Robert Long

Male Abt 1760 - 1840  (~ 80 years)


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  • Name Robert Long 
    Born Abt 1760  of, Antrim, Ireland Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died 20 Jan 1840  of Duncan Creek, Laurens, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Buried Duncan Creek Presbyterian Church Cemetery, Duncan Creek, Laurens, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I3738  Petersen-de Lanskoy
    Last Modified 8 Apr 2015 

    Father Daniel Long,   b. Bef 1723, of, Antrim, Ireland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1767, of Duncan Creek, Laurens, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age > 44 years) 
    Mother Susannah Murdough,   b. 1723,   d. 9 Apr 1800, Duncan Creek, Laurens, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 77 years) 
    Married Bef 1757  of, Antrim, Ireland Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F785  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Notes 
    • RESEARCH_NOTES:
      1. Censuses:
      1790 US: Laurens Co., South Carolina, p. 442, nearby are probable brother-in-law John Owings (Owens):
      Robert Long, 1-3-5-0-0.

      1800 US: Laurens Co., South Carolina, 5 names away is John Owens and 2 doors the other way is James Adair:
      Robert Long, 0-1-0-1-0; 4-2-0-1-0; 0-2.

      1810 US: Laurens Co., South Carolina, pg. 60 of 76, next door neighbors include Thos. McCrary, Elisha Adiar, and Benja. Adir:
      Robert Long, 3-2-1-1-1; 2-2-2-1-1; 0-7.

      1820 US: Laurens Co., South Carolina, next door neighbor is Reuben Meadors.
      Robert Long, 3-0-1-1-1-1; 0; 5; 0; 0; 3-1-1-1; 3-2-2-0.

      1830 US: Laurens Co., South Carolina, pg. 218, next door neighbors include Robert Adair and Hannah Meadors whose husband Reuben evidently is deceased:
      Robert Long "Prog.," males 0-5: 2, 20-30:1, 60-70:1; females: 20-30:1, 30-40:1.

      1840 US: Laurens Co., South Carolina, pg. 36 of 146, some Adairs as neighbors but no more Meadors:
      Robert Long, Esqr., males: 70-80: 1; females: 40-50: 1; slaves: 29 total, listed as a revolutionary pensioner age 79.

      2. Laurens County Estate Book A-1:
      Pp. 101-102: "My friend Robert Long" listed as one of the executors to the "Will of James Pollock of Duncan's Creek, Laurens County." Will dated 26 Jul 1793.
      Pp. 111-116: " February 15, 1795. A Just and true Inventory or Bill of appraisement of all and singular the Goods and Chattles of James Pollock decd which hath been produced or brought to us by Patric Scot and Robert Long, Executors of the last will and testament of sd. Decd. Includes notes on... [many names listed including "Alexander Adair".]
      Pp. 207-208: Inventory of Manassah Wilson decd, 27 April 1799, brought ot us by John and Ruth Dillard, admr. &c. [total not given] by Benjamin Willson, John Owens, Robt Long, James Bell."

      3. Excerpts of "Adairs" from the book "Laurens County South Carolina - Minutes of the County Court, 1786-1789,number of pages at the end of the volume. There is at least one other volume, still missing, covering the years 1790-1799."
      It also notes: "Laurens County was formed in 1785 as a county of Ninety Six District. In that year justices of the peace were elected by the General Assembly to be administrators of the county courts. Within the pages of these court minutes are small court cases, lists of deeds presented to be recorded, applications for administrations on estates and wills proved (beginning in 1787), jury lists, petitions of various kinds, appointments for various offices, apprenticeships, estray animals tolled, and other items. The cases heard for debt or damages could not exceed £50, and cases heard for personal damages could not exceed £20. Criminal cases heard could not call for the loss of life or corporal punishment. Larger court cases were heard in the district courts, such as Ninety-Six."
      There are listings of various Adair and associated family members. Also listed is Robert Long, stepson of the original Joseph Adair [brother to the original James noted above] through his second wife Susannah Murdough, widow of Daniel Long:
      Pg. 192, 12 Dec 1787: Robert Long and Benjn Adair were on a jury for the case of Charles Saxon vs. Thomas Pearson concerning an Attachment.
      Pg. 192, 12 Dec 1787: Robert Long and Benjn Adair were on a jury for the case of George Anderson vs. Curnelius Dendy. In Trover.
      Pg. 197, 13 Dec 1787: Robert Long and Benjn Adair were on on the jury for the case of William Young Vs. James McNess & Hugh Young. In Debt.
      Pg. 199, 13 Dec 1787: Robert Long and Benjn Adair were on on a jury for the case of Wadsworth and Turpin Vs. Richard Carral. Non-performance of promises.
      Pg. 204, 15 Dec 1787: Robert Long and Benjn Adair were on was in the jury for the case of Mary Durham vs. Elizebeth Tindsley, in Trover.
      Pg. 318, 15 Sep 1789: "Robert Long is appointed Overseer of that part of the Highway leading from Dunkin's Creek to Hendrick's old place on the so fork of Dunkins' Creek in the place of Wm Boarling. Ordered that he cause several free male Inhabitants & Slave Contagious to & convenient to s'd Road to work thereon & keep the same in Good repair for one year from this
      date."

      BIOGRAPHY:
      1. Typescript "Early Adairs of Laurens County, South Carolina. Compiled by Mildred Brownlee; Source Records: Wills; Intestate Estates; Deeds; Court Records; Cemetery Inscriptions. Some dates of birth and death obtained from Lineage Charts. Dates of birth and death subject to correction. Spelling of names subject to correction." [Note that bracketed comments are later additions by other reviewers including myself - Kerry Petersen.]:
      A. "Laurens County, South Carolina - Will Book A-1, p. 19:
      'I, Joseph Adair of the State of So. Carolina & County of Laurens cooper; yet of sound & perfect understanding & memory; do constitute this my last will & testament & desire it may be received as such. First I most humbly bequeath my soul to God my maker, beseeching his most gracious exceptance of it, through all sufficient merits & meditations of my most compassionate Redeemer Jesus Christ who gave himself to be an atonement for my sins & is able to save to the uttermost all that come to God by him seeing he ever liveth to make intersession for them & who I trust will not reject me a returning penitent sinner when I come to Him for mercy; In this hope & confidence I render up my soul with comfort, humbly beseeching the most glorious & blessed Trinity, one God most Holy most merciful & gratious to prepare me for my disolution then take me to himself into that place of rest & incomparable felicity which He hath prepared for all that love his holy name, Amen; Blessed be God I give my body to the earth from whence it was taken, in full assurance of its resurrection from therein at the last day; As for my burial, I desire it may be decent without pomp or state at the discretion of my dear wife who I doubt not will manage it with all prudence; As to my worldly estate I will & positively order that all my debts be paid & next I give & bequeath to Susanna my dearly beloved wife all my stock of black cattle & hogs with all the pewter of my dresser; one hundred & sixty Continental dollars which is in the hands of my son Joseph Adair & all the store of my grain that may be mine at the time of my death for her support; Also all the farming utentials that belong to me at my death; Also my beds & bed furniture to possess the same during her life, & at her decease to go to my son James Adair, Also to my son Joseph Adair I give & bequeath the remainder of the Continental money that remains in his hands; Also one long posted bedstead & my armed chair; Also I give & bequeath to my son James Adair the one-half of my coopers tools; & other utentials belonging to my trade with the whole of my wearing apparel, & also my chest at the decease of my wife; Also to my son Benjamin Adair, I give & bequeath the other half of my coopers tools & utentials belonging to my trade & also the half of that twenty pounds old currency which he had of me for which he was to have palled a graveyard which he never performed; Also to my daughter Jean Ramage, I give & bequeath my brass seals; Also to my daughter Sarah Adair, I give & bequeath that other half of that twenty pounds old currency which is in the hands of my son Benjamin Adair; Also I give her at the death of my wife, that iron pot that was her mothers with my iron crook; Also I give & bequeath my daughter Mary Owens my biggest iron pot & my course flax hackle at the decease of her mother & to her husband John Owens the one-half of the sawed plank of my loft and floor; & if it shall please God to call me home by this present disease, it is my will that the money he owes me should go to defray my funeral charges; Also to Robert Long my son-in-law, I give & bequeath the other half of plank of my loft & floor; And I do by these presents nominate constitute & appoint & ordain as the executors of this my last will & testament my truly & well beloved sons Joseph & James Adair; & I do hereby revoke & disavow & make null & void every former will by me made ratifying & confirming this & no other to be my last will & testament. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand & affixed my seal this 9th day of January in the year of our Lord 1788.
      s) Joseph Adair
      wit: James Montgomery, William Borland, James (J) Greer'
      Recording date of the will is not stated. Judging by dates of other estate records recorded on pages preceding and following page 19, the will appears to have been recorded sometime in 1789 or early 1790.
      There are no loose probate papers for the estate of Joseph Adair; Sr.
      Joseph Adair, Sr., cooper, married in Ireland? Or in Pa. ? a first wife, said to have been Sarah Laferty. Laurens Co. SC records give no proof data for this wife. She was the mother of Joseph's children. Joseph Adair's will was written 9 Jan. 1788 and proved 1789/90, recorded in Will Book A-1, p. 19. The following children are mentioned in the will:
      1. Joseph Adair, b. 12 Apr. 1735 (from lineage chart), died 17 Oct. 1812. He was called Joseph Adair, Sr. after the death of his father.
      2. James Adair. b. Dec. 1747, d. 23 Mar. 1831 in Indiana. Proved to have been son of Joseph Adair, Sr. cooper, by the Power-of-Attorney issued to his brother, Benjamin Adair. (Deed Bk. G, p. 666.)
      3. Benjamin Adair, b. 1752, d, 3 Sept. 1823.
      4. Jean/Jane Adair, b. before 1755, married (John ?) Ramage. [Listed in will as Jean Ramage; some misread writing on will as Leah but it is definitely Jean.]
      5. Sarah Adair - Single in 1788? Or married to an Adair?"
      [Note the term "son-in-law" as used with Robert Long was common usage for stepson.]

      B. "The exact date of death for the first wife of Joseph Adair, Sr., cooper, in not known. He married (2) sometime after 1767, Susannah, the widow of Daniel Long.
      Long Family:
      The pension petition of Robert Long, Revo. soldier, states that he was b. c1763 in County Antrim, Ireland. When he was a few months old, the family came to Pa. where they lived until c1765 or 1766, then came to SC. His father died when Robert Long was age 4 (sometime in 1767). Evidently the father Long did not live long enough after coming to SC to complete arrangements for his grant of land ... no record of a grant has been located; however, on the plat for land granted in 1771 to one Jacob Jones near Duncan Creek Presbyterian Church, the adjoining land was shown as belonging to Daniel Long. Deed Bk. F, p. 510 shows sale of the Jones land in 1797 and the deed mentions that the adjoining land is "laid out for Daniel Long Dec'D.." (The Deed Abstracts by Miss Nash does not include mention of Daniel Long, but the original deed book does.) Robert Long further stated in his petition that he had a brother who died in 1776.
      Daniel Long, b. Ireland. d. in SC c1767, married in Ireland, Susannah - who died 9 Apr. 1800; age ?. Chn: Samuel Long, b. 1757, d. 1776, age 19. Bur. Duncan Creek.
      Robert Long, b. 1763, d. 30 Jan. 1840, age 80(?). Bur. Duncan Creek; Revo. soldier; mar. Elizabeth, widow of John Finney. In his will, Joseph Adair, cooper, called Robert Long his "son-in-law", a Colonial term for "step-son".
      Mary Long, b. 1760-62, married John Owens. The wording of the will of Joseph Adair, cooper, in 1788 clearly indicates that the mother of Mary Owens is still living at that date, in which case, she would have to be Susannah. True, Joseph Adair refers to Mary Owens as his "daughter" - simply neglecting to add "-in-law" meaning "step-daughter".
      Previous work done on the family of Mary and John Owens reveals that Mary was born c1760-62 ... a number of years before the death of Daniel Long and before his widow, Susannah, married Joseph Adair. If, as indicated. Mary Owens is a daughter of Susannah, she could not possibly be a daughter of Joseph Adair.
      John and Mary Owens named their first son "Daniel". Robert Long named his first son "Daniel". The families of John and Mary Owens and Robert Long were closely associated through the years ... witnessing wills and deeds for each other and in succeeding generations, becoming involved in guardianships, etc. Neither family seems to have been as closely associated with the Adairs.
      The final, most decisive evidence that Mary Owens and Robert Long were siblings is this:
      Deed Bk. J, p. 80 - Be it known to all whom it may concern that I, Thomas Murdough, for divers reasons do hereby impower and constitute as my agent to transact my temporal concerns, Robert Long Esq. and do hereby authorize him to sell all my moveable effects and rent my plantation and keep a Just account of my temporal concerns. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal the 16th day of October A.D. 1807.
      test John B. Kennedy Thomas Murdough (Seal)
      Thomas Beasley
      NB: and at my death that there shall be an equal divide of whatever may be remaining of my property between and Robert Long and Mary Owens.
      Oath of Thomas Beasley that he was present and saw said Thos. Murdough sign and seal the within writing for the within purpose mentioned and likewise acknowledge the three lines below as part of the same. 17th April 1809. (S) Thomas Beasley.
      Recorded April 22nd 1809 by John Garlington, Register.
      (This document as drawn up is the equivalent of a Last Will and Testament.)
      Duncan Creek Presbyterian Church cemetery: In memory of Thomas MURDOUGH who died 15th August 1809, aged 81 years.
      Thomas Murdough was born 1728. It is quite possible that he was a brother of Susannah Long Adair. There must have been kinship because of the fact that Thomas willed his property equally divided between the two living children of Susannah. Descendants of John and Mary Owens have a dim recollection of the name "Muldrow" in their background. The name could have easily been "Murdough"."

      2. FHL book 975.731 H2b "A Laurens County Sketchbook," by Julian Stevenson Bolick [with my edited notes added in brackets]:
      Pg. 1: "An early record showing an original grant from George III to an ancestor of the Putnams of Gray Court has Laurens District in Craven County. 'Wallace's History of South Carolina" verifies the fact that a vast tract of land to the south of Virginia had been granted in 1663 by Charles II to eight British lords. Craven County, an extensive region covering most of South Carolina and parts of North Carolina, was a part of this sprawling acreage. In 1719 the people threw off the rule of the lords Proprietors, at which time the rights of the government and seven-eighths of the soil were ceded to the king. A later territorial separation placed Laurens in the Ninety Six District. On March 12, 1785, Laurens was made a separate district by an Act of the General Assembly…
      "Major Jonathan Downes, a colonial officer, headed a group of influential citizens commissioned to survey the territory. Gentleman Justices serving with Major Downes included James Montgomery [father of Rebecca Montgomery who married James Adair], Silvanus Walker, William Mitcherson and Charles Saxon. After the districting was made legal by the act of legislation, the justices were authorized 'to build and keep in good repair at the charge of the county one good and convenient courthouse with necessary jury rooms and one good and sufficient county gaol together with a pillory, whipping post and stocks…"
      Pg. 3: "In 1790 the first government census taken after he adoption of the Constitution gave Laurens District 1,395 heads of families, with a total population of 9,337 including Negro freedmen and slaves. Laurens District, at that time, had a larger population than any other district above Newberry, the latter outnumbering Laurens by only a few hundred…"
      Pg. 4: "The first permanent white settler to come to Upper Carolina is believed to have been John Duncan of Aberdeen, Scotland. He first stopped in Pennsylvania, but as early as 1753 he was known to have been in the Ninety Six District on land bordering a creek later named for him.
      "On a return to Pennsylvania, Duncan influenced friends to come to Ninety Six and establish homesteads. He brought his own family and a pair of fine stud horses to pull the first wagon ever to roll over soil between the Broad and Saluda rivers. A lush growth of maiden cane bordering the creek had been the deciding factor for closing out his interests in Pennsylvania.
      "Two of the settlers to accompany him were David and Charles Little, for whom a community was named later. [David Little, 1767-1812, married Charity Adair].
      "Records show early land grants to Andrew McCrary (McCreary), Joseph Adair, Robert Hanna, Thomas Ewing, James Pollock, Thomas Logan and Thomas Craig - all in the group following Mr. Duncan to Carolina."
      Pg. 5: "Still another friend of John Duncan was Joshua Palmer, a minister, who was so influential in the new community that when he moved to Indiana about 1828 he carried with him several families from his ecclesiastical society…
      "Robert Long was brought to this country at the age of five months, and at the age of two years was moved from Pennsylvania to the South. Robert's father was a well known construction engineer, who by government contract in 1769 built Fort Charlotte on the Savannah River. [Robert Long, son of Daniel Long and Susannah Murdough; Susannah becomes Joseph Adair, Sr.'s second wife after Sarah Lafferty. Brownlee states Daniel died in 1767; is this a different Robert Long? On the other hand the British built the fort for the French and Indian War, which was 1756-1763 - so the 1769 date could be in error.]
      "From North Carolina James Williams came, having been attracted to the fertile lands bordering Little River where he pursued farming and engaged in a mercantile business. His plantation was named Mount Pleasant..." [James Williams was the subject of the James Williams Petition that most early Adair men signed.]
      Pg. 7: "After peace was secured by a vigorous and successful campaign against the Indians in 1761, the backwoodsmen of Carolina, as all people in the territory remote from Charles Town were called, gave their undivided time to replacing the temporary dwellings with more adequate homes. Many of the settlers had stopped in Virginia, but there it was made clear that only those who belonged to the Established Church were welcome; consequently, the ones believing strongly in freedom of worship came on into Carolina. They were principally Scotch-Irish and by no means adventurers…"
      Pg. 17: "LITTLESVILLE: One of the first centers of population in Laurens County was Littlesville on Duncan's Creek. David and Charles Little, mentioned previously in this sketch, had come to this country from 'Doublin,' Ireland. David married Charity Adair, the daughter of a Revolutionary soldier. Members of these two families, the Littles and the Adairs, are buried in the old Duncan's Creek Church cemetery. One of the gravestones bears the inscription 'David Little, a native of Ireland.' It is not known which of the early Adairs was the father of Charity, but the Adairs were in this section, probably as early as were the Little brothers. [Charity was the daughter of Joseph, son of the original Joseph.] Joseph B. [Sr.] came from Ireland in 1711 and died in Laurens County in 1801; Joseph, Jr., [son of Joseph Sr.] was born in Pennsylvania (the state from which John Duncan recruited settlers) in 1733 and died in Laurens in 1812; and John B. was born in Duncan's Creek neighborhood in 1758 and died in Georgia [son of Joseph Jr. and brother to Charity]. Doctor W.S. Glenn of Spartanburg had in his possession in 1930 a map of a very early date which showed a community called Littlesville, about three miles from the historic Duncan's Creek Church. The site is no longer listed even in the crossroad category, the majority of the people from this creek bank settlement having moved to the thriving community of Clinton…
      Pp. 42-43: "DUNCAN'S CREEK PRESBYTERIAN: One of the early utilitarian buildings was Duncan's Creek Presbyterian Church in the rural section of Jacks Township. Servants of the John Duncan family had erected a brush arbor about 1753, at which time John Duncan had come into the area. A more permanent building of fieldstones was put up in 1764, and that date is visible in a cornerstone of the presently used building erected in 1842. The date 1764 was retained for historic purposes. The original granite walls, two feet in thickness, and the straight-backed pews of oak attest to the strong faith of the era and of the congregations of that particular church. In recent years the small-outmoded reed organ from the fieldstone church was given to Thornwell Home for children in Clinton, where it is still used on occasions calling for a colonial atmosphere. During the Revolutionary War, the church building served as a place of protection for the people of that area. Often referred to as the mother of Presbyterian churches, it is the oldest church organization in the upper part of the state. Both Lisbon Presbyterian and Clinton First Presbyterian were started as mission extensions of the Duncan's Creek Church. The first minister was the Reverend Hezekiah Balch, year 1776. In the same year John B. Kennedy was ordained and continued as pastor intermittently for fifty years. In 1788 the Duncan's Creek Church became involved in serious difficulties. The majority of the members being canny old Scotchmen, theological discord was instituted over whether to use Rouse's or Watt's version of the Psalms. Sixty-three members seceded to form other churches. Although each plantation had its own burial ground, Duncan's Creek church offered burial plots in its churchyard in 1776. Some of the ancient mounds have lost their identity, but one bearing the marking 'Samuel Long, aged 19 years, November 15th, 1776, is still legible [brother of Robert Long and son of Daniel Long and Susannah Murdough]. Sixteen soldiers of the Revolution are buried in the churchyard. In October of 1964, Duncan's Creek Presbyterian Church observed with appropriate ceremony the two-hundredth anniversary of its founding…"

      3. "The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research," vol. 11, pp. 183-184: "Ninety Six District Militia in the American Revolution," contributed by Robert S. Davis, Jr., Jasper, GA: "The following account of medicines provided South Carolina soldiers during the 1778 American invasion of British East Florida was found in the Lyman C. Draper Collection of the State Hisorical Society of Wisconsin, Volume 1, series VV, fo. 28, and is reproduced here with the permission of State Historical Society of Wisconsin. It was located through Josephine L. Harper, 'Guide to the Draper Manuscripts,' (Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1983). The Draper Collection is available on microfilm at the South Carolina Archives, the University of Georgea, Emory University and elsewhere." The doctor was George Ross who was the brother-in-law to Rebecca Montgomery (he married Isabella Montgomery):
      "1778. The publick of South Carolina... to George Ross... Dr: To medicines adminstered to the Men, who went out in the Expedition to Florida under the command of Colonel Williamson, By Order of Colonel James Williams.
      August 9th
      :8= Vomit 32 s/6-purging Ingredts: with Rheubard 50s/3 for Jon: Adair Junr: in Capt: Josiah Greers compy. 4₤2S6P.
      9th= Vomit 3s/6 for 2 papers of purgg. Ingredients ₤ 4+ 6 anadyne powders ₤ 3: for Robt: Long in Ct: Greers Co: 8 12 6..."
      17th= Vomit 32s/6 Febrifuge Ingredients ₤3..5s for Jon. Ramage..Capt: Greers Co. 4 17 6.
      15th= Febrifuge Ingredients for Jon. Romage...Capt. Greers Compy. 3 5 0.
      16th= visit 4 miles 40s/6 cooling powders ₤3 for Jon: Ramage...Capt. Greers Co. 5 0 0.
      3 1/2 ozs saline mixture ₤5 for Jon: Ramage...Capt. Greers Compy. 5 0 0.
      Vomit 32s/6...for Isaac Adair...Capt. Greer's Company. 1 12 6.
      ninety six District
      July 31st 79
      Personally appeared before me one of the States Justices of the peace Wm Boss... and made oath that the above acct: is Just and true... /S/ J.S. Hayes JP; For Doctr: George Ross /S/ Wm Ross.
      Augst. 4 1779
      I Dow hear by sertifi that the above Serves Was Don by My orders this from under my Hand this day a bove wrten /S/ Coll Jas Williams."

      4. "South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research," vol. 12, p. 204: "Early Elders of Duncan's Creek Presbyterian Church Laurens County, SC": "While the early records of Duncan's Creek Presbyterian Church (near Clinton, SC) were destroyed by fire in 1844, a record of the first elders was kept and recorded in the book beginning in 1844 and going through 1891. A copy of this record may be seen at the Historical Foundation of the Presbyterian and Reformed Churches, Montreat, NC, as well as a copy kept by the church itself. Only the names of the earliest elders are published here.
      "These were the first Elder ordained by Revd. Hezekiah Balch, before or during the war." "These six, first bench of Elders."
      Andrew McCrery
      Joseph Adair Sen
      Thomas Ewing
      Robert Hanna - ordained in Pennsylvania
      James Polock
      Thomas Logan - ordained in Ireland
      "These six Elders were ordained in October 1788, by Revd. Joseph Alexander.
      James Craig
      Robert Bell
      Thomas McCrery
      Joseph Greer
      Samuel Laird
      Robert Long"

      5. "South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research," vol. 13, pp. 213-218, "Memories of Laurens County,' contributed by Mary A. Seyle, CGRS. Selected entries:
      "Wallace in his 'History of South Carolina' tells us that as early as 1731 the king sought to interest colonists for Carolina and other provinces where the older settlements were in danger of attacks by the Indians. It has been stated that many settlers came to South Carolina at the close of the French and Indian Wars. However, there were already a number of settlers in the Laurens area and other communities before Braddock's defeat in 1755.
      That is also the year when Governor James Glen conclueded a treaty with the Cherokees whereby the Indians ceded to the crown all the land south of the old Indian line, thus making room for more settlers. They came down from Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and from countries overseas. They came, they inspected, they admired, and a goodly number settled in Carolina, quite a number in present Laurens County.
      The earliest settler of Laurens County, we are told, was one John Duncan, who came from Aberdeen, Scotland, to Pennsylvania. He then visited South Carolina for a while, in 1742, and later, about 1751 returned to South Carolina with his family and some friends. Other early settlers whose names still may found in the area came down after Duncan. John Craig from Ireland was granted a tract along the Enoree River. John Kern came from England; Frederick Kern, from Germany...
      At this time, while the settlers were busy establishing homes, cultivating new land, and dealing with the Indians who were no longer so friendly as they had been, another trouble kept them busy. The lawless element that is present in any new community appeared in upper South Carolina, stealing stock, robbing and murdering, when the colonists sought to protect themselves, and generally adding to the heardships the new community had endured. The responsible citizens finally took matters in their own hands and formed bands of Regulators, as they called themselves, meting out what they considered just punishment. The lawless ones retaliated, sometimes the inhabitants were sued by the outsiders, there were incidents of violence, and the honest men suffered. After many protests, the citizens of the upper part of the province made their voice heard. They felt that as subjects of the king, they were entitled to the same rights and privileges as other free Englishmen, and asked for themselves and their families schools, churches, and a part in the government of their community.
      A justifiable compliant of the up-country was that all courts sat in Charleston, all cases were tried there, and no lawyer was allowed to practice unless he had 'been admitted to the bar by the Court of Common Pleas of Charleston, or any atterney of that court, and a resident of this Province.' Travel was slow in the 18th century, and it was a long trip for a man to take from the upper part of the province to Charleston even to be admiited to the bar, and a very long way to go to register a deed or transact any legal business.
      Eventually vigorous protests were heeded, and under the Court Act of 1769 entitled 'An Act for the More Convenient Administration of Justice in this Province,' courts were established, rules for the election or appointment of sheriffs and other officials were laid down, the and duties of the judges were clarified. Jails were built, and dates for the sitting of the courts were set. At Ninety-Six, the court house town for the area now Laurens County, courts were to sit on the 15th of April and November. If Courth Day fell on a Sunday, the court was to begin the following day...
      Having won her independence and the Treaty of Paris having been formally signed in 1783 (although the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown in 1781 virutally ended the fighting) South Carolina now turned her attention to internal orgainization and development. No longer a province, but now a state, she busied herself laying out counties, building court houses and etting up her own government. And with a very few exceptions all of our counties were created after the close of the Revolution.
      Laurens County was created... 12 March 1785...Six counties for the district ... called Ninety Six...
      Charles Woodmason, an Anglican missionary to the 'wilds of South Carolina' in his book 'Carolina Up Country Before the Revolution' takes a very pessimistic view of the manners and morals of this part of the state prior to and shortly after the Revolution. However, the records show several churches in the present Laurens County before the Revoution.
      John Duncan who was the first settler in Laurens is said to be responsible for the first Presbyterian Church in the county. Hi is the man form whom the area Duncan's Creek is named, having settled there about 1751. As early as 1764, he erected a 'brush arbor' where those who wished to worship could assemble for their services. Later he had a meeting house erected. The arbor was actually used before the church itself was built, and that is said to date from 1764.
      Hazel Crowson Sellers of North Carolina in her book on 'Old South Carolina Churches; says that John Duncan was joined by his friends Joseph Adair and Robert Long, both of whom were Revolutionary War soldiers, and that Hezekiah Balch held services at Duncan's Creek as early as 1752. Joseph Palmer, a minister, is also said to have been a friend of John Duncan, and was so popular that when he went to Indiana in 1828 a number of the old friends followed him.
      The present building at Duncan's Creek is said to be the third erected on the lot, having been built in 1842, and earliest known grave is that of Susannah Long, dated in 1776. A number of soldiers went from this church to fight in the patriot's cause..."

      6. James Williams Petition listing the Adair family Patriots. Note that Thomas Adair's parents are the ones listed as number 4 (Joseph and Sarah) and his grandparents are number 3 (James and Eleanor). Most of the other Adairs were brothers or cousins. The petition has come to me from Mildred Brownlee's manuscript "Early Adairs of Laurens County, South Carolina" and also from the "South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research," vol. 15, p. 32. James Williams was one of the most renown Patriots of the Laurens area and this listing of signers of the petition of the area gives us a good source of patriots also associated with him. Col. James Williams and Capt. Josiah Greer were also military leaders of many of these same individuals during the 1778 American invasion of British East Florida per the source of Doctor George Ross' medical reimbursement papers quoted in this database under Rebecca Montgomery's notes. This petition typescript is item #5767, Manuscript Dept., Wm. M. Perkins Library at Duke University, Durham NC. Submitted by Mrs. Mary Ann McCrary and published with permission of the Manuscript Dept. This petition pre-dates the Battle of Kings Mountain (7 Oct 1780), as Col. James Williams was killed at that time. [NB: a second version of the petition was located in the South Carolina Library in 1999 and the gaps in the Duke University petition were filled in as indicated by brackets.] {Any notes or comments added by me are in these brackets.}
      "To his Excellen[cy John Rutledge, E]sq. Governor & Commander in Chief in & [over th]e state of South Carolina, the Honourable the privy Counsel, the Honourable the Senate & House of Representatives in General Assembly.
      Whereas we (the zealous friends to our country, and to all who love and distinguish themselves in her cause) do understand & are exceeding sorry to hear that there are false & [evilly designing] Accusations either lying on or about to shortly be laid against James Williams, our present Colonel in & over Little River Regiment, and designed (as we believe) by the private Enemies of our country to deprive us of so worthy a friend of his Country in general a good officer to us in particular & thereby do a very singular Piece of Service to the common enemies of America. We do briefly & anxiously remonstrate this: that we experimentally know Colo. James Williams to have been a zealous Patriot from the commencement of the America contest with Briten; and to have always stood foremost in every occasion when called upon to the defence of his country. We do further declare that we have never known said Colo. [Jas.].Williams to distress any individuals in the Regiment who voluntarily & judiciously, when legally called upon and commanded to the field, have turned out in the Defence if their Native Rights & Privileges together with that of their Country; & we do avow it from our knowledge, that whensoever Colo. Jas. Williams either directly or indirectly executed any distressing things, it was upon the stubborn & refractory, whose practices of obstinacy declare them inimical to their country: & and that this he did, as being last promissing Effort to reduce them to the dutiful obedience of loyal & fellow citizens. Without delaying you; we your humble Petitioners do earnestly beg that you will hear this our faithful Remonstrance & proceed with our respected Colo. James Williams & all such unjust & disaffected Clamours as may come before you against him, as your superior Judgements may direct: only begging leave to conclude with this one Remark, that doubtless you know that such clamours are frequently the necessary Effect of Disaffection to the Country.
      Robt. McCrery Lt. Colo. Josiah Greer Henry Atwood Thomas Ewing
      George Davis, Capt. Joseph Ramage James Adair, Sr. William Blake
      Matthew McCrar[e]y, Lt. John Robinson Joseph Adair Jr. James Gamble
      George Young John Bourland Joseph Adair [Edward Stapleton]
      Matthew Cunningham John Greer Juner Benjamin Adair [John Gamble]
      Andrew McCrary Isaac Adair Joseph Adair Sr. [William Huddleston]
      James Greer Jms. Adair James Adair Jr., [James Huddleston]
      [James Dillard] [Thos McCrery J.P.] son of James [Alexander Adair]
      [John Owens] [James Ones] [William Adair] [Benjamin Willson]
      [Samuel Ewing] [Andrew Ones] [John Finney] [Benja. Goodman]
      [William Davis] [John Watson] [John Adair] [Daniel Williams]
      [Absolom Filby] [Hughes Manford (?)] [John Adair Sener]
      [John McCrary Sener] [David Watson] [James Craige]
      [John McCrary Juner] [Isaac Greer] [William Craig]
      [Robert Long] [James Ralley] [James Howerton]
      [Matthew McCrary] [John Ramage] [Phillip Whitten]
      [William Bean]] [John Glenn] [John Gray]
      [John Williams J.P {note [John Jones (M L. (?)] [John Greer]
      [J.P. is crossed out}] [James Montgomery]
      [Wm. Arthur Capt.]
      Suggested identification of the Adairs who signed this petition:
      1. Isaac Adair - Killed in Apr. 1781, left widow, Ruth.
      2. Jms. Adair - b. 1747, son of' Joseph Adair, Sr.; mar. Rebecca Montgomery.
      3. James Adair, Sr. - died before 1796; wife, Eleanor.
      4. Joseph Adair, Jr. - Son of above James & Eleanor; wife Sarah.
      5. Joseph Adair - died 1812; son of Joseph Adair, Sr.
      6. Benjamin Adair - died 1823; son of Joseph Adair, Sr.; wife Nancy.
      7. Joseph Adair, Sr. - died 1789-90; wife: Susannah.
      8. James Adair, Jr., son of James - son of James Adair & wife Eleanor; died 1818, wife Hannah.
      9. William Adair - died 1780-84. Estate administered 1784, Abbe. Wills, p. 10.
      10. John Adair - died 1813 in Ga., wife Jane; son of Joseph Adair; grandson of Joseph Adair, Sr.
      11. John Adair, Sr. - Killed in 1782, wife Sarah. Abbe. Wills, p. 10. Probable son of Joseph Adair, Sr. {Kerry's note: or maybe James Adair, Sr.}
      12. Alexander Adair - Scotch-Irish immigrant in 1767? See Protestant Immigrants to SC - Janie Revill, p. 74.
      {Note the above suggestions are as provided by Mildred Brownlee. I make the following additions of individuals related to the Adairs:
      13. James Gamble - father of William Gamble who marries Martha Adair, daughter of James Adair who was son of James Adair, Sr., the original settler and cooper.
      14. Robert Long - Son of Susannah Murdough from her first marriage before she married Joseph Adair the cooper.
      15. John Owens - Husband of Mary Long. Mary was the sister of Robert Long and a daughter of Susannah Murdough from her first marriage before Joseph Adair.
      16. John Ramage - Husband to Jean or Jane Adair, the daughter of Joseph Adair the cooper and his first wife Sarah Laferty.
      17. George Davis - Died 1781- 1783. First husband to Elizabeth Adair, daughter of Joseph Adair, Jr. and Elizabeth ___.
      18. James Montgomery - Father to Rebecca who married James Adair, the saddler and son of Joseph Adair the cooper. James' other daughter Isabella married Dr. George Ross who was a physician with many of the above in their East Florida expedition in the early days of the Rev. War.
      19. John Jones - There were two John Jones in the area at the time. One was the husband of Hannah Adair, daughter of James and Eleanor Adair. Unsure which John Jones this may be. Our John Jones died before Sep 1788.}"

      7. "South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research," "Laurens District Coroner's Inquisitions 1802-1865," show Robert Long, Esquire, as one of the Justices of the Peace:
      Vo. 25, pp. 22-23: "Inquest on the Body of John Rea. Filed 2nd Jany 1809. Laurens District - An Inquisition Indented taken at John Luks in the district aforesaid the twenty first day of november in the year 1808, before me Robert Long Esquire one of the Justices assigned to keep the peace in and for the said district (the Coroner being absent) upon the view of the body of John Rea of the district of Laurens aforesaid taylor, then and there Lying dead upon the oaths of William Craigg, James Howeton,Samuel Mcconokey, Patrick Scott, James Willson, David Graham, John Dilard, francis Bradock, James Adair senior, Thomas Mccrery, William Mcclure senior, Reuben Meddows, James Craig, David Templeton senior good and Lawful men of the said district who being charged and Sworn to enquire for the Said State, when, where, how, and after what manner the Said John Rea came to his death do Say upon their oathes that he aforesaid John Rea did come to his death By Intoxication... In witness whereof... the Jurors... put our hand and seal the day and year first above written. Robert Long J.P., Willam Craig, James (X) Howerton, Samuel Mconaky, Patrick Scott, James Willson, David Graham, John Dillard, Francis (X) Braddock, James Adair, Thomas Mccrary, William (X) McCluer, Reuben Meador, James Craig, David (X) Templeton."
      Vol 25, p. 84: [Note: I suggest that Joseph Adair was probably the son of Joseph (the cooper) and Elizabeth Adair, the first James was their son, and the second James was probably the son of James(the cooper) and Eleanor Adair. "Inquest on the dead Body of Jack and African the property of Thomas McCrery... Filed 16 April 1810. Laurens District - An inquisition indented taken at Thomas McCrery's... the Sixth day of April in the year 1810, before me Robert Long one of the Justices assinged to keep the peace for the district aforesaid, upon the view of the Body of a Negro man named Jack... then and there lying Dead upon the Oaths of Joseph Adair, Josiah Williams, John Finney, Manaseh Finney, Abraham Holland, Richard Holland, George McCrery, John Weeks, James Adair son of Joseph, John Gamble, George Gamble and James Adair; good and lawful men of the said district... Say upon their oaths that Jack the Negro... with a Cord madeof cotton usually termed a plough Line... and there in his cabin with said rope Round his neck, double in the form of a noose and the other part tied round one of the ribs of the cabin aforesaid by which means he was strangled to death then and there Volontarily and feloniously as a felon ofeldid kill and Murder and hang himself against the peace of this State. Robert Long, J.P., Joseph Adair, Josiah Williams, John finney, Manasseh Finney, Abram Holland, Richard Holland, Geo. McCrery, John Weeks, James Adair, John Gamble, George Gamble, James Adair."
      Vol. 26, pp. 17-18 [I suggest that Thomas McCrary, Jr., is the husband of Cassandra Adair, Reuben Meadors is husband to Hannah Adair, James Adair Sr is probably the son of James and Eleanor Adair, and James Adair Jr is probably his son.]:"An Inquest on the Dead Body of a Negro man named Daniel the property of Reuben Meddows. Filed November 5th 1816. Laurens District - An Inquest taken at Reuben Meddows in the district of Laurens aforesaid the seventeenth day of September in the year 1816 before me Robert Long Esquire one of the Justices assigned to keep the peace in the district aforesaid... Daniel... Lying dead upon of the oaths of Jason Meddows, James Bonds, James Adair, senior, Thomas McCrery senior, Francis Braddock, Stephen Bradock, Joseph McConohey, James Adair junior, Joseph McCrery, Thomas McCrery junior, William Scott and John finney... Daniel, came to his death, do say upon their Oaths, that he came to his death by the visitation of God then and there to wit Reuben Meddows field aforesaid he died... In witness... Robt Long J.P., Jason Meador for., James (X) Bonds, James Adair, Thomas McCrary, Francis (X) Braddock, Stephen Bradock, Joseph Mcconathy, James adair junr., Joseph Mccrary, Thos McCrary Junr., William Scott, John finney."
      Vol. 28, p. 105: "No constable being near, and the late hour in which the dead body was found being dead some hours and from the great heat, smelled very disagreeable; made the Justice Issue his Warrant... Robert Long J.Q. Laurens District - At an inquisi[t]ion taking at Samuel Fergusons Sen the District of Laurens afforesaid the 21st day of July in the year 1839 before me Robert Long Esq. one of the Justices of the Quorum for the district afforesaid Uppon the view of the bodie of Samuel Ferguson Sen... upon the oaths of Thomas Wier, John Finnay Joseph Ramage, James Adair, Thos Potter, Robt Owens, Doct. James McElroy, Turner Ferguson, Henry McElvey, Thos. Ferguson, Madison Ferguson, Robert Adair, Edmond Adair & Henry Adair... Came to his death by Intemperance in the use of sprities liquors..."

      8. Typescript "Early Adairs of Laurens County, South Carolina." Compiled by Mildred Brownlee; Source Records: Wills; Intestate Estates; Deeds; Court Records; Cemetery Inscriptions. Some dates of birth and death obtained from Lineage Charts. Dates of birth and death subject to correction. Spelling of names subject to correction. For this particular individual, there is no connection yet proved except for proximity in time and location thru the following record. Note the following record, as given by Brownslee, does not tell me whether this individual was of the Laurens County area or not:
      "Compensation for Revolutionary Service. South Carolina House of Representatives-Annuities, Claims, and Pension Reports.
      1785
      Feb. 7 pd. Eliz. Adair, widow of Robert,* killed by Indians.
      Apr. 24 pd. Sarah Adair, widow of John, killed in '82.
      June 10 pd. Catherine Adair, widow of Benjamin, killed 10 Mar. '81.
      Nov. 29 pd. Elizabeth Finny. Widow of John Finny, killed at Cowpens. She mar. (2) Robert Long.
      1786 Aug. 23 pd. Eliz'h Adair, wid. of Robert, killed by Indians."

      BIRTH:
      1. Tombstone reads: "Sacred to the memory of Robert Long who departed this life January 20, 1840 aged 80 years."

      BURIAL:
      1. Per http://www.geocities.com/Heartland/Valley/9708/dcem.html, there is a listing in the Duncan Creek Presbyterian Church cemetery that reads:
      Long, Robert, 1760 - Jan. 20, 1840.
      Long, Elizabeth, wife of Robert Long, 1756 - Sept. 4, 1823.
      Long, Miss Susan, 1783 - Nov. 12, 1873.
      Long, Mary, daughter of Robert & Elizabeth Long, died July 20, 1817 (b. 1789), age 28 also on her left hand lies her niece Martha Monfoord.
      Long, Martha, daughter of Robert & Elizabeth Long, died Oct. 29, 1825.
      WEIR, Nancy Long, 1799 - July 17, 1875.
      WEIR, Dr. Thomas, 1800 - July 14, 1880.