during the Civil War.

1. Per gravestone.

2. Research note: I did check FHL film 1477205 "Pottawattamie Death Records, 1898-" for Hannah's death record. I did not find it; perhaps it wasn't reported.

3. The book "The Howard Leytham Stoker Von Dollen Family Histories," FHL 929.273 H833a, by Doris Lewis, 2017 So. 80th Ave., Omaha, Nebraska, 68124, p. 101, uses a variant dates of 16 Sep 1827 at Wayne Co., IN and death date of 16 Feb 1903 at Underwood, IN. Even though Doris is a descendant of Hannah, neither date jives with the tombstone. I use the tombstone since Doris' dates are undocumented.

1. The book "The Howard Leytham Stoker Von Dollen Family Histories," FHL 929.273 H833a, by Doris Lewis, 2017 So. 80th Ave., Omaha, Nebraska, 68124, pp. 90-91: "Hannah and George lived by Underwood and they are both buried in the cemetery west of town."

2. Per copy "Cemetery Book, Vol. II, Book 2" of the "1980 Botna Valley East Pottawattamie County Iowa Genealogical Society" booklet provided by the Council Bluffs Library of Pottawattamie Co., Iowa which lists burials of the H.G. Fisher Cemetery which is located on the west edge of the town of Underwood, Norwalk Township, Pottawattamie Co., Iowa. In this cemetery are several related Graybills as follows:
Row 2 in the following sequential stone order:
Sexton, Nellie Fern 1910-1973
(Sexton), Fannie 1872-1937 Mother
(Sexton), John 1857-1934 Father [probably son of James and Hannah (Smith) Sexton - Hannah later marries Geo. W. Graybill and is also buried here]
Row 5 in the following sequential stone order:
Graybill, Hazel E. 15 Oct 1892-4 Sept 1893 dau/o J. & A.E. Graybill "We love her"
Graybill, Guy Everett 2 Aug 1883-17 Nov 1954 AmLeg-mm Wisconsin 1st Lt 39 Infantry WWI [son of John and Annes Graybill]
Graybill, Glen E. 1899-1935 [son of John and Annes Graybill]
(Graybill), Mother [probably refers to next stone]
Graybill, John 12 May 1851-10 May 1919; Annes Ervin 12 May 1858-3 Oct 1927 his wife [son of George W. Graybill]
(Graybill), Father [probably refers to previous stone]
Graybill, Maude E. 1881-1952 [dau. of John and Annes Grabill]
Fay, Pearl Graybill 1889-1977 [dau. of John and Annes Grabill]
Wilson, Florence Graybill 1894-1974 [dau. of John and Annes Grabill]
Wilson, William J. 22 Nov 1890-25 Aug 1964 Nebr. Pvt. 3 Bn 55 Engineers WWI [husband of Florence]
Row 9 in the following sequential stone order:
Graybill, Alice 1904 [daughter of George H. and Flora A. Graybill]
(Graybill), Mother [probably refers to B.Y. Graybill stone]
Graybill, Family Stone
Graybill, B.Y. 1844-1931 and Theresa S. 11 Aug 1842 - 8 Mar 1900 [son of George W. Graybill]
(Graybill), Father [probably refers to previous stone]
Graybill, William I. 1854-1941 [son of George W. Graybill]
Graybill, Zenas 1868-19__ [son of George W. Graybill]
Graybill, Samuel F. 1865-1939 [son of George W. Graybill]
Hegarty, Eva F. 29 Sept 1901-23 May 1919 [dau. of Patrick Hegarty and Julia Ann Graybill]
(Graybill?), Mother [probably refers to next stone]
Graybill, George W. 26 June 1821-5 Mar 1900; Hannah 27 Dec 1826-6 Nov 1903 Wife
(Graybill?) Father [probably refers to previous stone]
Row 10 in the following sequential order:
Hegarty, Patrick 1863-1944 [Husband to Julia Ann Graybill]
Hegarty, Julia A. 1863-1938 [Julia Ann Graybill, dau. of George W. Graybill with Patrick as husband]
Graybill, Flora A. 1863-1933 Mother; George H. 1846-1912 Father [son of George W. Graybill]
Row 11 in the following sequential stone order:
Fisher Family Stone
Aney, Allie Fisher 1886-1972 Daughter
Fisher, Hannah 1842-1907 Mother [Hannah Grabill]
Fisher, Henry 1836-1926

1. Per 18 May 2002 database "doigk".

2. Mentioned in the FHL book 929.273 P684pn: "Graybill/Stoker/Eller/Smith/Koons/Pitt Connections," by Norman E. 'Gene' Pitt, 1996, pp. 125-140.

3. FHL Book 929.273EL54h "George Michael Eller and Descendants of His in America," compiled by James W. Hook, 1957, also on FHL film 896571, item 2, pp. 98, 150. He also mentions as part of his sources: (1) "History and Directory of Pottawattamie County, Iowa, 1880-81," and (2) "Biographical History of Pottawattamie Co., Iowa" by Lewis Pub. Co., 1891. 
Smith, Hannah (I642)
10 1 NAME Bridget /Rothenberger/
2 GIVN Bridget
2 SURN Rothenberger

!NICKNAME: Bridget

From the notes of Kent M. Gossman:

Downloaded from Rootsweb WorldConnect Project, file of Helen Rehart Fagerburg <>.

BIOGRAPHY: The Zanesville Signal Sat. Evening January 12, 1918 Muskingum County, Ohio (obituary) MRS. BRIDGET GOSSMAN, CROOKSVILLE, DEAD Crooksville, O., Jan. 12 - Mrs. Bridget Gossman, aged 90, highly respected resident of the Crooksville community, died at the home of her daughter, Mrs. Mont Rambo, at a late hour Thursday evening after a brief illness due to infirmities. The deceased is survived by a number of sons and daughters.

Morgan County Death Records says she died in York Township, Morgan County, Ohio January 11, 1918, aged 88 years.
Post Worldconnect ( 
Rothenberger, Brigitta (I2087)
11 1 NAME Louis Solomon /Gossman/
2 GIVN Louis Solomon
2 SURN Gossman

From the notes of Kent M. Gossman:
Elmer Gossman's notes, p. 48 show a baptism of a Daniel Gossman, son of Andrew and Ann Gossman, on 13 APR 1823 at St. Barnabas Church, Deavertown, Morgan Co., OH.

from the notes of Arnold Van Horn:
"The 1880 Census for York Township, Morgan County, Ohio relates that Solamon and Bridget were living there with 5 of their children. The 1870 Census for the same area shows them there with 9 children."

Downloaded from Rootsweb WorldConnect Project, file of Helen Rehart Fagerburg <>. 
Gossman, L. Solomon (I2098)
12 1 _MEDI Church Source Source: S33 (S33)
1. “Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial & Medieval Families,” Douglas Richardson (2013):
“RALPH DE CAMOYS, Knt., of Flockthorpe (in Hardingham) and Bekerton, Norfolk, Eling and Hambledon, Hampshire, Broadwater, Barcombe, and Trotton, Sussex, Pilton and Tansor, Northamptonshire, etc., Constable of Heleigh and Windsor Castles, Keeper of the Forest of Woolmer, son and heir, born about 1282 (adult in 1303). He married (1st) shortly before 25 June 1303 MARGARET DE BREWES, daughter of William de Brewes, Knt., 1st Lord Brewes, by his wife, Mary, daughter of Robert de Roos, Knt. [see BREWES 8 for her ancestry]. They had one son, Thomas, Knt. [2nd Lord Camoys]. He served in the French and Scottish wars, and was taken prisoner in the latter. At an uncertain date, he successfully claimed his mother's former estate at Lasham, Hampshire on the ground that his father in alienating this property, had violated the statute de donis conditionalibus, this in spite of the fact that this statute was not passed until 1285. In 1299 he witnessed a release of Robert de Harwedon to John de Haudlo, of Boarstall, Buckinghamshire, and his 1st wife, Joan. In 1300 he first appears in the company of Hugh le Despenser the elder. In 1303 he was granted free warren in his demesne lands at Hampnett, Sussex. In 1303-4 he and his wife, Margaret, conveyed the manor of Little Bookham, Surrey to her mother, Mary de Brewes. In 1305 was granted letters of protection, he then going beyond seas with Hugh le Despenser on the king's service. In 1306 he acquired the manor of Woolbeding, Sussex from John son of John de Arundel. In 1309 he was granted free warren in his demesne lands at Woolbeding, Sussex. He presented to the churches of Hardingham, Norfolk, 1309, 1319, and Pilton, Northamptonshire, 1312. A commission was appointed in 1310 touching the persons who felled and carried away the trees of Ralph de Camois at Flockthorpe (in Hardingham), Norfolk. The same year he also witnessed a grant by John de la Mare to Sir Hugh le Despenser of the manor of Asshemere, Dorset. 1312 he was granted a weekly market and a yearly fair at Broadwater, Sussex. He was summoned to Parliament from 26 Nov. 1313 to 1 April 1335, by writs directed Rodolphe de Camoys, whereby he is held to have become Lord Camoys. In 1313 he was granted letters of protection, he then going beyond seas with Hugh le Despenser the elder on the king's service. In 1314-15 he obtained permission to cut down diverse trees to the value of 100 marks in his wood at Pilton, Northamptonshire. He married (2nd) before 20 May 1316 (date of settlement) ELIZABETH LE DESPENSER, daughter of Hugh le Despenser, Knt., Earl of Winchester, by Isabel, daughter of William de Beauchamp, Knt. [see DESPENSER 10 for her ancestry]. They had four sons, Hugh, Knt., John, Knt., Ralph, and Richard, and two daughters, Margaret and Isabel [Abbess of Romney]. In 1318 he was granted free warren in his demesne lands at Lasham and Hambledon, Hampshire, Stukeley, Huntingdonshire, and Pilton and Tansor, Northamptonshire. In 1319 he and his wife, Elizabeth, and Hugh le Despenser were pardoned for acquiring to them and the heirs of Ralph the bailiwick of the forestership of Alice Holt and Woolmer, Hampshire from Richard de Venuz without license. The same year he was granted free warren in his demesne lands at Eling, Lasham, and Hambledon, Hampshire, Stukeley, Huntingdonshire, and Pilton and Tansor, Northamptonshire. The same year Ralph obtained judgment against Robert, the warden of the house of St. Nicholas, Portsmouth, with respect to the moiety of the manor of Lasham, Hampshire, which had been assigned to the hospital in 1299. In 1320 he witnessed a release from Thomas Fillol to John de Haudlo, Knt., and his 2nd wife, Maud, regarding Fillol's right in 140 acres of land and 4s. of rent in Hatfield Peverel and Borham, Essex. The same year Ralph de Camoys and William de Clie were nominated attorneys for Hugh le Despenser the younger, the said Hugh going beyond the seas with the king. In 1321 Ralph and his wife, Elizabeth, granted 12 messuages, a mill, and various lands in Rogate, Didling, Trotton, etc., in Sussex to William de Rogate for life. The same year he settled the manor of Lasham, Hampshire on himself and his wife, Elizabeth, in fee tail in 1321-2 he conveyed a messuage and lands in Didling, Sussex to Thomas de Dydelyngg and his heirs. In 1323 he settled the manor of Fling, Hampshire on himself and his wife, Elizabeth. In 1323-4 he and his wife, Elizabeth, settled the manor of Cokeham (in Sompting), Sussex on themselves for life, together with the advowson of the hospital of Cokeham, with reversion to their son, Ralph. In 1325-6 he and his wife, Elizabeth, settled a messuage and lands in Woolavington, Sussex on themselves for life, with reversion to their son, John. In 1326 the king out of special grace granted Ralph and his wife, Elizabeth, and their son, John, a yearly fair at Rogate, Sussex, together with free warren at Rogate, Harting, Tortewyk, Tadeham, and Alfradesham, Sussex. He was pardoned in Feb. 1326/7 for his adherence to the Despensers in their rebellion against King Edward II. In March 1327 Margery, widow of Robert Lever, arraigned an assize of novel disseisin against Ralph de Camoys, Elizabeth his wife, and their son, Hugh, for a tenement in Westbury. The said Ralph, Elizabeth, and Hugh proferred a charter of the late king whereby they asserted they held the said tenement; however, it was found by the tenor of the assize that the defendants had disseised the said Margery of the manor of Westbury long before the making of the king's charter. In 1327 he sued John de Saint John regarding a debt. In 1328 he and Edmund, Earl of Kent, were sued by Eve Dautry, wife of Edward de Saint John, for dower in Broadwater, Trotton, Woolavington, Petworth, etc., Sussex. The same year John de Ifeld sued Ralph de Camoys and Richard Macy for trespass at Offington [in Broadwater], Sussex. The same year Ralph sued John de Bohun, of Midhurst, Sussex, for the detention of beasts and Geoffrey Hoghles regarding a debt. His wife, Elizabeth, was living 14 March 1327, but presumably died before 17 February 1331, when Ralph alone granted their son, Hugh de Camoys, for the term of his life the manor of Eling, Hampshire, together with lands and tenements called Winsor, and lands which Margery, once wife of Robert Lewyr held by writ of elegit of the king, remainder to the said Ralph and his heirs. In the period, 1327-8, he sued Walter son of Lucy de Meriet regarding the manor of Bradford, Somerset; Walter de Meriet in turn sued him regarding the wardship of land in Bradford, Sowerset during the minority of the heir of Roger Baudrip. In 1335 he complained that ceratin malefactors broke his park at Trotton, Sussex and hunted deer there. SIR RALPH DE CAMOYS, 1st Lord Camoys, died shortly before June 1336.
Blomefield Essex towards a Top. Hist. of Norfolk 2 [1805): 277-281; 10 (1809): 221-227. Blore Hist. & Antiqs. of Rutland 1(2) (1811): 19 (Despenser ped.). Brydges Collins’ Peerage of England 6 (1812): 496-511 (sub Despenser) ("[Hugh le Despenser] married Isabel, daughter of William de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, and widow of Sir Patrick Chaworth, and by her had ... Ada [sic], married to Sir Ralph Camois, Knt."). Dallaway Hist of the Western Div. of Sussex 1(2) (1832): 217 (Camoys ped.). Lennard & Vincent Vis. of Warwick 1619 (H.S.P. 12) (1877): 282-285 (Spencer ped.: “Ada [Despenser] ux. Dn'i St. Amon 2d Rad'i Dn'i Camois."). Carthew Hundred of Launditch & Deaneary of Brisley 1 (1878): 238-241 (Camoys ped.). Notes & Queries 6th Ser. 1 (1880): 234-235, 298-299, 341 (W.D. Macray states "The following short descent, which I have put together from two seventeenth century MSS. in the Bodleian (Rawinson, B. 74 and 314 [shows] Ralph [Camoys] = Da. of Hugh Le Despenser, Earl of Winchester."). Genealogist 6 (1882): 236-247. Year Books of Edward III, Years XIII & XIV 3 (Rolls Ser. 31b) (1886): 220-223. Desc. Cat. Ancient Deeds 1(1890): 23. C.P.R. 1327-1330 (1891): 20. C.P.R. 1307-1313 (1894): 257, 582. C.P.R. 1318-1323 (1895): 221. C.P.R. 1327-1330 (1896): 71-72. C.P.R. 1301-1307 (1898): 382. C.P.R. 1317-1321 (1903): 325, 449. VCH Hampshire 2 (1903): 206-208; 3 (1908): 239, 241; 4 (1911): 81-82, 547-548. List of Inqs. ad Quod Damnum 1 (PRO Lists and Indexes 17) (1904): 63, 83; 2 (PRO Lists and Indexes 22) (1906): 562, 573, 659, 660, 666, 672. Benolte et at. Vis. of Sussex 1530 & 1633-4 (H.S.P. 53) (1905): 29-30 (Camoys ped.: "Rafe Lord Camoys = d. of Hugh le Spencer Erle of Winchester."). VCH Northampton 2 (1906): 595-596; 3 (1930): 129-131. C.Ch.R. 3 (1908): 36, 127, 194, 397, 417, 469, 493. C.P. 2 (1912): 506-507 (sub Camoys). Salzman Abs. of Feet of Fines Rel. Sussex 3 (Sussex Rec. Soc. 23) (1916): 46, 50, 53, 59. Davies Baronial Opposition of Edward II: Its Character & Policy (1918): 93-94. Moor Knights of Edward II (H.S.P. 80) (1929): 176-177. Sussex Arch. Coll.: 70 (1929): 1-7 (The author, Mr. Lambarde, discusses the Lewknor tapestry dating from the 1560's which tapestry features various coats of arms which involve ancestral marriages of the Lewknor family. Among the coats of arms depicted are the arms of Camoys impaling Despenser. The author, writes: "This records the marriage of Ralph, Lord Camoys, to the daughter of Hugh De Spencer, Earl of Winchester. This is according to the Pedigree recorded in the Visitations of Sussex, 1634, Harl. Soc., LIII, 29."). Salter Boarstall Cartulary (Oxford Hist. Soc. 1st Ser. 88) (1930): 108. VCH Huntingdon 2 (1932): 230-234. VCH Sussex 4 (1953): 34-35 (Camoys arms: Or on a chief pales three roundels argent), 84-87; 6(1) (1980): 53-64, 69-70; 7 (1940): 80-83. Paget Baronage of England (1957) 90: 1-12 (sub Braose); 114: 1-7 (sub Camoys). Ellis Cat. Seals in the P.R.O. 2 (1981): 21 (seal of Ralph de Carnoys, knight dated 1335 - hung from a hook, a shield of arms: on a chief three roundels; the field diapered [CAMOYS]). English Hist. Rev. 99 (1984): 1-33. Himsworth Winchester College Muniments 2 (1984): 269-274. Hanna Cartularies of Southwick Priory 1 (Hampshire Recs. 9) (1988): 209. Brault Rolls of Arms Edward I 2 (1997): 89 (arms of Ralph de Camoys: Or, on a chief gules three roundels argent). Coss Soldiers, Nobles and Gentlemen (2009): 107. National Archives, E 40/215 (grant dated 17 June 1320 by John de la Mare to Sir Hugh le Despenser of his manor of Asshemere, Dorset. Witnesses: Sirs John de Handlo [Haudlo], Ralph de Camoys, Knts., and others); SC 8/61/3011A; SC 8/127/6319 (petition dated c.1334 from Walter de Meryet, clerk to the king and council, requesting the intervention of the justices of King's Bench in his dispute with Ralph de Camoys, stating that although his case against Camoys was adjudged in his favour and damages awarded, Camoys has alienated his lands to other people before the judgment was made, and is thus avoiding paying the necessary damages); SC 8/169/8415; SC 8/261/13033 (petition dated 1334-5 from Luke de Burgh, king's attorney of Common Pleas, to the king and council, asking that an exigent might be granted against Ralph de Camoys, who has persistently taken steps to resist arrest in a case before the justices of Common Pleas, losing the King a redemption of 1000 marks or more, and that the same might be done in every case where the capias is granted) (available at”

2. “Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial & Medieval Families,” Douglas Richardson (2013):
"ISABEL DE BEAUCHAMP, married (1st) PATRICK DE CHAWORTH, Knt. [see CHAWORTH 7], of Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire, Wales, East Garston and North Standen (in Hungerford), Berkshire, Kempsford, Gloucestershire, King's Somborne, Hampshire, Stoke Bruerne, Northamptonshire, Berwick St. James and Standon Chaworth, Wiltshire, etc., younger son of Patrick de Chaworth, Knt., of Kempsford, Gloucestershire, North Standen (in Hungerford), Berkshire, King's Sombome, Hampshire, Stoke Brueme, Northamptonshire, etc., by Hawise, daughter and heiress of Thomas de London, of Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire, Ogmore, Glamorgan, East Garston, Berkshire, and Hannington, Wiltshire [see CHAWORTH 6 for his ancestry]. He was born about 1254 (aged 24 in 1278). Isabel had the manor of Chedworth, Gloucestershire in free marriage. They had one daughter, Maud. In 1275-6 he arraigned an assize of novel disseisin against Nicholas Attewode and others touching a tenement in Weston Chaurz, Hampshire. In 1276 he witnessed a deed of his older brother, Pain de Chaworth, to Aaron son of Vives, a Jew. He was Captain of the king's munition in Wales in 1277. Sometime during the period, c.1278-82, Patrick witnessed a charter of Guy de Bryan to the burgesses of Laugharne, Carmarthenshire, Wales. He was heir in 1279 to his older brother, Pain de Chaworth, Knt. In 1279-80 Walter atte Berewe arraigned an assize of novel disseisin against Patrick de Chaworth and others touching a tenement in Etloe, Gloucestershire. In 1280-1 the king granted murage to the bailiffs and men of Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire for a term of five years at the instance of Patrick de Chaworth their lord. Patrick fought in Wales in 1282. On 6 June 1283, he confirmed the gift of his brother, Pain de Chaworth, to Godstow Abbey, which provided for the anniversaries of the obits of their mother, Hawise, and grandmother, Eve. SIR PATRICK DE CHAWORTH died testate shortly before 7 July 1283. His widow, Isabel, married (2nd) between 10 Sept. 1285 (record of Highworth Hundred Rolls) and 27 Jan. 1287 (date of fine for marrying without license) HUGH LE DESPENSER, Knt., of Loughborough, Arnesby, Barrow, Beaumanor, and Hugglescote (in Ibstock), Leicestershire, Ryhall, Rutlandshire, Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, Maplederwell, Hampshire, Woking, Surrey, Broad Town (then in Cliff-Pippard), Eastern (in Wootton Basset), Wootton Basset, Wiltshire, Barrowby, Hillam, Parlington, and Shippen [Ho], Yorkshire, etc., Justice of the Forest south of Trent, 1297-1307, 1308-11, 1312-15, 1324-6, Privy Councillor, 1297, Warden of the Coasts south of Trent, 1303, Constable of Devizes, Marlborough, Odiham, St. Briavel's, and Striguil Castles, son and heir of Hugh le Despenser, Knt., of Loughborough, Leicestershire, Justiciar of England, by Aline (or Aveline), daughter and heiress of Philip Basset, Knt., Justiciar of England. He was born 1 March 1260/1 (aged 14 in 1275). They had two sons, Hugh, Knt. [2nd Lord Despenser], and Philip, Knt., and four daughters, Aline (wife of Edward Burnell, Knt., Lord Burnell), Isabel, Margaret, and Elizabeth. He was heir in 1275 to his cousin, John le Despenser, by which he inherited the manor of Arnesby, Leicestershire. A letter of William de Valence to John de Kirkby indicates that the Queen exacted 1,000 marks from Hugh because of his marriage. In Jan. 1285 the king took the manor of Bollington, Cheshire because Hugh took emends of ale without warrant. In 1286 and again in 1287, he appointed attorneys, he then going beyond seas. He released all right to his lands and tenements in Soham, Cambridgeshire and Bollington in Macclesfield, Cheshire to the king in 1286-7. He was with the king in Gascony in 1287. In 1289 he was going beyond seas with Roger le Bigod, Earl of Norfolk. He presented to the churches of Cossington, Leicestershire, 1289, Stoke Brueme, Northamptonshire, 1292, 1304, and Winterbourne Houghton, Dorset, 1316, 1317. In 1292 he was granted a weekly market and year fair at Arnesby, Leicestershire. In 1293 he had license to enclosed 30 acres of wood adjoining his park at Fastern (in Wootton Basset), Wiltshire. In 1293-4 he claimed to have view of frankpledge in his manor of Barrowby, Hillam, Parlington, and Shippen [Ho], Yorkshire, and that he and his men were free from suits of counties, hundreds/wapentakes/ridings, and from sheriff's aid and murdrum and view of frankpledge. He was appointed an envoy to treat with the King of the Romans in 1294. He was summoned to Parliament from 24 June 1295 to 14 March 1321/2, by writs directed Hugoni le Despenser, whereby he is held to have become Lord Despenser. In 1295 he was going beyond seas on the king's service. The following year he was going beyond seas on an embassy for the king. In 1297 he was granted 20 oaks fit for timber by the king. The same year he took part in the expedition to Flanders. In 1297 he demised the manor of Arnesby, Leicestershire to two tenants for a term of seven years. In 1298 Maud le Barber of Garscherch testified in London court that Saer le Barber said that Sir Hugh le Despenser "kept more robbers with him than any man in England." In 1299 he was granted the manors of Chelworth and Somerford, Wiltshire, together with the bailiwick of the Forest of Braydon, by his kinsman, Robert de Kaynes (or Kaignes). He was present at the Siege of Caerlaverock in 1300. In 1300 he was going to the court of Rome on the king's special affairs. In 1301 Ralph Pipard granted him the manor of Great Haseley, Oxfordshire. In 1302 Robert de Kaynes, Knt. conveyed to him the manors of Tarrant Keyneston, Dorset and two parts of the manor of Newentone, Wales, together with the reversion of the manors of Dodford, Northamptonshire, Oxhill, Warwickshire, Coombe Keynes, Wiltshire, and a third part of Newentone, Wales. He took part in the negotiations with France which preceded the peace of 1303. In 1305 he was sent as Joint Ambassador to Pope Clement V at Lyons, where he obtained a bull absolving the king from the oaths which he had taken to his people. In Feb. 1306 Hugh received a papal indult to have a portable altar. His wife, Isabel, died shortly before 30 May 1306. At the Coronation of King Edward II in 1308, he carried part of the royal insignia. In the quarrel about Peter de Gavaston in 1308, Hugh alone sided with the king against the barons. He was regarded as a deserter from the common cause, and the parliament which met at Northampton procured his dismissal from the king's council. His disgrace was not of long duration; he received the castles of Devizes and Marlborough, and became the chief adviser of the king. On the death of Gavaston in 1312, he became the chief man of the court party, and encouraged the king to form plans of revenge against the barons. He was present at the Battle of Bannockburn 24 June 1314, and accompanied the king in his flight to Dunbar, and thence by sea to Berwick. About this time his son, Sir Hugh le Despenser, joined the king's side. He was appointed Ambassador to Pope John XXII in 1319, and Joint Ambassador to the Pope in 1320. In May and June 1321 the barons of the Welsh Marches and their adherents ravaged the lands of the younger Despenser in Wales and those of the elder throughout the country. In August of that year both Despensers were accused in Parliament, chiefly on account of the son's misconduct, of many misdeeds, including appropriating royal power to themselves, counselling the King evilly, and replacing good ministers by bad ones. They were then disinherited and exiled from the realm. The elder Hugh accordingly retired to the Continent. The sentence on the Despensers was pronounced unlawful at a provincial council of the clergy about 1 Jan. 1321/2. In March following, the elder Hugh accompanied the King against the contrariants, and was present at the judgment on Thomas, Earl of Lancaster. The proceedings against the Despensers were annulled and cancelled, and his lands restored 7 May 1322. He was created Earl of Winchester 10 May 1322, and granted £20 yearly from the issues of Hampshire, together with the Castle and manor of Brimpsfield, Gloucestershire, and the manors of Badgeworth and Syde, Gloucestershire, Ashton Giffard, Codford St. Peter, Sherrington, and Stapleford, Wiltshire (formerly belonging to John Giffard), as well as other lands formerly belonging to Thomas Mauduit, Henry le Tyeys, Warin de Lisle, and John de Kyngeston. The queen hated the Despensers, and when some difficulty arose in France, she gladly left the kingdom on an embassy to her brother, King Charles IV of France. When the queen landed in England with an armed force in Sept. 1326, she put out a proclamation against the Despensers. On the king's flight to Wales in October 1326, Earl Hugh was dispatched to defend Bristol, which, however, he at once surrendered on the arrival of the Queen. The next day, 27 October 1326, SIR HUGH LE DESPENSER, Earl of Winchester, was tried - without being allowed to speak in his own defence - condemned to death as a traitor, and hanged on the common gallows, all his honours forfeited. His head was sent to Winchester.
Bridges Hist. & Antiqs. of Northamptonshire 1 (1791): 325. Nichols Hist. & Antiqs. of Leicester 3(1) (1800): 136-137. Cobbett's Complete Coll. of State Trials 1 (1809): 23-38 (Proceedings against Hugh and Hugh le Despenser). Blore Hist. & Antiqs. of Rutland 1(2) (1811): 19 (Despenser ped.), 32-35. Brydges Collins' Peerage of England 6 (1812): 496-511 (sub Despenser). Dugdale Monasticon Anglicanum 5 (1825): 591. Nicolas Siege of Carlaverock (1828): 190-192 (biog. of Hugh le Despenser). Baker Hist. & Antiqs. of Northampton 2 (1836 11): 218-219 (Beauchamp ped.), 239-240 (Bruere or Briwere ped.). Palgrave Antient Kalendars & Inventories of the Treasury of His Majesty's Exchequer 1 (1836): 62. Palgrave Docs. & Recs. Ill the Hist. of Scotland 1(1837): 226 ("Hug' le Despenc[er] Mil[es]" included on list of people owing military service in 1300). Hutchins Hist. & Antiqs. of Dorset 1(1861): 296. Arch. Cambrensis 3rd Ser. 8 (1862): 281 (13th Cent. Chronicle: "Anno mcclxxxiiio [A.D. 1283] - Obiit Patricius Chavard."); 4th Ser. 9 (1878): 99-100. Lennard & Vincent Vis. of Warwick 1619 (H.S.P. 12) (1877): 282-285 (Spencer ped.: "Hugo le Despensor Comes Wintoniæ 18 E. 2 decollatus 19 E. 2. = Isabella fil. Willi Beauchamp Com. Warw."). Burke Dormant, Abeyant, Footed & Extinct Peerages (1883): 165-167 (sub Despenser). Annual Rpt. of the Deputy Keeper 45 (1885): 354; 46 (1886): 119; 49 (1888): 62; 50 (1889): 127. Doyle Official Baronage of England 3 (1886): 695-697 (sub Winchester). C.P.R. 1281-1292 (1893): 248, 267-268, 325. Cal Entries Papal Regs.: Letters 2 (1895): 4 (William de Handlo [Haudlo], clerk, styled "kinsman" of Hugh le Despenser), 9, 541. C.P.R. 1292-1301 (1895): 42, 72-73, 170, 206-207, 211, 224, 226, 293, 306, 535, 561, 600. Fry & Fry Abs. of Feet of Fines Rd. Dorset 1 (Dorset Rec. Soc. 5) (1896): 264-265. Dallas & Porter Note-book of Tristram Risdon (1897): 74-75. C.C.R. 1272-1279 (1900): 345. Desc. Cat. Ancient Deeds 3 (1900): 97-107, 107-118 (Sir Hugh le Despenser styled "kinsman" by Robert de Kaynes in 1299), 226-238; 4 (1902): 48 (Sir Alan de Elsefeld [Ellesfield] styled "kinsman" by Hugh le Despenser in undated grant), 89. C.P.R. 1272-1281 (1901]: 439 English Hist. Rev. 18 (1903): 112-116; 99 (1984): 1-33. Wrottesley Peds. from the Plea Rolls (1905): 544. D.N.B. 5 (1908): 863-865 (biog. of Hugh le Despenser, the elder: "Both the Despensers received many large grants from the crown; they were generally hated, and were accused of many acts of oppression and wrong dealing ... Greedy and ambitious, they used the influence they gained over the king for their own aggrandisement."). VCH Hampshire 4 (1911): 150-151. VCH Surrey 3 (1911): 381-390. Wedgwood Staffordshire Coats of Arms (Colls. Hist Staffs. 3rd Ser. 1913) (1913): 298 (his seal bearing a shield displaying quarterly, in the 2nd and 3rd quarters, a fret, over all a bend). C.P. 4(1916): 262-266 (sub Despenser); 9 (1936): 142; 11 (1949): 298-299 (sub Saint Amand); 12 (2) (1959): 754 (sub Winchester): Cal. Inqs. Misc., 2 (1916): 245 (In 1327 William Fitz Matthew, former keeper of Odiham park, claimed he was removed as keeper by Hugh le Despenser the younger because he "levied hue and cry" upon Isabel the said Hugh's mother who was taking 5 bucks in the park without warrant). Farrer Honors & Knights' Fees 1 (1923): 233-234. Thomas Cal Early Mayor's Court Rolls 1298-1307 (1924): 23. VCH Berkshire 4 (1924): 158-162. Salter Boarstall Cartulary (Oxford Hist. Soc. In Ser. 88) (1930): 107-108, 300, 312, 318. Richardson & Sayles Rotuli Parl. Anglie Hactenus Inediti 1274-1373 (Camden Soc. 3rd Ser. 51) (1935): 12. Stokes et al. Warwickshire Feet of Fines 2 (Dugdale Soc. 15) (1939): 111-112. Hethe Reg. Hamonis Hethe Diocesis Roffensis 1 (Canterbury & York Soc. 48) (1948): 334-335. Paget Baronage of England (1957) 28: 1-5 (sub Basset). Farr Rolls of Highworth Hundred 1275-1287 (Wiltshire Arch. & Nat. Hist. Soc. Recs. Branch 21) 1 (1966): 142, 144-147, 149-150, 152, 154, 156-157; 2 (Wiltshire Arch. & Nat. Hist Soc. Recs. Branch 22) (1968): 201, 203, 206, 208, 211-212, 215-216, 219, 221, 223, 251-252, 294-297. VCH Gloucester 11 (1976): 285-288. Ancient Deeds - Ser. A1 (List & Index Soc. 151) (1978): 166 (Hugh styled "kinsman" by Robert de Kaines [Kaynes] son of Sir Robert de Kaines [Kaynes]). Ancient Deeds - Ser. AS & WS (List & Index Soc. 158) (1979): 5 (Deed A.S.20), 8 (Deed A.S.41), 12 (Deed A.S.63). Rogers Lacock Abbey Charters (Wiltshire Rec. Soc. 34) (1979): 80 (charter of Hugh le Despenser dated 1299). Hill Rolls & Reg. of Bishop Oliver Sutton 1280-1299 8 (Lincoln Rec. Soc. 76) (1986): 42. NEHGR 145 (1991): 258-268. Kirby Hungerford Cartulary (Wiltshire Rec. Soc. 49) (1994): 154. English Yorkshire Hundred & Quo Warranto Rolls (Yorkshire Arch. Soc. Recs. 151) (1996): 274. Parsons Eleanor of Castile: Queen & Soc. (1997): 44, 163, 171. VCH Cambridge 10 (2002): 500. Online resource: http:// (Lord Marshal's Roll - arms of Hugh le Despenser: Quarterly argent and gules fretty or overall a bencllet sable).
Child of Isabel de Beauchamp, by Patrick de Chaworth, Knt.:
i. MAUD DE CHAWORTH, married HENRY OF LANCASTER, Knt., Earl of Lancaster and Leicester, Lord of Monmouth [see LANCASTER 8].
Children of Isabel de Beauchamp, by Hugh le Despenser, Knt.:
i. HUGH LE DESPENSER, Knt., 2nd Lord Despenser [see next].
ii. PHILIP LE DESPENSER, Knt., of Goxhill, Lincolnshire, married MARGARET DE GOUSHILL [see NETTLESTEAD 11].
iii. ALINE LE DESPENSER, married EDWARD BURNELL, Knt, Lord Burnell [see BURNELL 9.i].
iv. ISABEL LE DESPENSER, married (1st) GILBERT DE CLARE [see BADLESMERE 8.i]; (2nd) JOHN DE HASTINGS, Knt., 1st Lord Hastings [see HASTINGS 10]; (3rd) RALPH DE MONTHERMER, Knt., 1st Lord Monthermer [see CLARE 8].
v. MARGARET LE DESPENSER, married JOHN DE SAINT AMAND, Knt., 2nd Lord Saint Amand [see SAINT AMAND 11].
vi. ELIZABETH LE DESPENSER, married RALPH DE CAMOYS, Knt., 1st Lord Camoys [see CAMOYS 6].” 
le Despenser, Elizabeth (I6166)
14 !BAPTISM: Temple Ready Report; 1992; FamilySearch CD ROM dtd 1992;; FHL, Anchorage, AK;.

? birth Adrian or Worthington

UPDATE: 1993-9-26
!BAPTISM: Temple Ready Report; 1992; FamilySearch CD ROM dtd 1992;; FHL,
Anchorage, AK;. 
Tarbert, Nellie Winona (I249)
15 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I340)
16 !Margret was also known as Polly.

!Margret was also known as Polly.

!Margret was also known as Polly. 
Huntley, Margaret Ann Polly (I295)
17 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F1065
18 (Medical):"He had been a sufferer from paralysis for the last two years" Spencer, Peter Ann (I304)
19 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I1846)
20 (Research):9/12/2017 -Familysearch Source 10
Children Marriage Record
Geo. Schneider in entry for Caroline Schneider & August Kimm, "Iowa, County Marriages, 1838-1934" Index
Children Death Record
Geo Schneider in entry for Louis Schneider, "Iowa, Death Records, 1921-1940" Image
Geo Schneider in entry for Louis Schneider, "Iowa, County Death Records, 1880-1992" Index
Fredrick [Geo?]Schneider in entry for Laura Swick, "Iowa, Death Records, 1921-1940" Image
George Sneider, US cenus 1850
George Snider, US cenus 1860
George Shnider, US cenus 1870
Gregory Schneider, Find A Grave Index, 74305949 [Created by Dawn Albrecht, 2011]
Gregory George Schneider, Find A Grave Index, 10182931 [Created by Denise T, 2004] 
Schneider, Greorg (I389)
21 (Research):Anyone researching their ancestors in Shoshone County should be aware of the important connection between Shoshone County, Bonner County, Kootenai County, Spokane, WA and Rossland & Trail, B.C., Canada. To not look at these connections could mean missing your ancestor completely. Spokane, Rossland and Trail are all innerconnected to Shoshone County, particularly if your ancestor was in the mining industry. Miners came to Shoshone County from Rossland and Trail after the mines dried up in British Columbia. You can track your ancestors crossing the Canadian Border via films from the Mormon Library Family History Center, called the St Albans Border Crossing. If you suspect or know your was a miner, you can contact the Lei Roi Mining Museum in Rossland, B.C., to see if they have any records. Additionally, Spokane, WA was built by money from the Silver Valley Mining industry. Contact the Eastern Washington Genealogy Society in Spokane, WA to see if they have any information on your ancestor. Most miners made migrations through Bonner County, ID to get from Rossland to Shoshone, and many left Shoshone eventually to live in Kootenai County. The lesson here is to check all surrounding counties! Hurry, Edith Elizabeth (I908)
22 (Research):Birth: Feb. 9, 1892
Jewell County
Kansas, USA
Death: Oct. 4, 1975
Brown County
Texas, USA

Helen Cora Waldo
Texas Deaths
Name Helen Cora Waldo
Event Type Death
Event Date 04 Oct 1975
Event Place Brownwood, Brown, Texas, United States
Gender Female
Marital Status Widowed
Birth Date 09 Feb 1892
Birthplace Esbon, Kansas
Father's Name William A Small
Mother's Name Louisa Lenore Emerson
Certificate Number 72740

Family links:
Glen Albert Waldo Waldow (1897 - 1968)

Eastlawn Memorial Park
Brown County
Texas, USA
Plot: Last Supper 115 C-1

Edit Virtual Cemetery info [?]

Created by: Jeannette "Bardwell" B...
Record added: Mar 14, 2012
Find A Grave Memorial# 86761278

Email to 2/12/17

Glen albert Waldo & Helen Small family history


Thanks for posting the picture of Glen Albert Waldo and Helen Small a Glen is a great uncle to my wife. Her grandfather is Raymond Waldo.

I was missing the marriage place. Is it North Platte, Lincoln, Nebraska?
Do you know the story of why Glen change his name to Waldow?

I found the following with a google search. I didn't paid to look at it on

Mrs. Helen S. Waldo, 83, of 105 8th St., who died at 4:? p.m. Saturday in the Brownwood Community Hospital, were to be at 5 p.m. today in Davis-Morris Funeral Home. Rev. John Loveridge, was to officiate. Burial was to be in the Eastlawn Memorial Park, Born in Esbon, Karu. Feb. 9, 1892. She was a registered nurse and a Seventh-Day Adventist. She married Glenn Waldo at North Platt, Neb. Aug. 15, 1920 He died in 1926. Mrs. Waldo had been in ill health for one year. Survivors Include two nieces, Mrs. Thomas Murphy of Norton, Kan. and Mrs. Earl Dean of Uttieton, Colo.; one nephew, Raymond Goakenaur of Florida; and several half- brothers and sisters.

October 6, 1975
Brownwood Bulletin from Brownwood, Texas · Page 2

Publication: Brownwood Bulletin i Location: Brownwood, TexasIssue Date: Monday, October 6, 1975Page: Page 2 (


Chris & Julie Petersen
Anchorage, Alaska 
Small, Helen (I3047)
23 (Research):Birth: Nov. 5, 1938
Flathead County
Montana, USA
Death: Feb. 4, 2011

James Richard Bell, 72, of Rexburg, died Friday, February 4, 2011 at his home from natural causes.

He was born November 5, 1938 in Kalispell, Montana to Dorothy Heck and Harvey Bell. He grew up in Kalispell, Montana. He lived in Kalispell, Whitefish and Libby Montana, Lacey and Olympia, Washington, as well as Sugar City, Salem and Rexburg, Idaho.

He worked for Wharehouser in Lacey, Washington manufacturing cardboard for many years before coming to the Rexburg area. After coming to Rexburg he worked for Porter's Printing and Artco as a paper cutter.

He was member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

He served in the military at Fort Lewis, Washington during the Vietnam War.

He liked auto mechanic work, carpentry, fishing, hunting and camping.

He is survived by his children: Coleen Callais, Lindy Halvorsen, Richard (Sherri) Bell, Naomi Walter, Cheryl (Boyd) Durham, Sarah (Steve) Lewis, Kari (Jacob) Hanes, Aaron Bell and Joseph (Heidi) Bell; 25 grandchildren; 15 great-grandchildren; and a sister, Elnora Dye.

He was preceded in death by his parents; four brothers; three sisters; a son, Michael; and a granddaughter, Marianne.

Funeral services will be held 11:00 a.m. Friday, February 11, at the Rexburg LDS 3rd Ward Chapel, Bishop Paul Johanson officating. The family will receive friends from 10:00 to 10:45 a.m. at the church prior to services.

Interment will be in the Rexburg Cemetery.

Family links:
Harvey H. Bell (1880 - 1966)
Dorothy Naomi Heck Bell (1898 - 1987)

Howard Franklin Bell (1917 - 1983)*
Harvey H. Bell (1919 - 1944)*
Dorothy M Bell Baldwin (1920 - 2008)*
Hugh R. Bell (1923 - 1944)*
Alma L. Bell Branden (1926 - 2002)*
James Richard Bell (1938 - 2011)

*Calculated relationship

Rexburg Cemetery
Madison County
Idaho, USA

Edit Virtual Cemetery info [?]

Created by: Barb
Record added: Feb 09, 2011
Find A Grave Memorial# 65416937 
Bell, James Richard (I22)
24 (Research):Books

Portrait and Biographical Record of Genesee, Lapeer and Tuscola Counties, Michigan; pt. 01 - Chicago; Chapman Bros; Compiled local and family histories from the Allen County Public Library. Viewed 9/30/2017 @ - Quick search (Ctrl F) for "Atwell" Nothing found.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Genesee, Lapeer and Tuscola Counties, Michigan; pt. 02 - Chicago; Chapman Bros; Compiled local and family histories from the Allen County Public Library. Viewed 9/30/2017 @ - Quick search of index for "Atwell" Nothing found.

ell family reunion family tree : the Squier/Atwell family of Lapeer/Macomb county, Michigan, and its descendants and ancestors; Barry-Orth, Cathy D.; Owning Institution:Family History Library, FamilySearch International; 
Atwell, Philo (I735)
25 (Research):Familysearch Sources as of 1/25/2015
Entered in Legacy -Doyne Wilson in household of Lee P Wilson, "United States Census, 1920". "United States Census, 1920," database with images, FamilySearch ( : accessed 25 January 2016), Doyne Wilson in household of Lee P Wilson, Eastport, Boundary, Idaho, United States; citing sheet 1B, NARA microfilm publication T625 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.); FHL microfilm 1,820,289.
Doyne Tarbert, "United States Social Security Death Index". "United States Social Security Death Index," database, FamilySearch ( : accessed 25 January 2016), Doyne Tarbert, Jan 1964; citing U.S. Social Security Administration, Death Master File, database (Alexandria, Virginia: National Technical Information Service, ongoing).
Doyne Marshall in household of L Porter Marshall, "United States Census, 1910". "United States Census, 1910," database with images, FamilySearch ( : accessed 25 January 2016), Doyne Marshall in household of L Porter Marshall, Jocko, Sanders, Montana, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) ED 87, sheet 14B, NARA microfilm publication T624 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.); FHL microfilm 1,374,848.
Doyne Cox in entry for Edgar L Marshall [son] and Velma Crocker, "Washington, County Marriages, 1855-2008". "Washington, County Marriages, 1855-2008," database with images, FamilySearch ( : accessed 25 January 2016), Doyne Cox in entry for Edgar L Marshall and Velma Crocker, 04 Aug 1929; State Archives, Olympia; FHL microfilm 4,136,834.
Dayne Cox, "Indiana Marriages, 1811-2007". "Indiana Marriages, 1811-2007", database with images, FamilySearch ( : accessed 25 January 2016), L Porter Marshall and Dayne Cox, .
Doyne Cox, "Indiana Marriages, 1811-2007". "Indiana Marriages, 1811-2007", database with images, FamilySearch ( : accessed 25 January 2016), L Porter Marshall and Doyne Cox, 1906.
U.S., Northern Pacific Railway Company Personnel Files, 1890-1963 for Doyne Marshall. U.S., Northern Pacific Railway Company Personnel Files, 1890-1963 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2013. Original data: Personnel Files, circa 1909-1960s. Personnel Dept. records. Northern Pacific Railway Company records. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.
Marriage Record of Coyne Cox Wilson to F Tarbert in Spokane, Washington. Washington, Marriage Records, 1865-2004 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2012. Original data: Washington State Archives. Olympia, Washington: Washington State Archives.
Donie Cox in household of Theodore Cox, "United States Census, 1900". "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch ( : accessed 25 January 2016), Donie Cox in household of Theodore Cox, Van Buren Township (excl. Veedersburg city), Fountain, Indiana, United States; citing sheet 16A, family 358, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.); FHL microfilm 1,240,370.
Doyne Tarbert in household of Floyd F Tarbert, "United States Census, 1930". "United States Census, 1930", database with images, FamilySearch ( : accessed 25 January 2016), Doyne Tarbert in entry for Floyd F Tarbert, 1930.
Legacy NFS Source: Doyne Cox - Individual or family possessions: death: 20 January 1964; Spokane, Spokane, Washington, United States. Individual or family possessions: death: 20 January 1964, Spokane, Spokane, Washington, United States; birth: 9 October 1885; Independence, Doniphan, Kansas, United States, female; birth-name: Doyne Cox 
Cox, Doyne (I68)
26 (Research):Fred Waldo
Montana Death Index
NameFred Waldo
Event TypeDeath
Event Date17 Apr 1946
Event PlaceRichland, Montana
Marital StatusUnknown
Registration Year (Original)1946
Index NumberRi 1929

"Montana Death Index, 1860-2007," database, FamilySearch ( : 9 December 2014), Fred Waldo, 17 Apr 1946; from "Montana Death Index, 1868-2011," database, Ancestry ( : 2009); citing State of Montana Department of Public Health and Human Services, Office of Vital Statistics, Helena. 
Waldo, Fred Loren (I203)
27 (Research):Infant Mitchell, Frederick (I958)
28 (Research):RESEARCH_NOTES: "Rosa's tombstone shows she was born in 1864 which I also dispute. According to her marriage license, the 1880 and 1900 census, she was born in 1860, so I well use that date. Her last name on the marriage license and the 1880 census was spelled Schniter. The 1880 census also shows Rosa's mothers name as Regina, but Rosa's marriage license says Rachel as do family members. Her last name of Rothenberger was given to me by family members, and Rosa's marriage license showed Lokenbargh. The 1900 census said that Rosa immigrated to the US 1860. When Philipp and Rosa married, he was a blacksmith at Watkins, places them in Pleasant Valley Twp, NE." The Bausch Family, Beginning with Philipp Bausch by Charlene M. Hansen, 1997 Library of Congress # 97-61964

FamilySearch - 23 Sept 2018 Sources -16 records

Marriage Records
Philip Bausch, "Marriage Record E, Benton County" page 175 (image 214)
Rosy Schniter, "Marriage Record E, Benton County" page 175 (image 214)
Rosey Schneter, "Marriage License Register " "S" page 205 (Image 99)
Philip Bausch "Marriage License Register" "B" page 124 (Image 64)"
Rosey Schmites, "Register of Marriages, No. 1, Benton County,Iowa" page 206 (Image 86)

Death Records
Rosa Sophia Schneider Bausch, "Find A Grave Index"

Census Records
~Rosea Shnider in household of George Shnider, "United States Census, 1870"
~Rosa S Schneider in household of Regina Schneider, "United States Census, 1880"
1885 Dakota Territorial Census -Household of Phillip Bausch
~Rosa S Bausch in household of Phillip E Bausch Sr., "United States Census, 1900"
Rosa S Bausch in household of Philip D Bausch, "United States Census, 1910"
Rosa Bausch in household of Phillip Bausch Jr., "United States Census, 1920"
Rose Bausch, "United States Census, 1930"
Rosie Bouch, "United States Census, 1940"

Children's Record
Schneide in entry for Forrest Bausch, "California Death Index, 1940-1997"
Rose Schneider in entry for Edward Bausch, "South Dakota, Department of Health, Index to Births 1843-1914 and Marriages 1950-2016" 
Schneider, Rosa Sophia (I383)
29 (Research):Will 3 Sep 1685 Spencer, Gerard (I875)
30 1 Sep 1788 Johann Friderich See son of Johann Wilhelm See of Wolckranshausen Christina Maria Sattler daughter of deceased Georg Satter
1. Research summary on the Hartwich family by Rose Green, a Stoker/Roemer descendant and excellent German researcher. Rose provided the following by email 26 Apr 2015:
"I read original German records. My husband is a German professor and we lived in Germany for a number of years, so I learned German. When I was working on the Roemers, I ran into a guy who was born in Birkenau. He isn't blood related to us, but a number of his family members married a number of ours, so we had common interests. He picked up a number of historical booklets for me from the city that had articles about our family in them. Yes, I could get the bare bones out of the church records, but it was so interesting to read about these people. Apparently Johannes Roemer was a tanner and also owned a mill (which is still there). He was quite well respected (a ton of people came to his funeral) and he had the mixed-religion marriage. When issues came up later in town with mixed-religion marriages, he was sort of held up as a standard of, well, he managed to do it, so it must be possible.
Schooling was compulsory from 1705(?). Joh. Michael Roemer who came to America was quite literate -- his signature on his will is in lovely perfect German script.
Joh. Michael Roemer and his wife Charlotta Amalia Hartwich were apparently the first people from Birkenau to emigrate to America.
Charlotta Amalia comes from a really interesting family. The earliest record we can find of her dad, Georg/Jurgen Andreas Hartwig/Hartwich, is that he was a lieutenant in Wolfenbüttel (then part of the country of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel) in 1701. In 1703, Georg hired on as a Rittmeister [Cavalry Captain] for Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf, which was then part of Denmark, to command a regiment in this War of Spanish Succession. (It had something to do with Hapsburgs and was fought all across modern Germany.) He served until 1715, and then moved down to the Odenwald in southern Hessen, first to Michelstadt, then Reichelsheim, and finally Birkenau. In Reichelsheim, he was asked to move because he was training soldiers at a barracks and was apparently too violent with them.
His wife, Dorothea Sophia Schumacher -- I had someone search a series of printed marriage registers for northern Germany for me once, and they did not find a marriage for these people. I have read about a couple of Schumacher families that was sort of middle class in Schleswig-Holstein (i.e. a similar class that Georg was part of -- commissioned army officer, owning land, getting an education), but Schumacher is an awfully unspecial name ... I would really love to nail these people down and find out where they ultimately came from.
With a lack of personal records on him, I turned to the people he knew and where they came from, which is how I traced him to northern Germany. One such person is the Graf (Count) von Erbach. He was a student at the Ritterakademie (Knight's Academy) in Wolfenbüttel at the same time Georg was in town, and he was also I think in the cavalry in this same war. I think he's the one who got the Hartwigs [aka Hartwichs] down to Hessen after the war. His wife, the countess Charlotta Amalia von Erbach, was the godmother of Charlotta Amalia Hartwich (who married Johann Michael Roemer).
The other interesting northern connection is a professor by the name of Johann Justus Bode. He was from Bodenburg (again, up in the Wolfenbüttel area), the inventor of a traveller's sundial and a math and religion professor in Coburg, which is quite far away in today's Thuringen north of Nurnberg. He was the godfather for Charlotta's next older brother, Johann Justus. He didn't show up for the christening, but had a proxy stand in his stead. Why did these people know each other? I don't know.
When Georg came to Birkenau, he bought the Carlebach mill, which is also still standing. It had formerly belonged to the von Bonn family (Lords of Birkenau), but the Lord died and his sisters ended up with it, and they decided to sell it. The new Lord, by the way, was not Lutheran but Catholic, which apparently caused instant friction with the Lutheran Georg Hartwich. (That, or Hartwich's er..."friendly" personality.) (Remember, this was not horribly long after the 30 Year's War--a war between Catholic Hapsburgs and northern Lutherans, devastated the area.) Georg Hartwich started selling I think alcohol without a permit, or else was fishing without a permit, or something -- essentially, he was baiting the lord, who tried to fine him. Georg's oldest son, Georg Ernst Andreas, went to complain, and got to spend a night in jail to cool his heels over it. Things escalated until all the Hartwichs holed up in a mill in an armed standoff. Charlotta was nine. Things did eventually cool down, but let's just say the Hartwigs were not quiet, unassuming people. When Georg died, his funeral text was the hymn "Auf Christenmensch, auf auf zum Streif" (something about, good Christian men, to the fight! to the fight!). Appropriate, I think.
We have no record of the births of the other children, but judging from marriage records, they must have been born during this war. Here is who I've found:
1. Georg Ernst Andreas, b. about 1700? When living in Reichelsheim, he produced an illegitimate child, Johann Peter, with Anna Elisabetha Friedrich of Brensbach. They did not marry, and the child died at age 5. Georg Ernst suffered from depression ("melancholie") and actually shot himself inside the mill. The entry is quite sad; it explains that they knew he had had deep bouts of depression, but that lately he'd been doing better. It also said he was a law student, but I have not found his matriculation records. My husband says that university matriculation records often have gaps, though, and it's quite possible to be true, even if they didn't write him down. In any case, it was believable to the people at the time that he would be in college.
2. Nicholas Adolph married Maria Sophia Hedwich Mettenius in 1739. She was a widow from Rimbach. I found a couple of children for them.
3. Johanna Friderica married Johann Ernst von Hitzacker in 1730, had a child in 1732, and died in 1735. The von Hitzackers were from up north, and they were a lesser branch of the Welf dynasty that ruled Braunschweig-Wolfenbuttel. They were a big military family, with holdings in Ascherode and Luneburg. Their child's christening record reads: "The 22nd of October was born and the 24th baptized the son of well-born Mr. Johann Ernst von Hitzacker, royal Prussian officer, and his wife, Mrs. Johanna Friderica. The son, named Andreas Christoph Wilhelm Otto, was lifted from the holy baptism by [the father's] father-in-law, [cavalry] Captain Georg Andreas Hartwig, as well as Mr. Christoph von Hitzacker, royal Prussian Hauptmann (a military title of some kind of leader) in the Litauisch regiment and heir of Ascherode, and also by Mr. Otto von Hitzacker, heir and Lehnsherr of Lüneburg." Unfortunately, this family has since died out; I've been trying to pursue them and find out what their connection to the Hartwigs might be. And to find out whatever happened to husband and son after Johanna died.
4. There's a Peter Hartwich living in Birkenau in 1741. Hartwich is a northern name and I haven't found anything more about him other than I think paying taxes that year. Is he a relative? Possibly/probably. In 1741, Peter Hartwig contributed money to build a new gallows in Birkenau. (Source: Einwohnerlisten der Zent Birkenau 1439-1841, by Rudolf Kunz and Karl-Ludwig Schmitt, published in 1988) This is the only mention of this person I can find. There are no other Hartwigs in the area, so I assume he is part of our family.
5. Conrad Friedrich married Maria Cordula Walter in 1735 and had children. She was Catholic.
6. Franz Christian married a Maria Magdalena. I don't have a marriage date, but they had a child in 1742.
7. Anton Joachim. Anton's death record lists his age as 62 at time of death; however, this seems to be an estimate, since most entries give the age to the day. Since he was not from the area originally, it would be understandable that his age be only approximated. According to this estimate his birth would have occurred in 1710. He was confirmed in 1727 in Reichelsheim. Lutheran confirmations tend to occur between 12 and 14 years of age, which would move his birth year up to 1713-15, at the end of his father's military service, and in any case, probably predating the family's move to the Odenwald. Anton was a tanner's apprentice, according to his marriage record, but he also ran the family mill (Carlebachmuehle, today Firma Frank on Weinheimerstr. 6). This mill he ran until December 1742 (1200 Jahre Birkenau, p. 241). He also was in charge of the Donels or Nikolai-Muehle (mill) on Lindenstr. 3 jointly with Hans Michael Nikolai (1762 -- see p. 244 of 1200 Jahre Birkenau). Anton also shows up in historical archives because he tried to convince the pastor's daughter to elope with him when she was only 16. The pastor took out a restraining order on him. Later, he married Eva Katharina Romer, the sister of Joh. Michael Roemer. Their kids' christening records play hopscotch in the Catholic-Lutheran records, but Anton actually grew up to be quite respectable. He became a Lutheran church elder. Later, there was a case of a teenage girl whose family was Lutheran and she wanted to be Catholic, or Catholic and she wanted to be Lutheran. At any rate, she actually tried to run away so she wouldn't be forced into the religion not of her choice. Anton intervened, calmed everyone down, pointed out that his father-in-law Johannes Roemer managed to deal with the whole two-religions-under-one-roof thing just fine, and that the girl should be free to follow her own conscience. Anton had a hairy start to life, but it sounds like he grew up to be a wise and respected kind of guy.
8. Johann Justus, b. 16 Oct 1717 in Michelstadt: "On the 16th of October (1717) a little son was born to Georg Andreas Hartwig, cavalry captain, and his beloved wife Dorothea Sophia, born Shumacherin, and the ____ ____ (a date, unreadable) was Johann Justus baptized. The godfather was Mr. Johann Justus Boden, a theology professor in Coburg. In his place stood Mr. Buttner, former chamberlain in Fuerstenau." He d. there 2 Aug 1720: "The 2 day of August (1720), Johann Augustus, age 2 years and 9 months, little son of Mr. Georg Andreas Hartwig, cavalry captain, and his beloved Dorothea Sophia, was buried in the still of the morning at 5 o'clock."
9. Charlotta Amalia (and BTW there is no Maria in her name in any document except for Familysearch): "Steinbach (an area in Michelstadt), 1720: On the first day of July, a little daughter was born to Mr. Georg Andreas Hartwig, cavalry captain, and his beloved [wife] Sophia, nee Shumacher, and on the 5th Charlotta Amalia was baptized. The godmother was Lady Countess Charlotta Amalia, noble wife of Count Philip Carl in Fuerstenau."
Anyway, they were all very interesting people -- and a little notorious sometimes too. I keep coming back to take a stab at the Hartwigs. There were a ton of Hartwig families paying taxes in a printed record in 1678, but I don't know if Georg was attached to any of them. Part of the problem is simply access to the records. I'm sure that if I was in Wolfenbuttel, I could go to the archive and spend a year searching, and find him ... much of the information in these articles about the Hartwich family antics came from the Archiv des Freiherrn Wambolt von Umstadt, apparently..."

2. From Rose Green's contribution to Family Search in the entry for George Andreas Hartwich accessed 18 May 2015:
"The following is a collection of what we know and hypothesize about Georg Andreas Hartwich. At present, the holdings we need from the Staatsarchiv Wolfenbüttel are not online or available through the Family History Library on microfilm; more research should be done, but it might have to be done in person in Wolfenbüttel.
Firstly, Hartwich and Hartwig are alternate spellings for the same pronunciation in German. And Georg = Jürgen.
Thus far, we have not located Georg's birth information. We sure know a lot about his life, though! If you go by his death record, he was born in 1666 (never take death records as gospel truth -- the subject in question isn't around to correct you). I'm fairly positive he was from the Kingdom of Braunschweig/Wolfenbuettel. I found a book of tax records from 1679 as well as a list of funeral records from Wolfenbuettel where there were many Hartwig families of appropriate class. He shows up in the military as a lieutenant in 1702 in Wolfenbuettel and while I can't find any record of him being a student there, his daughter Charlotta's (our ancestor) godmother was the wife of a Count (the Graf von Erbach) who did attend school at the Ritterakademie (knight's or maybe just cavalry academy) in Wolfenbuettel at that time. He hired out to Schleswig-Holstein (these are all parts of modern Germany but were their own countries back then) as a Rittmeister, or cavalry captain, around 1703 when the War of Spanish Succession was going on. Occasionally you see him referred to as a "von Hartwig" in a few articles on the military campaign, but I don't think he really was. However, he was an officer, which means that someone in his family must have had a little money. You don't work up through the ranks for that. I haven't looked lately, but at the time I was researching, the church records for Wolfenbuettel weren't available without going to the physical archive in town, but perhaps someday they'll be digitized. Who knows! I think really, the way to find him is to read every page in the church book until he shows up. But it's handwritten, unindexed, and in German. So, time consuming. (Plus the access issue.)
He got out of the military in 1715. He had married by then, and we know his wife's name was Dorothea Sophia Schumacher (or Schumacherin, to use the archaic formation for female name endings). However, their marriage doesn't show up in any printed marriage lists, and I checked all the ones I could find. She was born about 1682, according to her death records. I found eight, maybe nine children for them, but only birth records for the last two. Anyway, they moved to Michelstadt in the present-day state of Hesse, presumably because the local count (the Graf Philip Karl von Erbach) was someone he knew from his Wolfenbuettel days. He was retired, but he still worked training the soldiers or something. Two of his children were born in Michelstadt -- Charlotta Amalia, on 1 July 1720 in Steinbach, a part of Michelstadt. Her godmother was the Graf's wife, the Countess Charlotta Amalia), and Johann Justus, b. 16 Oct 1717 in Steinbach and d. 2 Aug 1720 there. The godfather was, interestingly, a man named Johann Justus Bode, who was a theology professor in Coburg (which is not really near any of those other places), and a Mr. Buettner, a former chamberlin in Fuerstenau (i.e. the part of Michelstadt where the count lived) stood in for him. Johann Justus Bode was also from Wolfenbuettel, however... (You see how all signs point back there?)
Georg Andreas Hartwich ended up moving somewhat out of town to Reichelsheim, but apparently he had a bit of a temper, and was finally asked to quit his military training job because he was "too violent to the soldiers." Ouch. His oldest son, Georg Ernst Andreas, apparently produced a child in nearby Niederkainsbach with someone's maid, though (Anna Elisabetha Friedrich; child Johann Peter, b. 16 May 1726, d. 28 Apr 1731 of smallpox).
Then the family moved to Birkenau, a little west of Michelstadt. The old count there had died and his sisters did not inherit his ruling power, but they did end up with some land that they wanted to get rid of. So they sold a mill over on the Weschnitz River to our friend Hartwich. A distant relative of the deceased count showed up to take over, and he was Catholic (the Hartwichs were Lutheran, and this was not terribly long after the Catholic-Lutheran 30 Years' War that killed 90% of the population in Birkenau, so you can imagine that prejudices may have been strong). The new count and the Rittmeister did not get along, you might say -- Georg Hartwich liked to do things like fish in the pond and serve alcohol without proper papers, and the count sent the law after him. Oldest son Georg Ernst spent a night in jail for protesting the treatment his father got, and at one point the whole Hartwich family holed up inside their mill and had a sort of armed standoff.
Georg Andreas Hartwich died in Birkenau 13 Jun 1734. This is his death record: "(1734), entry #408. On the 13th of June died Mr. Georg Andreas Hartwig, cavalry captain, and on the 5th, being the third day of Pentecost, at a crowded meeting and funeral sermon he was buried. His age: 68 years, a few months. The text was I ___ him ___ ___ (illegible) the 3rd and 4th verses from the song Auf Christenmensch auf auf zum Streit. (The name of the song is something like, Christian people--to the fight! to the fight! which seems rather appropriate...)
Sources I found regarding Georg:
1701 Lieutenant in Wolfenbuettel, according to a letter from the Niedersaechsischen Staatsarchiv in Wolfenbuettel, 17 June 2002. They found it in the "Index des Bestandes 3 Alt (Bestallungen)" under number 670 and 684. (That would be your call number for the document that mentions him.)
1703-1712 A letter from the Landesarchiv von Schleswig-Holstein in Schleswig, dated 21 March 2002 said this: "Juergen (Georg) Andreas Hartwig ist in den Jahren 1703 bis 1712 als Rittmeister und Kompaniechef des sog. 'Reichskontingents' merhfach nachzuweisen; des 'Regiments zu Pferde' des Herzogs von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf, das als 'Reichshilfe' am Spanischen Erbfolgekrieg teil nahm." (Jurgen/Georg Andreas Hartwig can be documented many times as cavalry captain and company head of the so-called Reichskontingent/national contingent? -- the horse regiment of the Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottof that took part in the War of Spanish Succession.)
1717-1720 lived in Steinbach, Michelstadt, Hesse (as mentioned in the Lutheran church records of Michelstadt)
1720?-1728 Lived in Reichelsheim, Hesse (mentioned in the Freiherrlich Wamboltisches Archiv, Bestand 191/7)
1728 bought the Carlebachmuehle (Carlebach Mill) in Birkenau, Hesse. In the sale he's called "der holsteinische Rittmeister Georg Andreas Hartwich" (the Holstein Cavalry Captain Georg Andreas Hartwich). Mentioned in the book 1200 Jahre Birkenau, published 1994 by Verlag Bitsch in Birkenau.
Died in Birkenau in 1740, age about 58 years (source: Birkenau Lutheran church records)
A book called Die Kopfsteuerbeschreibung des Fuerstentums Braunschweig-Wolfenbuettel von 1678, by Heinrich Medefind, published by Verlag Hahnsche Buchhandlung Hannover, 2000, mentions Hartwig families on the tax rolls in the following areas around Wolfenbuettel:
Uefingen, Vogtei Leiferde, Gericht Beddingen: Verwalter Heinrich Hartewieg, farmer; wife, sister, servant, 2 field hands, a boy, an overseer, and 2 girls (maids)
Wenzen, Amt Greene: the widow of Claus Hartwieg (a second-rate overseer), son, 2 sons (boys), daughter
Stadt Helmstedt, Ostviertel: Hanss Hartwig's widow, sister, daughter
Grasleben, Kloster Mariental: (farmers) Christian Hartwig, wife, 3 sons, daughter
Gut Allrode, Grafschaft Blankenburg (Adlige und Schriftsassen; Hausleute zum Gute gehoerig/people belonging to the estate; it's unclear whether these are the nobles or the servants): Andreas Hartwig and wife
Faktorei Tanne, Kloster Michaelstein, Grafschaft Blankenburg: Andreas Hartwig, wife, smith's servant, boy
Braunlage, Amt Blankenburg (house servants): Zachariass Hartwig, carpenter, wife, daughter, mother-in-law
The really good article that discusses Georg's regiment in detail is called "Schleswig-holsteiner unter gottorfischer Fahne im spanischem Erbfolgekrieg," by Christian Kock, published in the Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fuer Schleswig-holsteinische Geschichte, 64. Band (64th volume), Karl Wachholz Verlag, Neumuenster in Holstein, 1936, pp. 161-200.). It's all in German, naturally, and in the horrible Fraktur typeface. The gist of it as it refers to our man Hartwig is this:
7 Sept 1701 -- England, Holland, and Austria form an alliance. Denmark decides to support them. (Schleswig was part of Denmark at the time.) Gottorf initially wasn't a fan of the war but changed their minds. Their leader fell in battle in Klissow in 1702 and the new leadership decided to support these other armies by sending 4 regiments: 2 cavalry and 2 infantry. 30 Sept 1702 -- they declare war against France.
The cavalry regiment of Hinrich von der Osten had 6 companies that were sent as the Reichskontingent, each numbering 50 men:
1. Leibkompagnie, led by Capt. lieut. von Pederstorff
2. Oberstleutnant von Baehr's company
3. Major Nicolaus Elver's company
4. Rittmeister von Alpenbourg's company
5. Rittmeister von der Luehe's company (including 36 riders from Luebeck)
6. Rittmeister Hartwig's company. (Officers: Rittmeister Juergen/Georg Andreas Harwig, Lieutenant Rotjer Hatthiessen, Kornett Martin Pribbert Normann, who fell at Hoechstedt on 13 Aug 1704)
They crossed the Elbe River near Artlenburg on the way to Frankfurt am Main. Joined the army of Markgraf Ludwig von Baden at Oberrhein, and joined with dragoons of Braunschweig-Lueneburg, with whom they had fought alongside in the past. Marched to the front on 12 July 1703.
Von Osten didn't want to fight for the Kaiser so he was replaced by Major Nicolaus Elver. Not much action in 1703 -- only some sick horses. At the end of November they went into winter quarters. However, Gottorf got sent to help out the war in Amberg (in today's Bavaria) on 23 December 1703. They had to winter in the Bayrische Pfalz and it wasn't very nice -- there weren't many comfortable places for the army. At this time, according to the Staatsarchiv Kiel A. XX Nr. 1441, the company of Hartwig consisted of the following:
present: 36
send on missions elsewhere: --
dead: --
deserted: 22
captured: 2
taken on: --
missing: 18
present: 32
in bad shape: 2
deserted: 5
captured: 4
dead: 5
missing: 16
16 Feb 1704 Major Elver wrote from Nurnberg
6 Mar 1704 Elver wrote from the Stabsquartier in Stadel then in Amberg
22 Mar 1704 from the Stabsquartier Rentzlingen (Rensling). The regiment quartered around Kuntzenhausen, near Weissenburg, in Mittelfranken (in today's Bavaria)
May 1704 -- off to battle again. Elver became Obristleutnant in Feb 1704
13 Aug 1704 battle at Hoechstaedt--allies defeat French. Alpenbourg died and Hartwig took over his company. Hartwig's own company was decimated in battle in 1703 (see the Gottorfisches Geheimes Conseil-Archiv, 5. Cammer, Nr. 320, in the Reichsarchiv Kopenhagen).
17 Sep 1704 in Landau
2 Jan 1705 report from Elver assessed Harwig's company as follows:
present: 43
fallen: 5
wounded: 7
captured: 2
deserted: --
died of illness: --
total decrease: 7
horses dead of disease: 10
15 Jan-4 Mar 1705 in Amt Zweibruecken, and in the villages of Neuschweiler, Hischberg, and Saalstatt. Then to Amt Wied, Oberhausen and Schmittshausen. Then to Vogelbach, Muehlbach, Lambsburg, Reissenberg, Kanshafen, and Niederenbach.
3 March to Worms (Sachsen Eisenach). They had no more money to sustain themselves. They moved into town and all got "Fleckfieber" (smallpox? Some kind of feverish pox?) The horses went to Fourage. The foot soldiers tried going to Aschaffenburg but returned as it wasn't much better.
1706 They owed the city of Worms 1453 Reichstaler and 16 Schillings for feeding horses, and in the spring they decided to go home.
2 Jun 1705 camped by Ober-Biel (Buehl) near Stollenhofer line.
14 Jun 1705 2 weeks at quarter by Zweibruecken.
July 1705 Lauterburg and Crohn-Weissenburg (Alsace), defending the fortress of Landau
17 July Fort Louis von Strassburg
26 July Hugelsheim
18 Sept made camp at Drusenheim, SW of Hagenau in the Oberpfalz
6 Oct Hagenau falls to the Allies (our side)
October -- some were told to winter in the county (Grafschaft) of Leiningen because there wasn't room for them all in Worms. The rest went to Worms.
19 Nov still in Hagenau
1705 assessment of Hartwig's company/squadron:
dead: 2
caught: --
deserted: 5
missing: --
total: 7
dead: 5
sick: --
captured: --
deserted: 4
retired from service: 18
total: 27
12 Feb 1706 near Zollenspieler over the Elbe River and into Amt Bergedorf. Hartwig's company went to Kurslack. Then to Eckernfoerde. They didn't like it.
25 Mar 1706 went to Husum
24 Feb 1707 started out again
15 Mar 1708 Elver got out and was replaced by Goertz. Meanwhile, von Osten is still paying for all of this, even though he's not leading.
30 May went over the Elbe River into Lueneburger land and stayed 6 days
5 June Hildesheim, 4 days
9 Jun Wolfenbuettel, 1 day
10 Jun Eichsfeld, 3 days
13 Jun Muehlhausen and in the Vogtei, 2 days
15 Jun Eisenach, 2 days
17 Jun Fulda and Hanau, 8 days
25 Jun Darmstadt, 3 days
28 Jun Maiinz and Pfalz
1 July camp in Linckenheim, norht of Karlsruhe, Baden
3 Aug 1708 Muehlberg, Baden (by Karlsruhe)
1 Sept Elberg
Apr 1709 Detenheim, Meierhof am Rhein
May 1709 Headquartered in Ettlingen (Schwarzwald)
Aug Weissenburger line in Elsass
Nov 1709 Grafschaft (county) Erbach, Amt Breuberg
Oct 1709 Muehlheim
Spring 1710 Philippsburg, Mainz, Caub
Winter 1710-11 Heilbronn, Wimpfen, Neuenstadt, Weinsberg, Apfatersbach
1711-12 Philippsburg and Dobel. Aslo Rintsheim, Friedrichstal, Graben, Rheindoerfer Rutzheim, Brandenheim, Liedolsheim, and Hochstetten
1712-13 winter in Weinsberger Tal (valley) -- Neuenstadt and Moeckmuehl
The soldiers' wives usually stayed behind if the soldiers were already married. 1 in 8 soldiers were married. The kids and wives who came made for slow progress.
As you can see, the article is pretty detailed. And he was everywhere!
I know there have to be records on Georg Andreas Hartwich. I just haven't found them yet. Most of the things I did find were by tracing all his friends and associates -- where did he know the Graf von Erbach from? What about this Dr. Bode in Coburg? That's how I found the military records in Wolfenbuettel. But I don't know anything before 1702. I wish I could find something on his wife, but she could be from "anywhere" -- it's a very common surname (it's just Shoemaker!) and he was all over modern Germany while in the military. Hopefully this will give someone some clues to pursue, however."

3. Rose Green per email of 18 May 2015. Reference is made in other notes to the Carlebachmuele. The following is addtional information:
"The Carlebach mill is not the same as the mill the Roemers owned. That was the Donels or Nikolai Mill. The tanner Johannes Roemer acquired it in 1706 with the intent to put a Lohmuhle on it (and I have no idea what that is -- but I think it has something to do with mills and tanning. Not knowing anything about either one, I can read definitions of it, but I still don't really know what it is. The wiki article in German says it does something with bits of wood. Maybe some kind of sawmill, but what does that have to do with tanning? Plus, they still had to pay 1.5 bushels of grain in tax on it every year.) The Roemers kept it until 1740, and after that, it was run by our friend Anton Hartwich and Hans Michael Nikolai (not such a stretch, since Anton married into the Roemers). In 1791 the mill went to the Kadel family due to a marriage.
In modern times it was owned by "Firma Frank" (the Frank company). It sits at the bottom of a very steep ravine, sort of on the main road, on the dividing line between Birkenau and Weinheim. There was no place to pull off to take a picture, though. But maybe it's visible on google street view? Both mills were there in 2002.
As of this date, the following is a weblink to the mill

4. Rose Green provided me on 18 Jul 2015 the following research paper for the use of hiring a professional researcher to review records at Wolfenbuettel. On 20 Aug 2015, I hired Marion Wolfert; 2541 Campus, 7136 South; SLC. Phone 801 943-8891 awaiting her research). The research report:
"Georg Andreas Hartwig, Rittmeister Born about 1666, according to death record (13 June 1734, Birkenau, Hessen, age "68 Jahr weniger Monat")
1701—Shows up in the Niedersächsisches Staatsarchiv, Forstweg 2, 38302 Wolfenbüttel: "Auch im Index des Bestandes 3 Alt (Bestallungen) wird unter Nrn. 670 und 684 ein Leutnant Georg Andreas Hartwig (1701) erwähnt" I think he made lieutenant on 21 June 1701. I have seen *some* records from this collection and mostly they just mention him by name, but without biographical data. There may be more, but I was dependent on someone else making copies at the time.
1703-1712—serving in the War of Spanish Succession in the cavalry of the Herzog of Holstein- Gottorf as "Rittmeister und Kompaniechef des sogennanten ‘Reichskontingents' mehrfach nachzuweisen; des ‘Regiments zu Pferde' des Herzogs von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf, das als ‘Reichshilfe' am Spanischen Erbfolgekrieg teilnahm." The Landesarchiv of Schleswig-Holstein in Schleswig did not have any other biographical information on him. Son Anton was born about 1710, according to his death record, so this would be during his service as a Rittmeister.
1717-1720—living in Michelstadt, Hessen (two children christened in Steinbach, today a Stadtteil of Michelstadt)
1720-1728—According to reports in the Wambolt archives in Birkenau, he lived in several different houses in Reichelsheim, Hessen, but they don't show up in the Kirchenbücher (no children being born or dying). He was finally asked to leave by the Ortsherr because of his violent nature (wanted to introduce beatings to the soldiers). The military records from Reichelsheim were moved to Darmstadt and bombed in WWII.
1728—purchased the Carlebachmühle on Weinheimerstr (#6) in Birkenau from the sisters of the late Ortsherr von Bonn. Which started any number of problems with the new Ortsherr, Wambolt von Umstadt (Wambolt thought he should get it, and the sale was done without his knowledge). In 1729 there was an armed standoff in the mill between Hartwig and the mill people on one side, and Wambolt's people on the other. The Hartwigs did not come off conquerors (they kept the mill but had fines and the oldest son, Georg Ernst Andreas, got to spend a night in jail to cool his temper).
Married Dorothea Sophia born Schumacherin, who was born around 1682 (died in Birkenau 28 Jan 1740, aged "ohngefuehr 58 Jahre.") I searched some of the printed marriage records for northern Germany and did not find their marriage.
Known children:
1. Georg Ernst Andreas. B. about 1700. Produced an illegitimate child in Nieder-Kainsbach (source: Kirchenbuch Brensbach) 16 May 1726 with Anna Elisabetha Friedrich. Georg was specifically named as the son of the Rittmeister Georg Andreas Hartwig. In 1728 he spent a night in jail in Birkenau after he went to protest the fine his father was supposed to pay over irregularities in the mill purchase. Possibly the oldest. On 29 April 1740, after a period of deep "melancholie," he shot himself in the Carlebachmühle. The church entry was rather understanding, saying he'd been doing better but then had a strong attack of depression. It also said that he was a law student at the time. I have checked all of the printed university matriculation records I could find, but did not find him mentioned.
2. Johanna Friderica, born about 22 Jan 1704 (reckoned from death date). Married Johann Ernst von Hitzacker, a royal Prussian military officer, at the Carlebachmühle in Birkenau on 24 Sept 1730. Had one child, Andreas Christoph Wilhelm Otto von Hitzacker, born 20 Oct 1732 in Birkenau (from FHC film 1340344, Evangelische Kirche Birkenau): "Den 22 Oktobr. ist gebohren u. den 24ten getaufft worden, des wohlgebohrenen hln. Johann Ernst von Hitzacker, königl. preußischen Officiers, u. seiner Gemahlin Fr. Johanne Friderica. Sohn Nahmens Andreas Christoph Wilhelm Otto, welcher aus der hl. Tauffe gehoben, sein hl. Schweigervatter der hl. Rittmeister Georg Andreas Hartwig, so wohl von sich also auch von Hn. Christoph v. Hitzacker, auff Ascherode Erb. Hn. Kön. Preuß. Hauptmann unter dem Litauischen Regiments, und den, von Hn. Otto von Hitzacker, Erb. U. Lehns Hn. zu Lüneburg." Johanna died 27 Jan 1735 in Birkenau. Nothing is know about what happened to either her husband or son.
3. Peter. This is a maybe. On a list of people raising money in 1741 to build a new gallows in Birkenau, his name shows up. He could also be a grandson. The name Hartwig otherwise ONLY shows up in the Birkenau area in connection with this family.
4. Conrad Friedrich. Married Maria Cordula Walterin 21 Feb 1735 in Birkenau.
5. Anton Joachim. Born about 1710, according to death record. Was an apprentice tanner. Tried to elope with the 16 YO daughter of the pastor, who put a restraining order against him when he found out. (Anton would have been 26). A few months later (18 Jul 1736), he married Eva Katharina Römer in Birkenau. Later became a rather respected church elder. Died in Birkenau 23 Feb 1772.
6. Nicolaus Adolph, miller on the Weschnitz River. Married widow Maria Sophia Hedwich Mettenius (first husband: Johann Philipp Schrump) in Birkenau 24 Sep 1739
7. Johann Justus was born in Steinbach, Michelstadt, Hessen. "On the 16th of October (1717) a little son was born to Georg Andreas Hartwig, cavalry captain, and his beloved wife Dorothea Sophia, born Schumacherin, and [date, unreadable] was Johann Justus baptized. The godfather was Mr. Johann Justus Bode, a theology professor in Coburg. Standing in for him as proxy was Mr. Buttner, former chamberlain in Fürstenau." (Michelstadt church records) Bode was born in Bodenburg, near Wolfenbüttel. Little Johann Justus was buried in the still of the morning of 2 August 1720 in Steinbach, Michelstadt, Hessen.
8. Charlotta Amalia was also born in Steinbach, Michelstadt, Hessen. "On the first day of July [1720], a little daughter was born to Mr. Georg Andreas Hartwig, cavalry captain, and his beloved [wife] Sophia, nee Schumacher, and on the 5th Charlotta Amalia was baptized. The godmother was Countess (Grafin) Charlotta Amalia, noble wife of Graf Philip Carl in Fürstenau." She was confirmed around 1732 in Birkenau. The Graf went to school at the Ritterakademie in Wolfenbüttel and was there in 1701. I think he was also in the cavalry in the War of Spanish Succession. Charlotta Amalia married Johann Michael Römer in Birkenau on 18 July 1736, and they were the first couple to leave Birkenau for America, in 1738. Died in Frederick, Frederick, Maryland on 8 Feb 1779.
Georg Andreas Hartwig died 13 June 1734 in Birkenau. His death record reads as follows (Birkenau Kirchenbuch 2, p. 190): "(1734), entry #408. On the 13th day of June died Mr. Georg Andreas Hartwig, Rittmeister, and on the 5th, being the third day of Pentecost, after a crowded meeting at the funeral sermon he was buried. His age: 68 years, a few months. The text was I (word illegible) him (word illegible) the 3rd and 4th verses from the hymn ‘Auf Christenmensch auf auf zum Streit.'"
Dorothea Sophia Schumacherin died 28 January 1740 in Birkenau: "On the 28th of January the widow of the Rittmeister Mr. Hartwich, who lived at the mill in this place and who died in 1734, died, age about 58 years, and was buried on the 31st of the same month following a funeral sermon. The sermon text was Ecclesiastes 3:21. She was named Dorothea Sophia nee Schumacher."
He was a commissioned army officer.
His son was a university student (or at least, people believed he was).
His daughter married another commissioned officer, who happened to be a member of a lesser branch of the house of Welf (the von Hitzackers).
Another daughter had the Grafin as her godmother.
Another son had a professor as his godfather, even though the man was not there in person at the baptism, and lived very far away (Coburg).
He bought a mill from the sisters of the former Ortsherr.
This man has to be mentioned somewhere!"

5. September 2015, I hired the professional genealogist Marion Wolfert to research Georg Andreas Hartwich in person during her recent visit to Germany. I hired her for research at Wolfenbuettel and Braunschweig. In Braunschweig she met in person with two key archivists to identify record sets that could work. The archive is the one with the two lions in the front and may also be called locally the city archive. The archivists checked their inventory lists and they assured her there was nothing that could be found in their archive in regards to our quest. It was thought that there may be military records there that could help and its search was secondary to the Wolfenbuettel search.
Not much better results at Wolfenbuettel. The strategy was to look at the emigration records to try to identify a local pattern of Hartwigs from that area to perhaps help zero in further efforts. The emigration records were extracted for all Hartwigs and the report follows. At this point Marion felt there was nothing more that could productively be done in a reasonable time. (I had hired her for a full day with the option to continue if there was something that could be productive.) An exhaustive parish by parish search for Andreas may be required, but there is the chance that he may never have been there to begin with in a normal parish manner. In any regards we see some possibilities in the emigration list as shown below.
I don't know whether or not we have exhausted the possibilities of these archives, but it would probably now take a non-standard, creative, and lengthy approach in record sets most people would probably not normally consider -- I don't think such a thing could be hired out with standard genealogists.
Marion's address is:
Marion Wolfert, A.G.
2541 Campus Drive
Cottonwood Heights, UT
Marion reported:
"The State Archive in Braunschweig has no information about your ancestral Georg Andreas HARTWIG, a Rittmeister (born about 1666).
As agreed, I checked the emigration records, compiled by the archive in a book. It lists the following HARTWIG people:
1. Schoolrector HARTWIG, died 1817, He was working in Grande and Kirchrohsen (Emmerthal)
2. Otto HARTWIG, born 22 Aug 1861 in Schweinemuende
3. Andreas Otto HARTWIG, born 12 Mar 1835 in Hassel by the Weser River
4. Georg HARTWIG, born 29 Apr 1842 in Hassel close to the River Weser
5. HARTWIG born about 1844 from Dorveden
6. Samuel HARTWIG, born 1784 in Offenbach
As you can see, all of the above listed persons were born way too late and the place of origin for each one of them is from different parts in Germany. I guess, the surname HARTWIG was not isolated in a certain area, but can be found all over in Germany."

1. His death record in the Evangelische Kirche Birkenau, Kreis Heppenheim, Germany, states that he was "68 years, a few months" on 13 June 1734. Military records point to a possible birth location in Wolfenbuettel, Germany.

1. Church Death record. Birkenau Kirchenbuch 2, p. 190: (1734), entry #408.
"Den 13 Jun isst gestorben hr. Georg Andreas Hartwig Rittmeister, und darauff den 5sten als am 3ten Pfingsttage bey volkreicher Versammlung und Haltung einer Leichpredigt begraben worden. Aet: 68 Jahr weniger Monat. Text war Ich ___ ihn ___ ___ der 3te und vierte vers aus dem Liede Auff Christenmensch auff auff zum Streit."
Translation: "On the 13th of June died Mr. Georg Andreas Hartwig, cavalry captain, and on the 5th, being the third day of Pentecost, at a crowded meeting and funeral sermon he was buried. His age: 68 years, a few months. The text was I ___ him ___ ___ the 3rd and 4th verses from the song Auf Christenmensch auf auf zum Streit." 
Hartwich, Georg Andreas (I2774)
31 1. Censuses:
1810 US: No twp. listed, Laurens Co., South Carolina, series: M252, roll: 61, page: 45:
Nathaniel Ashley, 4-1-0-1-0-1-2-1-0-1-0-0

1840 US: District 355, Twiggs Co., Georgia (from 4 Feb 2005 database "hinx" of Chris Hinckley ): 2 boys under 5 1 male 20-30 1 girl under 5 1 female 20-30 1850 US: Division 84, Twiggs Co., Georgia, 4 Sep 1850 (from 4 Feb 2005 database "hinx" of Chris Hinckley ): John Ashley, 44, m, farmer, SC. Martha, 36, f, GA. Robert, 13, m, GA. Joanah, 11, f, GA. Charles, 9, m, GA. Lory, 6 f, GA. Lanan, 5, f, GA. Mary, 4, f, GA. Dealy, 3, f, GA. Nathaniel, 1, m, GA. 1860 US: Fort Gaines, Clay Co., Georgia, 14 Jun 1860 (from 4 Feb 2005 database "hinx" of Chris Hinckley ): John R. Ashley 53 m farmer, SC. Martha, 45, f, GA. Charles, 21, m farm laborer, GA. Laura, 19, f, GA. Lou Ann, 18, f, GA. Mary, 13, f, GA. Cordelia, 11, f, GA. Lott, 8, m, GA. William, 7, m, GA. 1870 US: Abbeville, Henry County, Alabama, 19 Jul 1870 (from 4 Feb 2005 database "hinx" of Chris Hinckley ): John Ashley, 67, m, farmer, SC. Martha, 56, f, GA. Laura E., 25, f, GA. Lou A., 22, f, GA. Kedelia, 19, f, GA. Lott W., 17, m, GA. William, 16, m, GA. (There is a Cezer Ashley, 25 m, and Rose Ashley, 25 f, living close by in this census.) 
Ashley, John Robert (I3681)
32 18. Family researcher Jett Hanna has spent considerable effort studying James Adair. I communicated with him in the mid-2000s as did Shawn Potter. Shawn was skeptic of James Adair the trader and author being the same as James Adair of Laurens co.; however, he always left the possibility open subject to further research. I was also of Jett's opinion until 2015 when I reviewed an advance copy of Shawn Potter and his wife Lois' new book entitled "Chickasaw Wife and Family of James Adair, Author of the History of the American Indians" (to be published sometime in the future). The book uses new historical documentation and extensive modern DNA analysis to surmise that in fact the two men are the same. Even though dated, I include the following emails for the good information they contain, but bear in mind the newer conclusion. Also at this early date we did not have available to us the new 2011 edition of James Adair's "History of the American Indians" edited by the a professor of Southern American History, which provides much new research into the life and times of James. I do not yet know Jett's opinion of either of these two new books or of Shawn's new pioneering DNA research. Some of these emails are copies of past communications between Jett and Shawn:
Email from Jett Hanna to me 9 Jul 2005:
"Long email with lots of stuff cut and pasted from old emails. Hope this makes some sense; there is much more detail that goes into it, but you can get a sense of the issues involved in trying to test whether your James was the author. Almost every statement made has a source-if you want more detail on a particular item, let me know. My bottom line analysis when I stopped working on this: I have a hard time with the author being the person who received the 1768 land grant based on the book; I have a hard time believing Adair would travel from an SC base to New York, Philadelphia, England, Cork, etc.; and the connection of John Adair, apparent ancestor of the Cherokee Adairs to your James Adair is pretty good. It has been a long time since I looked at this; this really was fun to put together. Shawn and I both caught each other on errors at times-really was a collaborative effort. Makes me revive my desire to write a biography of James Adair someday...I'll save this email to remind me of the big picture. If I get time, I'll try to figure out a way to get all the emails together - this is a fraction of the discussion that occurred. Jett
Here is a timeline I have for James Adair, beginning in 1761. It doesn't conflict with the Williams petition. Is there evidence of him in England after 1775? As you'll see, the biggest problem I have is with the February 1768 land grant timing. "Cole" is the Samuel Cole version of the book. The 1774 deed with a James Adair witness to a Creek land transaction suggests he was in America in 1774, before publication of the book (assuming it is the same James Adair - high probability given that it was an Indian matter.)
1760-1761: Adair was "on the spot with a Captain's commission from South Carolina" in the New Windsor/Augusta area. (Cole 393, 366)
1765: Adair at a congress on tariffs in Mobile (Cole 395,367)
October 18, 1765: Adair threatened by the Choctaw (Cole 310-314, 290-293)
1766: Adair listed in a Stuart report as a Chickasaw trader. . Location at time of writing not clear.
1767: Adair present at a meeting of Chickasaw traders and head men of the nation. Location is unclear, but the preceding paragraph discusses Adair delivering a remonstrance to the superintendent at Mobile. (Cole 397, 369-370) At 398 Cole, Adair compares Johnson and Craghan favorably in comparison to the southern officials (the Stuarts, who are not mentioned by name.)
January 1768. James Adair was at Fort Tombigbee (Alabama) when it was abandoned.
February 2, 1768. James Adair petitioned for a warrant of survey of 150 acres in Berkeley County on Duncan Creek.
May 1768: History of the American Indians, p. 290 Cole, p. 271 org. describes a raid of the Great Mortar on the Chickasaw. It is clear this was the western Chickasaw, because the Great Mortar (an upper Creek chief) set up camp "with in 150 miles of the Chikkasah country, which was half way from the western barriers of their own..." See regarding the Great Mortar-Adair is mentioned and cited. Adair says that "(t)his was the beginning of May, in the year 1768, a few hours after I had set off for South Carolina." He then describes the actions of four Chickasaw who chases the raiders. "In a few days after, I fell in with them ... and I had the uncourted honor of their company, three different times before I reached my destined place, on account of a very uncommon and sudden flow of rivers, without any rain." In the same narrative, Page 294 Cole, 275 original, Adair then talks about being a half day ride from Augusta. In short, we can put Adair in western Chickasaw territory in the middle of May 1768. In various places, it is clear that Adair was in the vicinity of the western Chickasaw in 1765, 1766, and 1767. I think the chances that he was in Charles Town in February 1768 and returned to South Carolina in May 1768 are slim.
Did petitions for land require a personal appearance? I suspect they did, but need to make sure. Grants were based on family size and marriage, and land speculation would have been rampant if personal appearance was not required. (I think I did find that personal appearance was required.)
Shawn's reply on 1768: If the February 2, 1768 petition could not have been submitted by a representative of James Adair, and if we have no reason to believe that James Adair was mistaken when he wrote that he left Chickasaw country for South Carolina in early May 1768, then we still need to know if it is possible - or even probable - that James Adair left Charleston shortly after February 2, 1768, spent about two and a half months among the Chickasaw, then departed for South Carolina in early May 1768. My initial impression is that such a scenario is possible. In fact, such a scenario even appears reasonable if the trader was trying to spend relatively more time in South Carolina than in the western Chickasaw Nation - which one might expect as James Adair aged.
My note on 1768: James Adair's base of operation had changed to Mobile. When the Brits took over West Florida, there was no reason for him to go to Augusta any more. He could trade much more rapidly at Mobile. Indeed, that is where he was registered. He also had problems with the SC governments in the past ... see discussion in other emails at the end.
The return from the wilderness in 1768 is the last major event James recorded in the book.
December 10, 1768. Sir William Johnson wrote a letter from Johnson Hall to General Thomas Gage, recommending James Adair.
May 10, 1769. William Johnson of Johnson Hall wrote a letter to James Adair.
August 12, 1769. Joseph Galloway wrote a letter recommending James Adair to Benjamin Franklin.
September 7, 1769. An article in the South Carolina Gazette described James Adair's book and solicited subscriptions.
October 11, 1769. An article in the Savannah Georgia Gazette described James Adair's book and solicited subscriptions. The article also cited a similar article in New York gazette dated February 27th.
June 4-8, 1772. James Adair was in Cork, Ireland, recovering his manuscript, which had been stolen in London a few weeks earlier.
June 3, 1773. 200 acres on Duncan Creek surveyed for James Adair.
March 25, 1774. Benjamin Franklin wrote a letter recommending James Adair to Charles and Edward Dilly, who would publish his book.
August 11, 1774. 200 acres on Duncan Creek (tract surveyed on June 3, 1773) granted to James Adair. A bit of an explanation about the 1774 deed surveyed in 1773. The petition in the Council Journal in 1768 is for 150 acres of land, but the grant in 1774 is for 200 acres. For this reason, I suspect that the 200 acre grant is based on another petition, and not on the 1768 petition. Could even be a petition for someone else that was transferred; the transfers are not always on record.
October 28, 1774. James Adair witnessed a deed from Creek leaders to Jonathan Bryan of Georgia for half of the Florida panhandle. He probated the deed in Granville County, South Carolina.
1775. History of the American Indians published.
January 7, 1775. Memorial for 200-acre grant (tract surveyed on June 3, 1773) signed by James and Eleanor Adair, and witnessed by James Adair, saddler (their nephew), James Adair, Jr. (their son), and James Miller.
Before October 7, 1780. James Adair signed James Williams Petition.
February 25, 1784. James and Eleanor Adair sold to John Jones, blacksmith, 150 acres adjacent southwest on John Adair, northeast on James Montgomery, and southeast on John McCreary."
Emails on James Adair's base of operation 1763-1768
Jett and all,
You are right: I have not digested some of the book yet, and we need to further examine his base(s) of operations. Thank you for your thoughts on this point.
The following citation addresses the question of whether James Adair took his pelts to Charleston, Savannah, or ... As James Adair began to trade, Augusta became the primary market for British traders in the region. The timeline shows that he occasionally went down to Charleston, but those trips in every case related to other business - not trading.
Prior to 1700 traders had reached the Indian tribes on the Mississippi; in that year they were found there by the French. McCrady says that many of the early fortunes of Charleston families were built up by the Indian trade. This is more than can be said of the traders who adventured themselves into the wilderness encompassed by manifold dangers to make possible the merchants' fortunes. Augusta followed as chief mart. "It was laid out in the beginning of the year 1736, and thrives prodigiously. It is the chief place of trade with the Indians.
There are several warehouses in it well furnished with goods for the Indian trade. There are five large boats which belong to different inhabitants of the town, and carry about nine thousand weight of deer skins, each; and last year about one hundred thousand weight of skins was brought from there. All the Indian traders from both provinces of South Carolina and Georgia, resort thither in the spring. In June, 1739, the traders, pack-horsemen, servants, townsmen, and others dependent upon that business, made about six hundred whites who live by the trade in the Indian nations. Each hunter is reckoned to get three hundred weight of deer skins in a year, which is a very advantageous trade to England, for the deer skins, beaver and other furs are chiefly paid for in woolen goods and iron." An Impartial Inquiry, London, 1741, also in Ga. Hist. Coll. I, 153 et seq."[Samuel Cole Williams, "Adair's History of the American Indians," (New York, NY: Promontory Press, 1930), p. 394]
Another comment by Williams addresses the issue of James Adair trading in Mobile:
"To the far-away Chickasaws, the trader turned to recoup his fortunes after the termination of the Cherokee War and his repulse in the matter of his second memorial. There was real need for Adair's services on the part of the gallant people. The French were attempting to make a breach between them and the Choctaws. They were "in great want of ammunition" and goods. [Footnote: South Carolina Gazette, August 9, 1760] Adair chose Mobile as mart for his peltry, after the surrender of the country by the French under the peace treaty of 1763."[Samuel Cole Williams, "Adair's History of the American Indians," (New York, NY: Promontory Press, 1930), p. xvii]
Before France ceded the port and river of Mobile to Britain at the Treaty of Paris on February 10, 1763, British traders risked their lives operating in the west - as described by James Adair in vivid detail. So, British traders would not trade in Mobile before 1763. Whether James Adair changed his trade route after the Treaty of Paris to capitalize on this newly available shorter route should be examined. But, even if he did, then he traded for almost 30 years prior to 1763 using an east-west trade route between northern Mississippi and Augusta, and only a relatively few years on the shorter north-south trade route between northern Mississippi and Mobile. In his December 10, 1768 letter to General Gage, William Johnson, describing James Adair, said, "..., who I am informed was for many years a Trader ..." [Samuel Cole Williams, "Adair's History of the American Indians," (New York, NY: Promontory Press, 1930), p. xiii]. If James Adair traded in Mobile after 1763, but retired from his career as Indian trader before 1768, then his operations on that route constituted a very minor part of his overall career.
To be continued ...
Thanks, Shawn Potter
Well, Shawn, you just haven't digested some of the book yet, then.
Page 318/298: "I have reason to remember this well; for, a little after those white men were murdered, business calling me to Mobille by myself, I chose to decline the eastern path, and the middle one that leads me by the Chackchooma old fields, as they were much exposed to incursions by the Muskohge; and rode through the chief towns of the nation, along the horse path that runs from the Chikkasah, nearest to the Mississippi to Mobille."
Discussing a problem with the Creeks in 1765, Adairs says:
" Mobile I delivered my remonstrance to the superintendent. p. 397(Cole)p. 369 (Adair). On the same page, he notes all Chickasaw and Choctaw traders being summoned to meet at Mobile with the Governor and Superintendent."
On pg. 398/370, Adair discusses a further meeting regarding the Mississippi-Indian trade with the deputy superintendent in 1767. A tariff had be imposed on trade through Mobile earlier, and this had already reduced trade. The superintendent had proposed to bring the trade with the Chickasaw under the same "standard" as the Creek trade, which I take to be the same exchange rates (i.e. how many trade goods per skin, etc.) or tariffs, less money for the traders which ever it was. Adair goes on to say:
"We concluded by observing the great disadvantage of navigation that Mobille lay under, to which Charles-town was no way exposed in imports and exports; and that if the aforesaid Indian trade should, by any act be reduced below the present standard (i.e. less money for the traders, I think -- Jett), it must necessarily cease of itself, unless as free-men, we said No to the command. Which the traders did, and resolved to support it."
As I read this, Mobile had become the focus of Chickasaw trade. Adair and his fellow traders were saying that if the Government burdened the trade further, it would no longer be profitable. I think it is clear that Adair was working through Mobile, otherwise he would simply go to Charles Town and be unaffected by the tariffs at Mobile.
I know Adair working through Mobile makes a continuous "base" or presence in SC less likely at a critical time, but it must be examined.
Jett (and all),
I disagree with your interpretation regarding the locations of James Adair's bases of operations. I don't see any evidence that James Adair traded a north-south route between the western Chickasaw and Mobile or New Orleans. Rather, his writings indicate an east-west trade route between the western Chickasaw and Charleston. In addition, the timeline (and reason) indicates a pattern of at least annual trips to the western Chickasaw, which would mean that he must have spent at least part of each year in South Carolina - perhaps among the eastern Chickasaw. This would make sense from the perspective of demands on the life of a trader, and also from the perspective of his statement that he had spent 40 years among the Indians.
I hope you are enjoying the book and look forward to hearing more of your thoughts.
Shawn Potter
I have my book now, still reviewing. What has struck me regarding the timeline is that his base from about 1763 to 1768 was not in South Carolina with the Eastern Chickasaw as I had speculated, but rather at Mobile. After the French and Indian War, Mobile was ceded to the French. Mobile was much closer to Chickasaw territory without mountains in the way, though trade with other colonies and Europe was more difficult since you had to go around Florida. Note his discussions of Gov. Johnstone of British West Florida. In 1768, one source I've found indicates that Johnstone died, and then administration of British West Florida fell apart when his successor died shortly thereafter. Apparently the Brits withdrew military support about that time. Perhaps this is part of what motivated him to leave.
On Ninety Six, it looks like he was definitely there (perhaps as a base for trading) until 1756 and probably up to 1759. By that time, the security situation became precarious and he appropriately withdrew to Ft. Moore, where he based his activities during the Cherokee War (1760-1761), which was essentially part of the French and Indian War (1756-1763). I doubt he started trading with the Chickasaw again until the treaty with the French was signed, but may have resumed trading with the Cherokee for a short while."
Jett Hanna to Kerry Petersen September 28, 2007:
"Re: James Adair. I could be wrong or not remembering everything I've written (it's been a long time since I looked at all of this) but I don't disagree with you that much, Kerry, one of the other James Adair researchers I corresponded with (can't recall his name right now) did a lot of original research and concluded that it was likely that Joseph's brother James was the Indian trader, but we disagreed on the implications of his findings. I've looked at a lot of devil's advocate propositions in various writings and emails over the years trying to figure out this mystery, so something I've said might have given you a different impression at some time. On the whole, I think where I am is that it is more likely than not that the James Adair who was Joseph's brother was not the Indian trader, but there is still a window of possibility. The Indian trader was definitely within a short distance of where Joseph Adair settled, based on his travels that can be documented. The proximity, however, was a brief one in the 1750s, apparently long before Joseph Adair settled there. Joseph was clearly in Pennsylvania from about 1747-1764, and I can't see how he would miraculously join up with his brother in the South Carolina back-country after he had been living and trading among the Indians. James Adair the Indian trader spent most of his time from after the French and Indian War (ended in 1763) with the Chickasaw in what is now Mississippi, trading out of Mobile which was then in British West Florida. When he wasn't there, his preferred base was with the "eastern Chickasaw" in the Augusta, Georgia area. The eastern Chickasaw had been given a reservation many years earlier in that area since they were British allies. There are some suggestions of a connection between the Laurens area (but not necessarily the Laurens Adairs) and the Cherokee Adairs. I don't think it has been proven that the Cherokee Adairs were descended from the Indian trader; however, James the trader did live among the Cherokee at one time, but he fought against them during the French and Indian War with his favored Chickasaw. To give you an idea of how complicated this all gets, there were five different James Adairs in the Lauren County, SC area who signed the same [Williams] petition in 1780. I don't think it is certain that James the trader was still alive at that time. The petition supported a patriot militia leader, and I think that the trader's writings and circumstances demonstrate that he was unlikely to have supported the Revolution, though that is not a done deal. His beloved Chickasaw were loyal to the British during both the French and Indian War and the Revolution, and suffered for it after the Revolution. I can't see him turning on them. On the other hand, James trader dreamed of establishing a British colony near the Chickasaw in northern Mississippi, while the Brits were generally dead set against encroachment on Indian lands. I see part of the book as an attempt to persuade, not a declaration of war on his country for opposing his dream. The American revolutionaries were chafing under the restrictions on crossing the Appalachians, ready to take Indian lands (the Revolution wasn't all about taxes...). Nothing to date has suggested a link between the Laurens area Adairs and James Robert Adair in NC. I think that the Indian trader probably has nothing to do with Dr. James Robert Adair in NC. The only thing that kind of goes the other way is that I think the trader had to have a slightly more upper class background to lead the life he did. He clearly had more formal education than was typical of the other Indian traders. James Robert Adair had some connections with land in Ulster -- an indication of better than usual circumstances. James the trader had made connections with British military and the upper class in his eventually successful endeavors to get his book published in London. Lisa Bowes website ( is very useful, particularly the research by Mary (there is a link way down the page). The documents listed there pertaining to James Adair in NC just don't fit in a number of respects with the travels that can be documented in the History of the American Indians and other sources. Nothing in the trader's chronology suggests the connections to Virginia documented for James Robert Adair. The critical time period I've looked at most closely is 1763-1767, when it is clear that the Indian trader was nowhere near the Carolinas, and yet he supposedly executed many documents in NC. Land grants to Joseph's brother James in the Laurens area were in 1768, about the time that the Indian trader clearly started working on selling his book and gave up trading in the wilderness. James the trader began, in 1768, almost unending travels to get his book published by 1776, spending the later years in England. It's been a long time since I've looked at all this, and won't be reopening it for a few years at least. Hope this helps a bit." [Kerry's note: see my other comments in a separate note herein concerning the confusion many have made of Dr. Robert Adair of Bladen, N.C. with our James Adair -- even to the point of making up the imaginary name "James Robert Adair." Jett also sensed this same disconnect.]

19. The following notes are somewhat indicative of the many various public accounts that have confused our James Adair, the Indian trader and author, with other Adairs on the East Coast. Unfortunately, our James Adair left no first-hand account of his own biography or genealogy -- a void that many have tried to fill by creatively and fancifully blending lives of various Adairs with ours. These accounts mix a little fact with a lot of make-believe and should not be relied on of their own account. Shawn and Lois Potter are the authors of a book to be published sometime in the future entitled "Chickasaw Wife and Family of James Adair, Author of the History of the American Indians." The book uses extensive historical documentation and modern DNA analysis to conclude that the James Adair of Laurens County, often referred to in deeds as a "cooper," is actually the same man as the trader and author. With this conclusion, it is now easy to weed out the false accounts which I include below as research references to help stem the furtherance of these false associations and accounts:
A. Dr. Robert Adair, alias James Robert Adair, of Bladen County, North Carolina. Burke's Law Book of English laws indicates is was illegal to have a first and middle name (a practice that changed in America after the Revolution -- yet unknowing person have created the name "James Robert Adair" to try to blend these two men together. This concoction seems to have even extended to an historical sign that may have been placed in Bladen Co. purporting to be the final resting place for our James Adair when it was actually the unrelated Robert Adair.
a. The following article is from "Notes, Queries and Corrections", v. 14, no. 2, Oct. 1943, of the publication "Pennsylvania Genealogical Society," which I found at the Lancaster Co., Pennsylvania, Historical Society in their Adair family file. The query was written by Brigadier General William Curry Harllee and cross-references to the sketch in his separate publication "Kinfolks," v. II, pp. 1223-1298. Note that Robert's own will proves he was not the father of any of the trader's known sons that married Cherokee wives, i.e. Edward and John (since proved by DNA analysis by Shawn Potter). One needs to disregard any references in the following linking Robert to our James who was the author and trader. Mr. Harllee writes:
"The story of our Adair is of intriguing interest. It has plenty of drama. So far as the Indians are concerned it transcends that of Samuel Houston, the Texas statesman, who followed him nearly a century later among the Cherokees.
Until I learned more while collecting information for "Kinfolks," I knew little of Adair beyond the fact that I was descended from Dr. Robert Adair who had lived in the Carolina border community in which I was brought up, just across the state line from my South Carolina home. Hundreds of his descendants still live in that community of North and South Carolina with center at old Ashpole Church, incidentally, the mother church of many Presbyterian churches throughout the "seven states." Here the women still sing "Robin Adair" with only a vague idea that our Adair had a love affair with a lady in England whom he married. They adhere to the tradition that this song was about our Adair. Some of them were provoked at me for not taking it seriously and wanted me to "put it in the book 'Kinfolks'," which is a collaboration of many, that our Adair was "Robin Adair." It seemed to me to be too fantastic and would detract from the factual and authentic character of my work.
But the ladies still persisted. So, after "Kinfolks" was published, I set to work to quiet them by proving alibis for the Dr. Robert Adair of England, the veritable "Robin Adair," and our Dr. Robert Adair and vice versa. After several years of diligent search during which I have found many evidences covering almost every year of the latter's active life, I cannot prove an alibi. Indeed, the records and information I have gathered support the thesis that our Dr. Robert Adair was the identical Dr. Robert Adair celebrated "Robin Adair," of the Lady Caroline Keppel's lament, surgeon to his majesty the king and to his royal family, and surgeon general of the British army. The circumstantial evidence is so strong that I am now convinced that he was the veritable Robin Adair.
His identity has been concealed for two centuries. It was purposely concealed. The British nobility of his time regarded colonists of provincials with a half contemptuous scorn; all traders with contempt, while traders with the Indians as still more degraded. Yet fortunes were made in the trade with the Indians, which was the most profitable business of the times and one which engaged the attention of politicians and governments of the period. Adair as a provincial used the name James Adair in his business affairs and all of his dealings of record, although he was known to his family and neighbors only as Dr. Robert Adair. He belonged to the gentry in the old country where he was Dr. Robert Adair. Provincially, he was James Adair, except to his family and neighbor friends.
When I found his will recorded at Elizabethtown, county seat of old Bladen County, North Carolina, made under the name of James Adair, but showing conclusively that he was none other than our Dr. Robert Adair, my joy knew no bounds. He named in his will some of his grandchildren, among them the brothers of my own great-grandmother and other grandsons, whose sons and daughters I personally knew and have always understood they and their progeny knew him as Dr. Robert Adair. This gave me a new interest in the celebrated trader among the Indians, James Adair, author of the scholarly work, Adair's "History of the American Indian" (1763), recently re-printed by the Tennessee Society of the Colonial Dames, because Adair was the first of the English race to flourish in what is now Tennessee, his stamping ground, fifty years before Daniel Boone and the Robertsons invaded it. Incidentally, it is a work of fascinating interest. In those days the writing of books was beneath the dignity of the British nobility. At the time it was published Adair had connected himself with the nobility by his marriage to Lady Caroline, daughter of the Earl of Albemarle, Governor of Virginia, who never deigned to go to the province for having descended to be the writer of a book and states that he had intended to write it anonymously. He did not divulge his name, Robert Adair, but gave the name of James Adair as author.
By his Virginia wife, Clark Hobson, he had three daughters and no son. Their progeny now numbers in the thousands; many of whom are registered in "Kinfolks." By Lady Caroline he had one son, Robert, incidentally mentioned in his will, and two daughters. A feature in his will as yet unaccountable to me are the bequests. Immediately following his first bequest which was: "I give unto Robert Adair, or his heirs, near the town of Billy Myansborough and Nutrann, a short mile of Gilgoram in the County of Antrim in Ireland ten pounds." "Unto James Box (which I believe should be Fox), or his heirs in the Island of Bennet the sum of nine pounds," and "unto Alexander Johnston, or his heirs in Ireland, or his heirs in the county of Chester, Pennsylvania, the sum of seventeen pounds." It may be that James Box (or Fox) and Alexander Johnston were guardians of his daughters by the Lady Caroline, small children at this time, which was after her death, and that Adair used the device of bequeathing nominal sums to his son and the guardians of his daughter, so that all would be informed of his death should he die in this country.
I had vainly hoped that James Box (or Fox) and Alexander Johnston were the husbands of his two daughters by the lady Caroline, which would have shown conclusively that the devisor was the father of the children of the Lady Caroline, as well as those of Clark (Hobson) Adair, hence the identical Dr. Robert Adair of England and also of our locality. Later I learned the date of death of the Lady Caroline and the dates of birth of her children, who were small when Adair wrote this will; also that one of the daughters married Viscount Barrington, and the other Mr. Clavering. So Box (or Fox) and Johnston were not their husbands.
At that time in England and the Carolinas it was futile to devise anything to a married woman or "femme covert" as they could not hold title to property, real or personal, and such as they had as "femme sole" passed instantly to their husbands on marriage. Hence little was generally devised to the female of the species.
In his family life in this country Adair, according to tradition and I believe to fact, was dignified almost to the extent of being austere. But he loved the "call of the wild" and away from home was hilarious and uproarious and loved to sing as well as drink. The story of Adair in England shows a disposition that to snub him, that he snubbed the snobs, heard again the "call of the wild" and returned to his beloved Cherokees and Chickasaws, thus restoring his depleted fortunes by further engaging in the Indian trade.
The Indians were devoted to Adair and he to them, especially the Chickasaws and Cherokees. It was his influence with them which prevented them from attacks on the feeble outpost pioneer settlements, and which made them resist the intrigues of the French and Spanish of Louisiana and the Floridas to incite them to war against the British settlers, and to drive out the British traders. Adair was an adventurer transcending the dramatic interest the adventurers of fiction. He went along with the Indians in their wars among other Indians and organized them and led them with the English colonials against Indians and also Spaniards in South Carolina's wars with the Creeks and other Indians and Spaniards.
The Lady Caroline Keppel was not the only lady who intrigued him. The Chickasaw ladies also greatly interested him and he is said to have had a special fondness for his Chickasaw progeny of whom I know nothing, except that he wrote most of his "History of the American Indians" while among his Chickasaw family, at Chickasaw Bluffs, where Memphis, Tennessee, now stands, and is said to have been devoted to them.
There is plenty of record of his Cherokee progeny. Curiously enough, his only progeny, now known to bear his surname, Adair, are those of his Cherokee descendants, and they are proud of their descent from him. One of them was a colonel in the Confederate Army. They are now people of influence and high standing in Oklahoma and elsewhere and some of them have become immensely wealthy from the oil business. Emmet Starr's "History of the Cherokee Indians" has a register of his descendants, somewhat similar in form to the registers in "Kinfolks."
It has been said that in West's painting "Death of Wolfe," Adair was the surgeon attending General Wolfe when he was mortally wounded, 1759. Writers who have but a superficial knowledge of this many-sided man contend that he could not have been with Wolfe because there is no record of his accompanying the expedition from England. However, it is quite possible, and I think probable, that Adair was there and with Wolfe. I know that a month or more previously he was at his "Manor House" at "Fairfields," in present Green County, North Carolina, making arrangements to leave. A ride on horseback over the good roads from North Carolina to Quebec in the fine weather of August and September was an easy jaunt of much less time than a month to a rider like Adair, who rode the trackless country across the mountains and deep, wide rivers in all seasons of the year amid Indians on the war path, from Charleston, South Carolina, his trading base, to his lodge at his Chickasaw home on the bank of the Mississippi. Adair's record shows that he participated in the military expeditions within his reach and this was doubtless no exception. Naturally he would have repaired to the headquarters of the commanding general and the husband of the daughter of Earl of Albemarle, governor of Virginia, would have been welcomed and retained there.
So we find this remarkable man, gentleman, scholar, author and historian, adventurer, trader among the Indians, trusted and beloved by them, mingling among the royal family as surgeon to the king, and among the nobility as husband of one of them and, in Virginia and the Carolinas, in the dignified life of a country gentleman with a respectable provincial family, and with homes and families among the Cherokees and the Chickasaws at the then extreme limit of English exploration.
Perhaps one reason why Adair has not been heralded in American history is that he was thoroughly a Briton and deplored the Revolution. He was in England in 1775 when it broke out; he returned to North Carolina in 1778, arranged his affairs there, made his will and then evidently returned to England and never again came back. His will indicates a coolness to his sons-in-law, John Cade and John Gibson, red hot rebels, and a fondness for his widowed daughter, whose husband, William McTyer, was, I think a Tory, but would not dare say so to his great-great-granddaughter, my beloved cousin, Evelyn Adair McTyer Woodbery, an enthusiastic D.A.R., who did doctor the wounds of his grandsons who were shot by Tories. Adair was not an active tory. He merely deplored the revolution.
Adair did not disregard convention and law by having more than one wife at the same time. He had his wives and families consecutively: first, Clark Hobson with three daughters; second, Lady Caroline Keppel with son, Robert, and two daughters; then came the Cherokee family; and last, but not least beloved, his Chickasaw princess and family. In acquiring his Indian wives he probably conformed to the conventionalities and laws of custom of the Indian nations. These four families probably knew little, or nothing, of each other. At least tradition among the Clark Hobson branch is silent on that point.
Let me suggest that you re-read the biography of CA2 James Robert Adair ("Kinfolks", Vol. II, pp. 1223-1298. Then it will be clear why I should like to learn something of Alexander Johnston* mentioned in his will.
(*Alexander Johnston, of New London Township, Esq. Will dated 29 July 1790; proved 3 September, 1790; Recorded Chester County Wills Liber 8 465-468 ff. [Note this footnote continues with all of the beneficiaries of Alexander.])"
b. Lisa Bowes posted the following on the Internet in the early 2000s: "New information has come in regarding James, and I need your help! Here are the details: In Robeson County NC (formerly a part of Bladen) on Highway 710 near the Town of Rowland, there is a historical marker that notes that James Adair, Indian trader and historian is buried nearby. Rowland lies along the border of NC and SC. You can visit Rowland by visiting the following website: Go to the town's page and scroll all the way to the bottom, where the listing for Rowland, NC is. The historical description mentions Dr. Robert Adair, Indian Trader and Author. I would be so grateful if I could find someone in the area to find this marker and transcribe and photograph it for me so that I can post them on this page! So many people would love to see the monument. I have written to the local Historical Society and an Indian Museum in the area. If anyone has other suggestions, let me know" [Comment: Many have tried to merge Robert Adair of Bladen co., NC, with our James Adair. Robert Adair's will proves he is not the James Adair and any marker place there, if there is such a marker, is in error.]
c. From online comments of Donald Panther-Yates dated November 13, 2001 entitled "Who was James Adair?":
"I have begun to take another look at James Adair, author of "The History of the American Indians," published in London in 1775. Listers may be familiar with Adair as the promoter of the theory that the Southeastern Indians were a long lost tribe of Israel. Elias Boudinot took this theory up after Adair and published "A Star in the West" in 1816. Adair's book is loaded with Hebrew words and expressions. He was supposed to be writing it on the headwaters of the Tombigbee River in northern Mississippi among the Chickasaws in the 1760s - a rude frontier. How did he do that? In Christian society, Hebrew was not taught in the 18th century except to advanced doctors of theology at the Sorbonne, Oxford and elsewhere, for the express purpose of Bible study (see Adam Smith's notes in "The Wealth of Nations," 1775). Even a doctor of theology (which Adair was certainly not - he was a merchant and adventurer) would hardly have the command of Hebrew from memory that Adair shows. It gets more interesting. Until recently, no one knew where Adair died. He says absolutely nothing about his parentage or lineage. That has not prevented the numerous Adair descendants in America (many of whom claim to be Cherokee) from elaborating a family tree back to medieval Ireland and Scotland and ancient Troy. But was the sizable settlement of Adairs on Fishing Creek on the border of S.C./N.C. really Irish before they mixed with the Cherokee? Well, on a lonely highway in Robeson County, N.C. is a historical plaque that states James Adair, famous Indian trader, is buried nearby. Genealogists have even uncovered his will, dated 1778. He married a woman named Clark Hobson and had three daughters, one of whom he left a pittance, effectively cutting her out, because she married or at least got pregnant by John Gibson. Both the Gibsons and Hobsons are noted in early records for being "free persons of color." The laugh is that many African-American Genealogy websites parade these cases forth as instances of Negroid persons owning land, marrying whites, etc. Several famous cases disproved any Negroid blood. In reality, these were Portuguese, Sephardim, Moors, etc. If they were Negroid, why would they have African slaves and even deal in them? Gideon Gibson is infamous in South Carolina history as a "mulatto" proved to be non-Negroid, some other race, also one of the wealthiest men in the state's history and a figure in the Regulator Revolt that was a precursor of the American Revolution. Was James Adair Jewish and did he write his book to promote intersettlement with the Indians as European Jews' ticket to their "promised land" of freedom?
Below I am pasting what I have learned about Adair's wife and children. Descendants of James Adair: Generation No. 1:
1. James2 Adair (Thomas (?)1) was born abt. 1709, and died 1783 in Bladen, later Robeson Co., N.C.. He married (1) Cheraw Woman. He married (2) Ester (or Anna) McBride June 11, 1734 in Antrim, Ireland (not proved) (?). He married (3) Clark Hobson July 29, 1740 in Fairfield, Northumberland Co., Va. Notes for James Adair: The famous Indian trader and author of the book History of the American Indians (1775). The known facts of his life are few, gathered in the main from the personal incidents narrated in his book. Of his later life nothing authentic is recorded. Adair History and Genealogy (1924), by J.B. Adair, gives many biographical details purporting to be based on family tradition, but few of them are verifiable by any available records. Dictionary of American Biography. In South Carolina he was a trader among Indian Nations for about 40 yrs, & wrote the most authoritative history of the America Indian in circulation. He spoke 7 languages, versed in Hebrew & its History, & gave convincing proof that the American Indians are of Hebrew origin. He was Surgeon on staff of King George lll before coming to America, later a surgeon in General Francis Marion's Army in the Revolution. His influence enabled him to buy large tracts of land in Northwestern South Carolina, & invited his people to come from Pennsylvania to live & improve the land. Many Adairs in locality in 1855. The headquarters for his Indian trading was in Charleston, South Carolina as early as 1735. The book "Kendall" 929.273 K334h, states that King George ll made him a large grant of land. This patent was located out in the frontier of the Indian country, on Duncan's Creek in what is now Laurens County, South Carolina, and James had his father and brothers move from Pennsylvania to South Carolina to settle on this land. In Robeson County NC (formerly a part of Bladen) on Highway 710 near the Town of Rowland, there is a historical marker that notes that James Adair, Indian trader and historian is buried nearby. His will was filed in that county in 1778: "Will of James Adair. In the name of God, Amen. 'I, James Adair in Bladen County in North Carolina, being weak but praises be to the Almighty God, in perfect sense and memory, I do humbly make and ordain this my last Will and Testament in manner and form following: I do recommend my soul to God who gave it hoping through the merits of my Lord and Blessed Savior Jesus Christ to obtain pardon of all my sins. My body I commit to the grave to be buried. My Temporal Estate my just debts being paid I do humbly appoint my loving daughter Saranna McTyre my whole and sole Executor of this my last Will and Testament. I give unto Robert Adair or his heirs near the town of Billymansborough and Nutrann a short mile of Gilgoram in the county of Antrim in Ireland ten pounds. I give unto James Box or his heirs in the Island of Bennet the sum of nine pounds. I give unto Alexander Johnston or his heirs in Ireland or his heirs in the county of Chester, Pennsylvania, the sum of seventeen pounds all proclamation money. I give unto my daughter Saranna McTyre, all my lands or improvements in Wilkinsons Swamp together with all my negroes and their increase to wit: Four negroes Pomp, Babby, Sam and Jack, two negro women named Hannah and Nelly, one negro girl named Lucy, my personal and real Estate both within and without doors, crop and stock together with all money, bonds, judgments, notes of hand, book accounts and debts whatsoever and whomsoever during her natural life and when my daughter Saraanna McTyre receives and collects in my money due on judgments, notes of hand and book debts, I desire it may be put out immediately on good security mortgages on improved lands and negroes until there is a fair and open trade from Guinea to this country for negro slaves, then to call in all the money into her hands immediately lay the money out in purchasing and buying negro slaves, boys and girls, and when bought then I give a part of the negroes so purchased and bought as has cost my executrix four hundred pounds proclamation money with their increase unto my daughter Elizabeth Hobson Cade during her life and at her death I give the said negroes with all their increase unto my three grandsons Stephen, James, and Washington Cade, and their heirs lawfully begotten forever, and the residue and remainder of the said purchase and bought negroes, after my daughter Cade has received her part and property as above mentioned then I give unto my daughter Susanna (sic) McTyer with all their increase during her life. I give unto my grandson Adair McTyre the plantation whereon I now live one hundred acres more or less named Pached or Patcherly place on Wilkinson Swamp, together with all the improvements to him and his heirs lawfully begotten forever. After my daughter Saranna McTyer's life I give unto my Grandson one plow horse and one cow and calf two sow pigs and all the working tools within and without doors, suitable for carrying on a crop and corn and provision both without and within doors, should anything happen after my daughter's life. I give all my other lands more or less unto my grandson William McTyer and his heirs lawfully begotten forever whenhe comes of age. I give unto my five grandchildren Adair, Elizabeth, Clark, Katrain, and William McTyer, all my negroes and their increase and my personal estate to be equally divided amongst them, to them and their heirs lawfully begotten forever after Saranna McTyre life. I do give the free use of my means to my daughter Cades family as long as my daughter Saranna McTyre and Elizabeth Hobson Cade live convient one to another. I give unto my daughter Agnes Gibson and to John Gibson one Shilling sterling. I do desire my daughter Saranna McTyer take my daughter Agnes Gibson into her family should it so happen she is a widow and only one child and no good home, and maintain she and her child during widowhood and until her child comes of age, in meat drink lodging washing. I do desire none of my estate may be sold by order of Court, when goods come as cheap as they have in the year 1774. Then I do desire my Executrix will buy each of my daughters, Elizabeth Hobson Cade and Agnes Gibson a gown of Black Crepe and mourning ring. In testimony of this my last Will and Testament I hereunto set my hand and seal, this twenty first day of September one thousand seven hundred and seventy eight. James Adair (seal) Signed sealed and Witnessed Archd McKissack Benilla Bullard (Source: Elizabethtown, Bladen Co., North Carolina, Record of Wills No. 1, p. 476, reprinted in "Kinfolks" by Wm. Harllee, pp. 1245-1247) Note: The will was destroyed in the courthouse fire in 1800. Some records, including James Adair's will were copied from documents held by people who provided them for records.
More about James Adair: Burial: Fairfields Plantation, Patcherly Place, Wilkinsons Swamp, near Rowland, N.C. Fact: September 21, 1778, Made his will in Bladen Co., N.C. Land: September 22, 1774, Received two tracts of land in a 1769 North Carolina grant sold to William Adair in 1771 after they were resurveyed and found to be in Craven Co., S.C.
More about Clark Hobson: Burial: Fairfields Plantation, near Rowland, N.C. Children of James Adair and Clark Hobson are:
i. Saraanna3 Adair, b. October 5, 1743.
ii. Elizabeth Hobson Adair, b. June 23, 1745.
iii. Agnes Adair.
Generation No. 2
2. Saraanna3 Adair (James2, Thomas (?)1) was born October 05, 1743. She married William McTyre. Children of Saraanna Adair and William McTyre are:
i. Adair4 McTyre. More about Adair McTyre: Fact: He received his grandfather James Adair's plantation
ii. William McTyre.
iii. Elizabeth McTyre.
iv. Clark McTyre.
v. Katrain McTyre.
3. Elizabeth Hobson3 Adair (James2, Thomas (?)1) was born June 23, 1745. She married ___ Cade, son of Mary Gibson. Children of Elizabeth Adair and ___ Cade are:
i. Stephen4 Cade.
ii. James Cade.
iii. Washington Cade.
4. Agnes3 Adair (James2, Thomas (?)1) She married (?) John Gibson, son of Gideon Gibson (?). He was born 1759 in Marion, S.C. (?), and died 1829 in Campbell Co., Ga. Child of Agnes Adair and John Gibson is:
i. ___4 Gibson."
B. The following deals with a James Adair of Connecticut. The first quote is from the very reliable Donald Lines Jacobus, one of the foremost genealogists of New England; it confirms the presence of a James Adair, certainly not ours, in Connecticut. The second quote below seems to blend this man with Robert Adair of North Carolina as well as incorporating the false premises promulgated by William Harllee, who we previously saw in the quote above in item A(a):
a. James Adair of Fairfield, Connecticut. Thank you to the Fairfield Historical Society who kindly provided copies of these records to me. I am in possession of photostat copies of the following from: "History and Genealogy of the Families of Old Fairfield," vol. II, part 1; compiled and edited by Donald Lines Jacobus, M.A.; Fairfield, CT; 1932; p. 6: Adair, James. He m. 3 June 1744, Ann Carter; or by church record, 18 Oct. 1744, Ann McCarty, which is more accurate. Will 21 Oct. 1766, proved 4 Nov. 1782; wife Ann; four daus. Mary, Esther, Ann and Sarah; son Andrew. Children, rec. Fairfield, bapt. Greenfield: Andrew, b 23 Apr, 1745, bapt. 1745/46; Mary, b. 3 Jan. 1747, bapt. 12 Jan 1746/47; [m. Epaphras Merwin, of Easton]. Esther, b. 2 July 1749; m. 20 Dec. 1770, James Goodsell. Ann, b. 2 Feb. 1752. Sarah, b. 1 Mar. 1755. James, b. 26 Aug. 1757, d.y. From: Fairfield Connecticut First Congregational Church Records, 1694-1806; Hartford Connecticut State Library; 1929; handwritten ledger in Old Script James Adair and Ann McCarty were married Oct. 18, 1744, Noah Hobart, V.D.M. From: Greenfield Hill or Northwest Society and Church Records, 1668-1878; Vol I, Parts I - V, Church Records 1668-1883; handwritten ledger in Old Script, Mr. James Adair born bapt, Ann wife to Mr. Adair born bapt. Their children, Andrew Adair born bapt. 1745/46, Mary Adair born bapt. Jan 12 1746/7, Esther Adair born July 1799 bapt. July 18, 1749.
b. Referring to "Kinfolks, A Genealogical and Biographical Record," by William Curry Harllee, vol. II, 1935, the following notes were posted on the Internet from "Lisa" and "Ginger":
Lisa notes: After a long time searching, I made a trip to the Bridgeport, Connecticut Public Library, where I had access to the book KINFOLKS; A Genealogical and Biographical Record Vol II by William Curry Harlee; 1935. The book was very old and brittle, and smelled like history itself! It was a magic moment. Following are some excerpts of a well-documented biography and history of James Adair, Indian Trader. The twists and turns that this information takes answers many questions - and asks many more. Any thoughts? Please drop me a note. The notes were transcribed by fellow researcher, cousin, and friend, Ginger. Thank you Ginger!
Fairfield(s) Plantation, NC.
Who Was James Adair's Wife? And other mysteries to solve...
Ann Carter - Married in Fairfield, Connecticut June 1744. (Fairfield Co. records and will written in 1776; probated 1783; will shown in separate section of this page) children attributed to this union: Andrew (April 1745), Mary (1747), Esther (1749), Ann (1750), Sarah (1752). Were Ann Carter and Ann McCarty the same person? Harllee said they were not. (Kinfolks p. 1292) Ann McCarty - Married in Fairfield, Connecticut October 18, 1744. (Fairfield Co. records.) Ann McCarty had two children by a prior marriage, Elizabeth and John, who were also baptized in Fairfield Co. 1742. Elizabeth, has been confused by some with our ancestor, Elizabeth Hobson Adair. William Harllee, in his book, "Kinfolks," (pp. 1291-1293) accepted Ann McCarty as the wife of James Adair and the mother of Sara Anne. Harllee was influenced by the fact that James had named his manor in North Carolina, "Fairfield" (Note: Ginger has uncovered some information that points to a Fairfields Parish in the VA area where the Plantation was thought to have been located. This is important information) and by concluding the middle initial M. in Ann McTyre's name was for McCarty, as her mother tended to use family names in naming her children. Ginger notes: Under the heading "Who Was Adair's Wife?" Harllee begins "We have seen that Adair's wife was buried at "Fairfields" (p. 191). On p.193 he says, "The circumstances that the marriage of James Adair and Ann McCarty occurred in Fairfield, Conn., and that our James Adair (CA2) named his manor plantation in North Carolina 'Fairfield' or 'Fairfields' suggest that the wife of our James Adair was Ann McCarty." (His other "circumstance" for reaching that conclusion is that his (Harllee's) grandmother has a middle initial M. but, I point to the granddaughter in Adair's will, Clark Adair, as even stronger evidence for Clark Hobson as James' wife.) The manor of James Adair and Hobson (Clark) Adair was named "Fairfield." Wm. C. Harllee in his book, "Kinfolks," believed that the name had some significance, and used it to support the marriage of James Adair and Ann McCarty in Fairfield, Connecticut. However, there is also evidence of a James Adair married to Clark Hobson of Northumberland Co., Virginia, where there was at that time a parish named Fairfield. Chickacoan Parish was one of two of the earliest parishes of Northumberland Co., Virginia. The boundaries, established in 1653, were changed in 1657 and again in 1658. A description of the revised boundaries of Chickacoan Parish, October 21, 1658, refers to a location called Fairfield. "... abutting upon the Northwest side of an Indian field known by the name of Fairfield ..." On February 4, 1644 the following order was issued by the court of Northumberland County: "Whereas a great part of this county is by the Assembly ordered shortly to be taken in and included in Westmoreland County and the parishes in this county formerly laid out and bounded cannot so stand unless one of them be in two counties which may be inconvenient either to the counties or the parishes, it is therefore ordered that this county of Northumberland be divided into two parishes and thus named and bounded namely: The Parish of Chickacoan so formerly called is to be the Parish of Fairfield and the boundaries thereof from the north side of the Great Wiccocomoco River to the upmost bounds of the Country." Parish lists of 1680, 1702 and 1714 include Fairfield Parish. In 1698 St. Stephen's Parish was formed and included the former parish of Fairfield. "However, the parish continued to be known by the old name of 'Fairfield' until well into the eighteenth century." (Source: "Parish Lines, Diocese of VA" by Cocke, pp. 162-164, pp.162-164). That Harllee reached his conclusion based on the stated clues is understandable as the following yet unproved theory used the same approach with different results. It's my opinion the James Adair that married Ann McCarty is not the same person as James Adair, Indian trader and that the mother of James' daughters named in his will was Clerk Hobson of Virginia. Most descendants of Elizabeth Hobson Adair have thought that Hobson was a family surname, and it is true that surnames were often used in naming children. Note that three of James' grandchildren have a first or middle name of Adair. Harllee gave Elizabeth Hobson Adair an unknown mother with the Hobson surname, and encouraged future researchers to search the records in Virginia and Pennsylvania for an Adair-Hobson connection. Taking Harllee's advice, and using the same clues (i.e. the plantation name of "Fairfield" and a middle name (this time, Hobson), the following information was discovered: LDS records show James Adair and Clark Hobson married July 29, 1740 in Northumberland County, VA and had Ann, born October 5, 1743 and Hobson, born June 23, 1745. I have written to Northumberland County for the records to support the Northumberland theories. Clerk Hobson - Married July 29, 1740, in Northumberland Co., Virginia. Their children were Ann, born October 5, 1743, and Hobson, born June 23, 1745. (LDS records) There were Hobsons in Chester County, PA (based on posts from the Hobson GenForum; further documentation needed. Any contributions of documentation would be greatly appreciated!)
Based on this new found information, and pending further research, I lean heavily towards Clark Hobson being the mother of James' three daughters mentioned in his will, and as the wife buried at "Fairfields." Discussion is welcome and encouraged! Lisa note: I wholeheartedly agree with Ginger on many of these points:
1. James of Connecticut and James, Indian Trader, were two separate people.
2. Clark Hobson as the mother of James' daughters, and buried in VA.
Ginger questions for discussion: (We want your input!)
Is it possible that Ann and Sara Ann are the same person, and that Hobson and Elizabeth Hobson are also the same person? Or, were they both born later? Clark had older sisters named Sara Ann and Elizabeth; it would have been common practice to name her children after her sisters. Perhaps the names Sara Ann and Elizabeth were added later. It is my understanding that this practice was common when a family member died. Agnes named one of her daughters Clark (mentioned in James' Will). If Ann, born in 1743, is also Sara Ann, she would have been sixteen years old at the time the gift of part of Fairfield was made to Ann and her husband, William McTyre. Sixteen would have been more likely an age for marriage than fourteen, if she was the daughter of Ann McCarty There were Hobsons in Chester County, PA so it is possible that if James and his father Thomas and brothers Joseph and William were also there, that James could have met when Clark was in PA visiting relatives. The Chester County, PA connection also strengthens the case for Thomas Adair and his sons being in PA prior to 1740. Ginger note: Most descendants of Elizabeth Hobson Adair have thought Hobson was a family surname. And, it's true that family names often used in naming children. Note that three of James' grandchildren have a first or middle name of Adair. It's also true that naming their home "Fairfield" had significant meaning. Fairfield was a parish in Northumberland Co., Virginia. Is it possible that Ann and Sara Ann are the same person and that Hobson and Elizabeth Hobson are the same? Or, were they born later? Clark had older sisters, Sara Ann and Elizabeth and naming her daughters for them would be natural. Perhaps the names Sara and Elizabeth were later added. It's my understanding that sometimes occurred when a family member died. Agnes named one of her a daughters Clark (mentioned in James' will). If Ann, born 1743, is Sara Ann, it would make her 16 at the time the gift of part of Fairfield was made to her and her husband William McTyre, a more likely age for marriage than 14 in Harllee's conclusion. There were Hobsons in Chester Co., (Hobson Genforum) Pennsylvania so it's possible, if James and his father and brothers were also there, that they could have met when Clerk was there visiting relatives. The Chester Co. connection also strengthens the case for Thomas Adair and his sons being there prior to 1740.
Adair, James (I3679)
33 1850 Lapeer Co., Michigan Census (U.S.)
1860 " " " " "
1870 " " " " "
1880 " " " " " Lists Andrus W. as Weaver A.
Probate record for Andrus in Lapeer County Michigan Dated Feb.24, 1885 Petetion for Appointment of Administration

Marriage to Susan Askins White from Lapeer co. Michigan Marriage Record Film #974258 P3 #3294-Andrus
W (Weaver) French

W (Weaver) Frenchllections of Harrison County by Chess A. Hanna (GS Ser. no. 977.168 H2H
Thomas Knox came to America from Ireland when 13 years old (abt 1810)

57 images Probated Date: 24 Feb 1885 in Lapeer, Michicigan. Case # 1514 Probate Court for said County of Lapeer. Mercy A. Lockwood appointed the administrator of the Estate. Bond by Mercy A. Lockwood and John T Lockwood. Image 613 Petition for appointment of aadministrator - Andrus W. French late of North Branch (township), Lapeer County departed this life in the Township of Attica on Thursday the 8 day January in 1885 leaving no last Will and Testament, as your Petitioner is informed and verily believes. Your Petitioner is a daughter and heir of said deceased. That deceased was, at his death, an inhabitant of Attica and was possessed of Real and Personal Estate, situate and being in the County of Lapeer and elsewhere, to be administered, and that the estimated value thereof is the sum of Five hundred dollars or thereabout, as your petitioner is informed and verily believes. And your petitioner further shows that the names and residence of the heirs at law of said deceased, and other persons interested in his estate, are as follows: Susan French, Widow - whereabouts unknown; Mercy A Lockwood - Child, Attica, Mich; James A. French - Child, Corneau [or Dunlap- changed in 1888], Grundy, Missouri; Sally L. Spencer - Child, Arcadeu, Mich Dated February 24, 1885. Image 624 & 625 Petition for License to Sell Real Estate to Pay Debts, by administrators - She updated next of kin and heirs of law of said Decesed. Susan French, Widow - age 55 years residence north Branch, Lapeer, Mich; Mercy A Lockwood - Child, age 43, Attica, Mich; James A. French - Child, age 38, Corneau [or Dunlap- changed in 1888], Grundy, Missouri; Sally L. Spencer - Child, age 31, Arcadeu, Mich. Image 648 Confirmation Estate of Andrew or Andrus W. French 
French, Andrus Weaver (I876)
34 1925 State census of Iowa Benton County v. 11-56 Townships: Belle Plaine - Eden (Blairstown) Film # 1429210

BIOGRAPHY: In 1925 Census, it was recorded that she was a Methodist. 
Vaughn, Verda M. (I2077)
35 4-5110-5300-8302-837. Joy, Elizabeth (I5708)
36 9 other children but all died check note Stiendorf (I2405)
37 ? #5 Elmore's birth place from Ruth Tarbert, Davenport, WA Tarbert, Elmore (I248)
38 ? 04 Nov 1888 married date from IGI ?

Name: Hiram ? Waldo
Titles & Terms:
Residence: Caldwell, Clearwater & Valley Precincs, Wheeler, Nebraska
Birth Date: Nov 1865
Birthplace: Michigan
Relationship to Head of Household: Self
Spouse: Ella F Waldo
Spouse's Titles & Terms:
Spouse's Birthplace: Iowa
Father's Titles & Terms:
Father's Birthplace: Ohio
Mother's Titles & Terms:
Mother's Birthplace: New York
Race or Color (expanded): White
Head-of-household Name: Hiram ? Waldo
Gender: Male
Marital Status: Married
Years Married: 11
Estimated Marriage Year: 1889
Mother How Many Children:
Number Living Children:
Immigration Year:
Enumeration District: 0206
Page: 1
Sheet Letter: A
Family Number: 5
Reference Number: 17
Film Number: 1240942
Image Number: 00486
Household Gender Age
Hiram ? Waldo M
Spouse Ella F Waldo F
Child Fredie L Waldo M
Child Claudene E Waldo F
Child Berl W Waldo M
Child Esther May Waldo F
Child Glenn Albert Waldo M
Child Bethel R Waldo F  
Waldo, Hiram Ebert (I201)
39 ? 12 Oct 1808 or 12 Nov 1808

birthdate oct/nov? 
Simpson, Eleanor (I270)
40 ? Beryl or Berl?

7/30/2017 The Western News - Obituaries, Kay B. Tarbert
KAY B. TARBERT Kay B. Tarbert March 09, 2010 at 5:00 am | Kay B. Tarbert, 58, of Libby, died on March 5, 2010 at St. Patrick's Hospital in Missoula. She was born on March 6, 1951 at Libby to Harold N. "Bud" and Laura (Schooley) Johnson. She grew up in Libby, graduating with the Class of 1969. While growing up, she was an active member of Girl Scouts and continued her lifelong involvement as a leader and supporter. In high school, she was a member of the synchronized swimming team. She married Kimber "Kim" L. Tarbert on Jan. 15, 1975. She enjoyed music, swimming, hunting, shing, camping, family gatherings, visiting with friends, training and playing with her dog, Charlie, and stargazing. She was a founding member of the Kootenai Stargazers Astronomy Club in 1999 and continued her involvement in that organization until her death. She sang with the Sweet Adelines for several years and was a strong supporter of Girl Scouts. "Kay was a person who treasured every moment and was always ready to reach out her hand and heart in friendship and provide any help she could to someone in need. We will all miss her," family said. Mrs. Tarbert was preceded in death by her parents and an infant son, Harold Bruce, in 1976. Survivors include her husband, Kim Tarbert of Libby; a daughter, LeeAnn Tarbert Bentley and husband Joe of Dayton; a sister, Kendra Johnson Lind of Libby; an uncle, Burt Schooley and wife Judy of Whitesh; aunts, Shirley Hamberlin of Whitesh and Florence Renfro of Kenmore, Wash.; and numerous nieces, nephews and cousins.

Visitation will be Friday, March 12 from 1-8 p.m., at the Schnackenberg & Nelson Funeral Home in Libby. Services will be Saturday, March 13 at 1 p.m., at Christ Lutheran Church, 200 W. Larch St., in Libby. Schnackenberg & Nelson Funeral Homes & Crematory handled arrangements.

7/30/2017 The Western News - Obituaries, Kay B. Tarbert 2/2 
Johnson, Kay Beryl (I336)
41 ? birth 1843 New York State French, Mercy A. (I946)
42 ? birth 1879 or 1878 Hall, Boy (I1045)
43 ? Birth abt 1818 Athens, Harrison, OH

Birth ? (of) Athens Twp., Harrison, OH

Age32 in 1850

Sara Ann Dugan father - Joseph Dugan, - American born Penn? New York?
Sara Ann Dugan mother- Hexworth -German born
General Winfield Scott's mother was sister of Joseph Dugan
On one family record Sarah Dugan was thought of have been born in Nelson county, Kentucky 
Dugan, Sarah Ann (I252)
44 ? birth Charlevoix, Charlevoix, MI Mitchell, Mabel (I290)
45 ? birth place Moorefield or Deersville Tarbert, William (I256)
46 ? Birth place New Brunswick, , VT Spencer, Cyrus (I682)
47 ? Chicago, Dupage, Illinois check Dupage

No Childrens 
Lawrence, Margaret (I1271)
48 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I127)
49 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I467)
50 ? Family group has two date 10 May 1986 and 8 Aug 1992 2 husband which date is the is right? Blanc, Frank (I1244)

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