Joseph Adair, (Cooper)

Male Abt 1711 - Aft 1788  (~ 77 years)


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  • Name Joseph Adair 
    Suffix (Cooper) 
    Born Abt 1711  of, County Antrim, Ireland Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died Aft 9 Jan 1788  , Laurens, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Buried Duncan Creek Cemetery, Duncan Creek, Laurens, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I3692  Petersen-de Lanskoy
    Last Modified 13 Sep 2015 

    Father Adair 
    Family ID F1570  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 1 Sarah Laferty,   b. Bef 1715, of , , Pennsylvania, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Bef 1767, of Duncan Creek, Laurens, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age < 52 years) 
    Married Bef 1735  of, , Pennsylvania, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Children 
     1. Sarah Adair,   d. Aft 9 Jan 1788
    +2. Joseph Adair, Jr.,   b. 12 Apr 1735, of, Chester, Pennsylvania, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Abt 20 Jan 1812, , Laurens, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 76 years)
    +3. Jean or Jane Adair,   b. Abt 1738, of, , Pennsylvania, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. From 1795 to 1797, of Duncan Creek, Laurens, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 57 years)
     4. James Adair, (Saddler),   b. 23 Nov 1747, of, , Pennsylvania, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 23 Mar 1835, Brookville, Franklin, Indiana, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 87 years)
    +5. John Adair,   b. Abt 1750, , , Pennsylvania, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1782, of Duncan Creek, Laurens, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 32 years)  [challenged]
     6. Benjamin Adair,   b. 1752, of , , Pennsylvania, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 3 Sep 1823, of Duncan Creek, Laurens, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 71 years)
    Last Modified 22 Oct 2015 
    Family ID F782  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 Susannah Murdough,   b. 1723,   d. 9 Apr 1800, Duncan Creek, Laurens, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 77 years) 
    Married Aft 1767  of Duncan Creek, Laurens, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Last Modified 22 Oct 2015 
    Family ID F1572  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Notes 
    • RESEARCH_NOTES:
      1. My general notes on the early Colonial Adairs:
      Migration of Adairs to America began during the early to mid-1700s. They came from the Ulster counties in Northern Ireland, and from Galloway, Scotland, wrote Dr. James Barnett Adair in his 1924 book "Adair History and Genealogy." Adair's studies indicate these Adairs stopped in Maryland, New Jersey, and (in larger numbers) Pennsylvania, later scattering to South Carolina and other southern states. My research does place Joseph Adair in Delaware in association with some legal dealings for the Ramage family in the 1750s and also with a marriage record to his wife Sarah Lafferty. By association, we have assumed his brother James may have been with him there, but this is conjecture without any proof. They were definitely together by the time they arrived in South Carolina in the 1760s. The name Joseph is not the most common first name among Adairs and leads us to assume all Pennsylvania mentions of Joseph Adair in this mid-1700s time period to be our Joseph Adair. Besides the proof of his marriage to Sarah Lafferty, we also have the Lancaster Co., PA, tax record for 1758 showing that the Joseph Adair was a cooper, a profession he also acknowledges later in South Carolina.
      Adair in his book purports that a Thomas Adair (who came from county Antrim in Ireland about 1730 to Chester County, Pa.) was believed to have three sons (James, Joseph, William) born in Ireland and who traveled to this country as single men. He further indicates Thomas came with his sons to Laurens Co., South Carolina. However, researchers have not found proof to connect a Thomas Adair with James and Joseph Adair who acquired land patents in 1768 on waters of Duncan Creek, which is now in Laurens County, So. Carolina; neither have they found proof of an early Thomas Adair in Laurens Co. East of Adair's settlement in Laurens Co. was the better known Waxhaw Colony, settled by other Pennsylvania Scotch-Irish and of which a William Adair and his son John Adair was a part. This John Adair later achieves note by becoming Governor of Kentucky. There is no proof that James and Joseph of Laurens Co., had a brother William or that this William was that brother. On the other hand, we are somewhat confident that James and Joseph were brothers based on Mildred Brownlee's well-documented work quoted elsewhere in this database. It is also the author Adair's unsupported contention that Thomas was the son of Alexander Adair, and grandson of Rev. Patrick Adair of County Antrim in Ireland. Rev. Patrick married his cousin, Miss Jean Adair, daughter of the first Sir Robert Adair. Rev. Patrick Adair had four sons and one daughter. His third son was Alexander Adair, the father of the supposed pioneer Thomas Adair. He states that the names of Alexander's wife and Thomas Adair's wife are not known.
      It should be noted that Adair in his book cannot be relied on for these early Adairs since there are many proven errors and Adair fails to document his sources if indeed he had any on these early Colonial American Adairs. We have no proof they came from Scotland or Ireland except for the ethnicity of their surname Adair and that most of the early settlers of upcountry South Carolina were indeed Scots-Irish, a term meaning Scots who migrated from Scotland to Ulster in the 1600's then from Ulster to America from 1717 to the Revolutionary War. There also appears to have been several families that came to S.C. from Pennsylvania that knew each there including the Ramages, Hannas, Ewings, and McCrearys. These same surnames show up in Ulster Ireland. Even though there is no extant immigration record for the Adairs from Europe, there may be some potential information that could be found in following some of these associated families of Ramages, McCrearys, or others overseas to see if they all possibly came together to America.
      One other large failing in Adair's book is his contention that the earliest James Adair was the famous author and Indian trader; this, however, is very unlikely since our James was a cooper by trade and married to an Eleanor. Also, James the Indian trader was constantly traveling throughout the Colonies and England, which doesn't jive with land transactions of our James in Laurens Co. This same James was fluent in Hebrew and Latin and an accomplished author which seems inconsistent with the other Adairs of Laurens County. It should also be noted that there were many Adairs in various parts of the Colonies in pre-revolutionary America and they were not necessarily closely related. The prename of James was common and not all James Adairs and it can be proven that not all James Adairs in America at that time were the same individual. The name Joseph Adair is much less common.
      Mildred Brownlee, researcher for Marty Ramage and whom I quote extensively elsewhere in this database of early Laurens Co. Adairs, noted that Joseph Adair was in Lancaster Co., Pa. in 1759 "when he was given power of attorney to sell land" for the Ramage family. Cumberland Co., Pa. showed a William Adaire receiving a 150 acre warranty on 7 June 1750 (Vol. 4, 3rd Series, pg. 627).
      The date that Joseph Adair arrived in S.C. is unknown, but he is listed with those who united in 1763/1764 to build a house of worship (George Howe, D.D.'s "History of the Presb. church in SC"). Brownlee's research included an article from the June 9, 1896, issue of the "Laurens Advertiser," celebrating the 130th anniversary of the Duncan Creek Presbyterian Church which was "organized in the summer of 1766."
      Even though I do not accept the following about James Adair the Indian Trader as an ancestor, I include the following from Adair's book for reference only. Adair, in his book, purports that the Indian trader, James Adair, was granted land in the Lauren's Co. area from King George II of Great Britain due to his commercial influence and patronage. This land was beyond the Indian frontier of that time. Supposedly James influenced his father Thomas and his two brothers, William and Joseph, to come from Pennsylvania to settle on the land. In going from the settlements to see this land, they found no roads, no surveys and no white settlements; just a virgin forest, but a beautiful country. So they cut out a road as they went in order that they might find their way out again. After examining the land, and selecting their locations, some of the party went to work to build houses and clear land for cultivation, while others were sent back to Pennsylvania after their livestock which they drove overland on foot from the Susquehanna River to Duncan's Creek. Their corn mill was also brought along and set up for operation by nailing it to a tree. It was something like an old-fashion coffee mill. It was a curiosity to the Indians, who had been accustomed to grind their corn by rubbing it between two stones. This colony obtained their supply of corn the first year by trading with the Indians. [My review of this story is that the land James and Joseph obtained in the 1760s was directly from the South Carolina government and at the same time in conjunction with each other which does not support James granting land to his family. Additionally Adair calls this settlement the Adair Colony which was never its name since Duncan had been the first into that part of the land and it was he that influenced many of his previous acquaintances from Pennsylvania to immigrate to South Carolina.
      During our country's struggle for independence, Adairs joined the American side from South Carolina with at least ten Adairs in the war. At age 70, Joseph Adair, Sr., was commissary in Col. Casey's Regiment.

      2. Various mentions of "Joseph Adair" and "James Adair" in Colonial Pennsylvania records before Joseph traveled the "Great Wagon Road" to South Carolina in the mid-1760s. These are the earliest records that we have thus far on our Joseph Adair in America. Note that the name Joseph Adair is extremely rare and basically non-existent in the earliest Scottish Church records for all of Scotland -- so any mention of Joseph Adair in Colonial Pennsylvania and South Carolina seems to be so far confined to the brother of our James Adair. (In fact any occurence of the name Joseph Adair in Scotland may be the best key to finding the pre-American presence of both James and Joseph in Ireland and Scotland. The name James Adair on the other hand is not uncommon, which complicates our efforts to find our James Adair. I present the following abstracts of early mentions of both Joseph and James in Colonial Pennsylvania to provide context and to see if we can find our early James by following the pre-South Carolina presence of his brother Joseph. While this gives a great picture of Joseph, the references to James seem to show that he was not a real presence in Pennsylvania and that we are probably looking at one or more other James Adairs. It seems to confirm the presence of our James elsewhere, which would be consistent with his activities as an Indian trader. What is interesting is the wealth of references on Joseph, but the scarcity of James Adair, which we may possibly consider to be attributable to his movements as an Indian trader in southeast America.. I find no direct dealings between the two even though we are confident of their brotherly relationship in South Carolina. James only occurs in notes "J" and "N" below. Note also that the date Joseph Adair arrived in South Carolina is unknown, but he is listed with those who united in 1763/1764 to build a house of worship (George Howe, D.D.'s "History of the Presb. church in SC). The June 9, 1896, issue of the "Laurens Advertiser," noted the celebration of the 130th anniversary of the Duncan Creek Presbyterian Church, which was "organized in the summer of 1766." The abstracts:
      A. 1739 Joseph: Abstracts from Benjamin Franklin's "Pennsylvania Gazette 1728-1748," part 1, p. 216, compiled in 1975 by Kenneth Scott, shows that in 1739 the "following persons have unclaimed letters at Post Office in Philadelphia since November 2 past: Adaire, Joseph."
      B. 1739 Joseph: www.accessible.com/accessible/text/gaz1/00000033/00003308.htm: January 4, 1739, The Pennsylvania Gazette: List of Letters which have been brought into the Post-Office at Philadelphia, since the 2d of November past, and remain unredeem'd: Joseph Adare, Cooper, phi." (Note: phi=Philadelphia)
      Comment: This is significant because of the mention of cooper as Joseph's profession.
      C. 1740 James: "The Pennsylvania Genealogical Magazine," v. 19 (1952-1954), pp. 303-305, "Register of Baptisms 1701-1746, First Presbyterian Church, at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania." The magazine notes: "...the "original of the record is in the Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadelphia. It is published here to complement the Calendar of the Marriages, 1701-1745, in the Pennsylvania Archives, 2nd series, vol. IX... Other publications of contemporary Philadelphia Church Records include the Calendar of marriages from the register of Christ Church (founded in 1695 as the first parish of the Established Church of England), in the Pennsylvania Archives, 2nd series, vol. VIII; the Baptism and Burials of 1709-1760 from the same register in the 'Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography,' vols. 12-1 and 1-7 respectively; and a digest of the minutes and registers of Philadelphia Monthly meeting of Friends, in Hinshaw, 'Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy,' vol. II. "In this register of baptisms is found evidence of considerable missionary travelling by the Rev. Jedidiah Andrews, (the first minister, who served from 1698 until his death in May 1747) as far north as Staten island, New York, and south as Cape May, New Jersey. [A list of place names is included and described in the article.]" The two children born to a James Adair:
      a. Charity, dau. of James Adair, b. 3rd inst., bapt. 6 Jul 1740.
      b. Jane, dau. of James Adair, b. 28 ult., bapt. 3 Jun 1742.
      Comment: Note that even though we cannot prove the above James Adair is the same as ours, it is a possibility that needs to be further researched. See note J below for the presence of a different James Adair who died in Bucks County, PA, in 1760 (but without any children listed in his probate).
      D. 1741: Philadelphia County Administration Book "D," 2 Jul 1737-8 April 1743, page 181: #75: Letter of Administration to John Morrison, of Philadelphia, labourer, and Joseph Adair, of Philadelphia, cooper, administrators of Robert McCleland, 31 Jul, 1741. (Source: Pennsylvania Genealogical Magazine, v. 28 (1973-4), p. 261.)
      Comment: This is significant because of the mention of cooper as Joseph's profession.
      E. 1743 Joseph: The article "History of Lancaster County's Highway System (From 1714 to 1760)," by H. Frank Eshleman, 1922, p. 64, as reported in the FHL book "Papers Read before the Lancaster County Historical Society," Vol., 24, No. 3: "1743-Road, Unicorn to Kinseyville (Miles Ford): "In pursuance of an order issued at May session 1743 (2 D. 100) a report was made dated July 1 and presented to August Court of a road from a road called Brown's Road in Drumore Township, to Miles Ford on Octorara in Little Britain. It began where the Brown's Road forked toward James Gillepsie's and it took a general southerly course and passing William Montgomery's and passing Samuel Gibson's reached Little Conowingo about 5 miles from starting point. Farther on, it reached Samuel Scott's. It then passed on south by Joseph Adaire's and Robert Gleim's. Farther on about 3 miles by a very crooked course from its crossing over Little Conowingo it intersected the road from Caleb Pennel's to Miles Ford and then followed that road to Miles Ford and on into Maryland. It was reviewed in part a year later in 1744 (2 D. 33) but not greatly changed. Its starting point was about half a mile east of Unicorn and a mile and half west of Puseyville at which place Brown's Mill stood."
      F. 1747 Joseph: The records of Holy Trinity (Old Swede's) Church, Wilmington, Del, From 1697 to 1773 and Catalogue and Errata of the Records of Holy Trinity (Old Swedes) Church, Wilmington, Del., from 1697-1773, translated from the Original Swedish by Horace Burr, with an Abstract of the English Records from 1773 to 1810." Reprinted, two volumes in one, for Clearfield Company, Inc. by Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, MD, 1999: marriage record of Joseph Adare (Adair) and Sarah Lafferty in Sep 1747.
      G. 1748 Joseph: The article "History of Lancaster County's Highway System (From 1714 to 1760)," by H. Frank Eshleman, 1922, p. 66, as reported in the FHL book "Papers Read before the Lancaster County Historical Society," Vol., 24, No. 3: "1748-Road, Chestnut Level to Peach Bottom. At August sessions 1748, a road was laid out from near Chestnut Level Church running south by east, half a mile and then to a road laid out through a Maryland tract called Slate Hill. Thence it follows the Maryland road, south-east to Conowingo Creek and goes on by an old road leading from Joseph Adair's to Porter's Store. This road, making use of several old roads duplicates roads already laid out (2 D. 105)."
      Comment: I have a copy of the warrant map as copied from the book "The Warrant Maps of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Including an Every-Name Index," by Geri Gilbert, 2005, Masthof Press, 219 Mill road, Morgantown, PA 19543-9516.
      H. 1750 Joseph: The book by Ellis, Franklin, and Samuel Evans, "History of Lancaster County, 1883," pp. 848-866, Chapter LVI, Fulton Township: "This township was formed in the year 1844 by a division of Little Britain township; taking its name from Robert Fulton (the celebrated inventor of the steamboat), who was born within its territorial limits. It is bounded on the east by Little Britain; on the south by Mason and Dixon's line, separating it from the State of Maryland; on the west by the Susquehanna River..." The following surnames from Laurens Co., SC, also appear in the same township at the same time: McCrearys, Hannas, and Ewings. Similar information is also from "Pennsylvania Archives," printed in 1897, vol. 24, 3rd Series, pg. 352. There are two Adair entries as follows:
      i. "Joseph Adair also occupied a large tract in the southeastern section of the township, his survey being returned 422 acres by warrant of Aug. 20, 1750. He sold 287-3/4 acres to Samuel Coulson, Oct. 29, 1764, the balance having been previously transferred to James Hanna. Coulson failed soon after, and the sheriff sold the above (with other land of his) to David Jenkins, Aug. 7, 1767."
      ii. "Other Land-Warrants issued prior to 1800. - Joseph Adaire, Aug. 20, 1750, 250 acres, next to Michael and Robert Smith; 422 acres acres surveyed, now in Fulton township, near the State line, now belongs to the Jenkinses and others. Included in the above is 134-1/4 acres patented to James Hanna, Nov. 7, 1763. Book AA, vol. iii. page 525, etc." (Also same information is from "Pennsylvania Archives," printed in 1897, vol. 24, 3rd Series, pg. 352.)
      Comment 1: I have a copy of the warrant map as copied from the book "The Warrant Maps of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Including an Every-Name Index," by Geri Gilbert, 2005, Masthof Press, 219 Mill road, Morgantown, PA 19543-9516. From other sources noted below, Joseph Adair was in the southeastern corner of modern Fulton Twp. An 1864 map of the area on file with me shows several Hannas and Jenkins in that area, which are names with whom he had land dealings.
      Comment 2: The book "The Ramage Family of Laurens, South Carolina," 1999, Martis D. Ramage, Jr., 4218 Ridgemont Drive, Belden MS, 38826, FHL film 2055402, Item 2, pp. 9-10: "Joseph Adair, father of Jean Adair Ramage. Joseph Adair received a warrant of 259 acres in Little Britain Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania in 1750. In 1764, Joseph Adair sold his property in Lancaster County to Samuel Coulson. It should be noted that one of the deeds in Lancaster County (Deed Book 3, page 246) indicates that Joseph Adair's wife was named Sarah (maiden name thought to be Lafferty). Other records in Lancaster County indicate that Joseph Adair's profession was a 'cooper.' Joseph Adair was never listed on a tax list in Lancaster County after 1764."
      I. 1753 Joseph: The book "Futhey and Cope, History of Chester County," 1881, pp. 162-200, Townships and Boroughs, Etc.; West Fallowfield Taxables, 1753, lists several dozen men including "Joseph Adair." No other Laurens Co., SC, related surnames appear on the list except a James Huston.
      J. 1753 James: Http://www.pa-roots.com/~chester/taxlists/sadsbury_tas_list_1753.htm shows James Adair on the 1753 list of taxables for Sadsbury Township of Chester County. Chester County was due east of Lancaster County adjoining the State of Delaware. On the same list is Andrew McCleary who may in fact be the Andrew McCreary who was associated with the early Adairs in Laurens Co., SC, in the 1760s. Sadsbury and West Fallowfield are adjoining townships in Chester County and both are right on the county line with Lancaster County.
      Comments: There is another James Adair that shows up in early records of southeastern Pennsylvania two counties north in Bucks County (Falls township). He is not our James since his probate in Bucks County, Book No. 3, p. 33, indicates a will date of 2 Jul 1760 with a proven date of 19 Nov 1760. His wife was executrix and sole legatee. As reported in the book "Abstracts from the Pennsylvania Gazette, 1748-1755," by Scott and Clarke (FHL 974.811-B38sa), this same James of Falls Twp. shows up four times in 1752 as giving a deposition in a matter dealing with a Richard Perot of Penn's Manor being robbed. Since Bucks County James died in 1760 in Pennsylvania, he would not have been our James who lived two or more decades longer. Subject to the Indian activities of our James in 1753, there is a possibility that the tax list James could be ours due to the proximity to Joseph and Andrew McCreary -- or it may be an earlier appearance of the Bucks County James Adair or even a totally different James Adair.
      K. 1754-1758 Joseph: FHL book "A New Index Lancaster Co., Pennsylvania before the Federal Census; Volume 3 Index to the 1750 Tax Records," by Gary T. Hawbreaker and Clyde L. Groff. Joseph Adair shows up three times in Little Britain Township: "Joseph Addair, 1754; Adair 1756; 'Cooper' in 1758." This is significant since Joseph's profession in South Carolina is also listed as a cooper. The book notes that Lancaster County was created in 9 Jun 1729 from Chester County. Lancaster originally had 17 townships, which eventually further divided. The southern most township was originally known as Drumore, then it divided in half in 1738 with the southern half known as Little Britain. Little Britain further divided in 1844 with the western half named Fulton. The three southernmost original townships, Martic, Sadsbury, and Drumore were considered the Presbyterian and Quaker area with the northern townships more Germanic. The book notes that these tax records are the earliest available records for Lancaster County after it was founded in 1729. These records are located in the Lancaster County Historical Society. It also notes that many of the Scot-Irish surnames are gone by 1780 since whole congregations of Scot-Irish Presbyterians would migrate down the Great Wagon Road through the valley of Virginia into the upcountry of North and South Carolina. The book also notes the following about Little Britain Township: "The records of 'Little Brittain' begin in 1754 with Jams. Dixson the collector. The next available list is for the 1756 (there are two lists) and John Atchison is the collector. Appeal is to be made "In the Court House" on 20 Dec 1756. John Allison is the collector for 1757." The first settlements in the area were 1714.
      Comment regarding the land of the "Southern End" from an article appearing in the "Philadelphia Weekly Press," 21 Jun 1872: The principal mineral constituents of the soil of the lower Lancaster county are silica, clay, slate, micaeous earth, and serpentine, ingredients unaided by fertilizers that are anything else then favorable to an abundant yield of farm products. Hence it is plain that our ancestors, unacquainted with our modern fertilizers, were not so successful in acquiring from the products of the farm the accumulated wealth of their German neighbors, who had anticipated the English and Irish emigrant by settling to the north in fertile valleys of the Pequea and Conestoga."
      L. 1755 Joseph: FHL book "New Castle County Delaware Land Records 1755-1762," by Carol J. Garrett, 1999, notes in the Introduction: "The patent which granted William Penn territory, soon to be called Pennsylvania, was signed by King Charles in 1681. Delaware, as a part of Pennsylvania was referred to as the Lower Three Counties." On p. 102 is noted the following connection between Joseph Adair and the Ramage family: "359. Power of Attorney. 9 Sept 1755. Jannet Tate, John Ramage and Josiah Ramage, all of the Co. of Cumberland in the Province of Penn., yeomen, have ordained our trusty friend, Joseph Adaire of the Co. of Lancaster, yeoman, our true & lawful Attorney for us or either of us, and in our names ... to the lands, tenements and real estate whatsoever belonging to Joseph Ramage, late of Newcastle Co., dec'd, by his last Will and Testament bearing date 30 Dec 1730. Signed: Jannet Ramage, John Ramage, Josias Ramage. Wit: Daniel Clark, William McCall. Rec: 29 Aug 1759 (S1-595)."
      Comment: From Jett Hanna 10 Jul 2005 in commenting on Joseph Adair with Power of Attorney for the Ramages in Delaware: From the Delaware Archives probate site: Ramage, Joseph - 1754-1756 - New Castle County. It looks to me like Joseph Adair was not involved in a 1730 probate, but rather was given a power of attorney to deal with the estate in 1750s. I'll bet that Josiah was intestate, and they didn't resolve the land title until the 1750s. Joseph Adair is probably appointed administrator in a later probate, maybe this one.
      M. 1759 Joseph: FHL book 975.11R29m "New Castle County Delaware Land Records 1762-1765," by Carol J. Garrett, 2000, p. 152: "405. Deed. 23 Aug 1759. Jannet Tate (late Jannet Ramage), spinster, John Ramage and Josiah Ramage, all of the Co. of Cumberland in Province of Pennsylvania, yeomen, for the sum of 110 pounds, sold unto Robert Barr of Miln Creek Hun. in Co. of Newcastle on Delaware, farmer, a tract of land in sd place containing 114 acres and 30 perches, together with all and singular, this is whereas Josiah Ramage, late of Miln Creek in sd Co., in his lifetime was seized of a parcel of land situate in sd place, on the north side of the land late of Thomas Brackin (being also a corner of the land late of John Read). It bounded the land late of William Emmit, crossing by the land late of John Brackin to land late of sd Thomas Brackin. It contained 114 acres and 30 perches of land. Then so seized, sd Josiah Ramage made his Last Will dated 30 Dec 1730 and devised (viz) 'to make my two sons (John and Josiah) to come of age of 21. I leave to them all the whole plantation in which I now dwell equally to be divided between them.' Whereas sd Jannet Tate, John Ramage and Josiah Ramage by their letter of Attny dated 29 Dec 1755, did ordain Joseph Adair of the Co. of Lancaster, yeoman, their lawful attorney, they impowered him to sell sd tract of land and premises. Signed: Jannet Tate, John Ramage, Josiah Ramage (by Joseph Adair, their attny). Wit: Thomas McKean, Daniel McConnell. Ack: Aug Term 1759. Rec: 10 Jan 1764. (W1-138)"
      N. 1763 James: "The Pennsylvania Gazette," 13 Jan 1763, List of Letters remaining in the Post Office in Philadelphia: James Adair, Lancaster County.
      Comment: As noted in note "J" above, there was an unrelated James Adair in early Pennsylvania whose death is documented in 1760 -- so this entry must pertain to a different and later James. Since James Adair the trader did travel around a bit, it could possibly be our James. Lancaster County is the location of where his brother Joseph was living at this time in Fulton Township.
      O. 1768 Joseph: "The Pennsylvania Gazette," 4 Feb 1768, List of Letters remaining in the Post Office in Philadelphia: Joseph Adair, Philadelphia.
      P. 1768 Joseph: "The Pennsylvania Gazette," 28 Apr 1768, List of Letters remaining in the Post Office in Philadelphia: JOS. Adair, Philadelphia.
      Q. 1769 Joseph: "The Pennsylvania Gazette," 26 Oct 1769, List of Letters remaining in the Post Office in Philadelphia: Joseph Adair, Philadelphia.

      3. While I was back in Lancaster, Pennsylvania July 2009 at the Lancaster Historical Society, I was also able to definitively locate the land of Joseph, in Fulton township of Lancaster Pennsylvania. I have a copy on file of the plat map showing the boundaries and neighbors. On google maps, it can be found by doing a search for New Texas, Pennsylvania, which is on highway 222. Follow 222 south to the next intersection with Little Brittain. This intersection is dead center on Joseph's 400+ acres which extends all the way down to almost the Maryland stateline (the Mason-Dixon line). It extends up halfway to New Texas on 222 and up Little Brittain road to Cedar Hill Road. I also took five photos of the land. It is currently part of Amish country and we saw an Amish woman using a push mower to cut the grass along the roadside. The farm area appears to be quite productive. It should be noted that some of the neighbors that eventually show up with the Adairs in Laurens County, SC, are next door neighbors with Joseph in Fulton township (i.e. McCreary, Hanna).

      4. From: Shawn & Lois Potter March 19, 2005:
      "If you can document each generation of your lineage to Thomas Adair (born about 1775 in Laurens County, SC), who married Rebecca Brown, then you have some very interesting ancestors. According to Margaret Brownlee's manuscript (pp. 17-18), this Thomas Adair was the eldest son of Joseph Adair (born about 1755 or before), who married Sarah ___. This Joseph Adair was a son of James Adair, Sr. (born about 1715 and died before August 2, 1790) and Eleanor ___. This James Adair, Sr. was a brother of Joseph Adair, Sr. (born about 1718 and wrote his will on January 9, 1788), who married secondly Sarah Lafferty, and an uncle of Joseph Adair, Jr. (born about 1745 and wrote his will January 20, 1812), who married Elizabeth ___. All these James Adairs and Joseph Adairs can get very confusing. I am descended twice from James Adair, Sr. and Eleanor ___ and once from Joseph Adair, Sr. and Sarah Lafferty. But, I have a lot more research to do before I will feel like I have them figured out.
      I think Margaret Brownlee, the author of the manuscript I sent to you, has passed away. She would have been someone to consult."
      Also from Shawn: "Thanks for your note. I received Margaret Brownlee's manuscript from either Lee Adair (wadair1@tampabay.rr.com) or Jett Hanna (jettplane@aol.com), both of whom have contributed notes to the Ancestry.com bulletin board for the Adair surname. I can only judge Margaret's reliability from my use of this one manuscript. I have noticed a few mistakes that might be described as typos-a few obviously wrong dates and perhaps wrong names in her text. But, on the whole, I am very impressed with her work. She tried to document all her statements and she appears to have gained access to many original records. Her manuscript provides a radically better understanding of these families than existed before her work. Having said that, I do suspect she was wrong about her statement regarding the identity of James Adair the Indian trader. I am not yet certain, but I suspect that James Adair, who married Eleanor, was the Indian trader. I worked for about a year on this question, made some encouraging progress, and then had to take a break from my research. I know it seems unfair to say that I have such a suspicion and then to refuse to explain the basis for my suspicion; but I haven't finished my work yet and I don't have time right now to get back into it. Sorry. I have made a couple of trips to South Carolina to review records there. But, since I live in Virginia and I have other responsibilities, I cannot get down there as often as I would like. Some records are available on-line; but I imagine the answers to these, and other, questions about the Adair family will need to be sought in person in the South Carolina archives. But, I also imagine it will take a good deal of time to go through those records to build a strong case for whatever conclusions the records indicate, because so many of the records provide only a narrow slice of the picture." [Kerry's note: I do not believe James the Indian trader was associated with these Adairs.]

      5. From Jett Hanna [jettplane@aol.com] 7 Jul 2005 in speaking of the Old Swede's Church marriage record quote elsewhere in these notes: "I can't be 100% sure it is the same batch of folks, but I think it is. It is also consistent with a couple of later deed records in Pennsylvania for a Joseph Adair, owning land from about 1750 to 1764. Joseph shows up in SC records in 1768 – it was not unusual for it to take these frontier families awhile to get to paper work in Charleston about 200 miles away. If these folks were typical poor Scotch Irish, they had to work, whether as indentured servants or otherwise, for awhile after they got here in order to get their own land. The clues to origin are circumstantial-my recollection is that I've read that the church was one of the few in the area that serviced new immigrants - mostly "Scotch Irish" at the time-because it's members were technically dissenters like the Presbyterians since they were Swedish protestants. They got along just fine with Presbyterians who were mostly passing through to somewhere else. The likelihood that this Adair line can be tracked further, if this is that family, is remote. There aren't ship logs for the immigrations at the time. I've seen lineages that show descent of this line from landholding Adairs in Ulster and Scotland (one even shows descent from Adam!), but find them highly unlikely. Landholders didn't immigrate much at this time; renters subject to rack rents in Ulster did. There were lots Scotch Irish who never made it into records until they got to the US-rich people were in deed, probate and other records, and no immigration records were kept as the British saw the Scotch Irish immigration as getting more Protestants in the American colonies to fight Catholics from France and Spain should the need arise. Church records in Ireland/Ulster were very sparse until late 1700s-there are occasional tax and military records that are useful, but not enough to allow you to track families over generations unless they owned land. Scottish records aren't much better, though in some areas there are Church records as far back as the 1500s. From what I've seen of Scottish and Irish records, there were a lot of Adairs not very closely connected to landholding nobility with the same last name. Unless someone finds a diary of Sarah or Joseph or one of their traveling companions, I don't expect anyone to make the jump across the pond. At best, we might be able to identify a cluster of males with the same family names – Lafferty, Adair, Ramage, etc. – in some type of Irish records, but that will be a monstrous job that may not pay off for years. I've done a little of this kind of work on my Hanna lines, but so far looks very unlikely to yield results."

      6. Website http://www.bfhawkins.com/Pages/EarlyRamageRecords.htm 3 Jul 2005 of Brenda Hawkins – notice Joseph Adair and John Ramage in the text below (John Ramage is most likely Joseph Adair's son-in-law):
      "Josiah Ramage of Newcastle County, Delaware. Land Records:
      Book G, page 344: Deed between John Jordan of Mill Creek hundred in County of New Castle on the Delaware of one part and Josiah Ramage of same place and county above said yeoman for 38 pounds200 acres of land reference to houses, outhouses, barns, stables, orchards, fields, pasture, ground wood recorded 20 August 1724. It should be noted that William McMechen purchased land on 2 June 1726, consisting of three tracks, one of which was 241 and ¾ acres on the circle adjoining lands of John Jordan, Josiah Ramage and Francis Bridley.
      Book H, page 186: 1 April 1727 Indenture between Master Thomas Craighead Minister of the Gospel of White Clay Creek meeting house on the one part and (six men including Josiah Ramage, members of the Presbytery meeting at White Clay Creek). On 22 September 1724, Rev. Thomas Craighead was installed as the first regular pastor of the White Clay Creek Presbyterian Church. He was a native of Ireland and had migrated to America in 1715.
      Book I, page 280: 21 May 1730 Josiah Ramage purchased 114 acres at Public Auction land to Robert Box late of Mill Creek Hundred in New Castle County on the Delaware for 80 pounds.
      Book S, page 595: Jannet Tate, John Ramage and Josiah Ramage all of the County of Cumberland state of Pennsylvania ... name Joseph Adair of Lancaster County their Attorney 9 Sept. 1755.
      Book W, page 158: 23 August 1759 Indenture between Jannet Tate, John Ramage and Josiah Ramage all of the county of Cumberland in the province of Pennsylvania of the one part sell 114 acres belonging to the late Josiah Ramage. The will is quoted as Josiah Ramage naming his two sons, John and Josiah to inherit his property when they become of age.

      7. Website http://www.bfhawkins.com/Pages/RamageFamily.htm 9 Jul 2005: From: Ruth Ramage McElhaney, author of: Livingston County, Kentucky Ramages, 1802-1994 <http://www.turnerpublishing.com/detail.aspx?ID=452> Copyright © 1996, Turner Publishing Company:
      "...Josiah Ramage of Newcastle County, Delaware. No marriage record for Josiah has been found but his wife's name was Jannet (Jeanette, Jean, Jane) as recorded in a legal document appointing Joseph Adair, Sr. as the administrator of the estate of Josiah Ramage, deceased as of 30 December, 1730... Signing this document were Jannet (Ramage) Tate, John Ramage and Josiah Ramage of Cumberland County, PA. The estate was settled in 1756." [Comment note dated 11 Jul 2005 from Jett Hanna [jettplane@aol.com]: Looked at this more closely...I think the Ruth Ramage McElhaney book probably misstates some of the source material, based on the reports of the deeds and other documents. Joseph Ramage doesn't look to be connected to Joseph Adair, only to Josiah Ramage and his family. Josiah died in 1730, but the family didn't sell the land until the 1750s. I think the only legal document Ms. McElhaney is referring to "appointing Joseph Adair, Sr. as the administrator" is the power of attorney given to Joseph Adair Sr. in 1755. There is no probate for Josiah. What is really important here is that this more firmly ties the Laurens Adairs to being in the New Castle area."]
      "No marriage record has been found for John and Jean (Adair) Ramage. They probably married in PA about 1755-60... About 1760 Joseph Adair, Sr. left PA and settled near the Waxhaw Colony in SC on the Adair land grant made by the British Crown in 1755. In 1773 John Ramage received a 500 acre grant decreed by King George II of Great Britain. These two grants of land were adjacent and located in the fork of the Enore and Saluda rivers on Duncan's Creek, where John Duncan of Aberdeen, Scotland had settled in 1752. This settlement was made up of Presbyterians from PA and included Beards, Mitchells, Davis, McCrearys, Easts and others. This area was then known as District 96 and later became Laurens County, SC." [Comment from Jett Hanna 10 Jul 2005: "On the 1755 land grant, I will look at details... I think I have searched the SC Archives and council journals pretty well and never found support for Joseph getting a grant this early... I'll review and see when what I call the "Kentucky governor" Adairs got their grants. Not impossible that they could be in NC-boundaries were indistinct at best. I have a deed from PA showing Joseph selling land there in 1764."]

      8. From Jett Hanna 10 Jul 2005: I looked a bit at the indexes at the SC Archives on line – seeing stuff I don't remember seeing before that looks pretty important. Looks like there was a petition by Joseph Adair (not sure which, suspect not the elder) seeking reimbursement for his having to give back a forfeited estate. The petition would have been to the legislature, and would have been heard by a committee. Estates of the worst Tories were forfeited at one point, but the final treaty ending the revolution essentially allowed them to keep their property. As a practical matter, most in this position either didn't come back or sold and left. Data is below:
      View Details - Record: 96 of 224 records. Series: S165015 Year - 1788 Item - 00020 ignore - 00; Date: 1788/10/14; Description: Adair, Joseph, Petition Concerning his Purchase of a Forfeited Estate that Rightfully Belongs to James White, and Asking the House that He may be Refunded his Money. (2 pages)
      View Details - Record: 104 of 224 records; Series: S165005 Year - 1789 Item - 00011 Page - 00; Date: 1789/03/04; Description: Committee Report on the Petitions of Joseph Adair, Josiah Grier, and William Davis. (4 pages)
      Also didn't remember that Joseph Adair had a plat on December 22, 1766. That may move back the earliest evidence of him in Laurens area a couple of years. The 1766 plat was for 200 acres, doesn't appear to have a grant or memorial. Probably was replaced by the 250 acre plat. Not uncommon for stuff like that to happen.
      However, what really catches my eye is the associated Council Journal entry, or lack thereof. He should show up in Council Journals petitioning for a grant prior to the plat being filed. Joseph Adair petitions for 100 acres on December 3, 1766. There is no Joseph Adair petition prior to that. It is possible the 200 ac plat goes with the 100 acre petition, but that would be unusual. The 1766 plat should be examined for two reasons: to see what the petition date is, and to make sure it is in the Laurens area. I don't think I've ever looked at the 1766 plat, but wouldn't be the first brain freeze I ever had. Details below...
      View Details - Record: 4 of 192 records. Series: S213184 Volume - 0009 Page - 00341 Item - 01; Date: 1766/12/22; Description: Adair, Joseph, Plat for 200 Acres of Craven County.
      Someone should match up all the Council Journal entries on Adairs to the plats, grants and memorials. The Council Journals aren't as well known - a lot of folks stop at the plat dated and assume that is when the person first arrived. The Council Journals tell the basis of the grant in some cases, i.e. recently arrived, or even the name of the ship they came on.

      9. FHL book 975.731 H2b "A Laurens County Sketchbook," by Julian Stevenson Bolick [with my edited notes added in brackets]:
      Pg. 1: "An early record showing an original grant from George III to an ancestor of the Putnams of Gray Court has Laurens District in Craven County. 'Wallace's History of South Carolina" verifies the fact that a vast tract of land to the south of Virginia had been granted in 1663 by Charles II to eight British lords. Craven County, an extensive region covering most of South Carolina and parts of North Carolina, was a part of this sprawling acreage. In 1719 the people threw off the rule of the lords Proprietors, at which time the rights of the government and seven-eighths of the soil were ceded to the king. A later territorial separation placed Laurens in the Ninety Six District. On March 12, 1785, Laurens was made a separate district by an Act of the General Assembly...
      "Major Jonathan Downes, a colonial officer, headed a group of influential citizens commissioned to survey the territory. Gentleman Justices serving with Major Downes included James Montgomery [father of Rebecca Montgomery who married James Adair], Silvanus Walker, William Mitcherson and Charles Saxon. After the districting was made legal by the act of legislation, the justices were authorized 'to build and keep in good repair at the charge of the county one good and convenient courthouse with necessary jury rooms and one good and sufficient county gaol together with a pillory, whipping post and stocks..."
      Pg. 3: "In 1790 the first government census taken after he adoption of the Constitution gave Laurens District 1,395 heads of families, with a total population of 9,337 including Negro freedmen and slaves. Laurens District, at that time, had a larger population than any other district above Newberry, the latter outnumbering Laurens by only a few hundred…"
      Pg. 4: "The first permanent white settler to come to Upper Carolina is believed to have been John Duncan of Aberdeen, Scotland. He first stopped in Pennsylvania, but as early as 1753 he was known to have been in the Ninety Six District on land bordering a creek later named for him.
      "On a return to Pennsylvania, Duncan influenced friends to come to Ninety Six and establish homesteads. He brought his own family and a pair of fine stud horses to pull the first wagon ever to roll over soil between the Broad and Saluda Rivers. A lush growth of maiden cane bordering the creek had been the deciding factor for closing out his interests in Pennsylvania.
      "Two of the settlers to accompany him were David and Charles Little, for whom a community was named later. [David Little, 1767-1812, married Charity Adair].
      "Records show early land grants to Andrew McCrary (McCreary), Joseph Adair, Robert Hanna, Thomas Ewing, James Pollock, Thomas Logan and Thomas Craig - all in the group following Mr. Duncan to Carolina."
      Pg. 5: "Still another friend of John Duncan was Joshua Palmer, a minister, who was so influential in the new community that when he moved to Indiana about 1828 he carried with him several families from his ecclesiastical society…
      "Robert Long was brought to this country at the age of five months, and at the age of two years was moved from Pennsylvania to the South. Robert's father was a well known construction engineer, who by government contract in 1769 built Fort Charlotte on the Savannah River. [Robert Long, son of Daniel Long and Susannah Murdough; Susannah becomes Joseph Adair, Sr.'s second wife after Sarah Lafferty. Brownlee states Daniel died in 1767; is this a different Robert Long? On the other hand the British built the fort for the French and Indian War, which was 1756-1763 – so the 1769 date could be in error.]
      "From North Carolina James Williams came, having been attracted to the fertile lands bordering Little River where he pursued farming and engaged in a mercantile business. His plantation was named Mount Pleasant..." [James Williams was the subject of the James Williams Petition that most early Adair men signed.]
      Pg. 7: "After peace was secured by a vigorous and successful campaign against the Indians in 1761, the backwoodsmen of Carolina, as all people in the territory remote from Charles Town were called, gave their undivided time to replacing the temporary dwellings with more adequate homes. Many of the settlers had stopped in Virginia, but there it was made clear that only those who belonged to the Established Church were welcome; consequently, the ones believing strongly in freedom of worship came on into Carolina. They were principally Scotch-Irish and by no means adventurers..."
      Pg. 17: "Littlesville: One of the first centers of population in Laurens County was Littlesville on Duncan's Creek. David and Charles Little, mentioned previously in this sketch, had come to this country from 'Doublin,' Ireland. David married Charity Adair, the daughter of a Revolutionary soldier. Members of these two families, the Littles and the Adairs, are buried in the old Duncan's Creek Church cemetery. One of the gravestones bears the inscription 'David Little, a native of Ireland.' It is not known which of the early Adairs was the father of Charity, but the Adairs were in this section, probably as early as were the Little brothers. [Charity was the daughter of Joseph, son of the original Joseph.] Joseph B. [Sr.] came from Ireland in 1711 and died in Laurens County in 1801; Joseph, Jr., [son of Joseph Sr.] was born in Pennsylvania (the state from which John Duncan recruited settlers) in 1733 and died in Laurens in 1812; and John B. was born in Duncan's Creek neighborhood in 1758 and died in Georgia [son of Joseph Jr. and brother to Charity]. Doctor W.S. Glenn of Spartanburg had in his possession in 1930 a map of a very early date which showed a community called Littlesville, about three miles from the historic Duncan's Creek Church. The site is no longer listed even in the crossroad category, the majority of the people from this creek bank settlement having moved to the thriving community of Clinton...
      Pp. 42-43: "Duncan's Creek Presbyterian: One of the early utilitarian buildings was Duncan's Creek Presbyterian Church in the rural section of Jacks Township. Servants of the John Duncan family had erected a brush arbor about 1753, at which time John Duncan had come into the area. A more permanent building of fieldstones was put up in 1764, and that date is visible in a cornerstone of the presently used building erected in 1842. The date 1764 was retained for historic purposes. The original granite walls, two feet in thickness, and the straight-backed pews of oak attest to the strong faith of the era and of the congregations of that particular church. In recent years the small-outmoded reed organ from the fieldstone church was given to Thornwell Home for children in Clinton, where it is still used on occasions calling for a colonial atmosphere. During the Revolutionary War, the church building served as a place of protection for the people of that area. Often referred to as the mother of Presbyterian churches, it is the oldest church organization in the upper part of the state. Both Lisbon Presbyterian and Clinton First Presbyterian were started as mission extensions of the Duncan's Creek Church. The first minister was the Reverend Hezekiah Balch, year 1776. In the same year John B. Kennedy was ordained and continued as pastor intermittently for fifty years. In 1788 the Duncan's Creek Church became involved in serious difficulties. The majority of the members being canny old Scotchmen, theological discord was instituted over whether to use Rouse's or Watt's version of the Psalms. Sixty-three members seceded to form other churches. Although each plantation had its own burial ground, Duncan's Creek church offered burial plots in its churchyard in 1776. Some of the ancient mounds have lost their identity, but one bearing the marking 'Samuel Long, aged 19 years, November 15th, 1776, is still legible [brother of Robert Long and son of Daniel Long and Susannah Murdough]. Sixteen soldiers of the Revolution are buried in the churchyard. In October of 1964, Duncan's Creek Presbyterian Church observed with appropriate ceremony the two-hundredth anniversary of its founding..."

      10. Reviewed the several volumes of "Passenger and Immigration Lists Index" at the SLC FHL. Most all early Adair records are from 1800s or of no value. There are no matching records for the earliest Joseph and James Adair. The records earlier than the Rev. War appear very spotty and incomplete. There are however these Adair entries coming thru Charleston, South Carolina. I don't believe those James are matches to our James; also, no telling what part of the South they may have ended up:
      Alexdan, 1767, 3627.37 p187
      Alice, 1767, 3627.37 p184
      James, 1763-1764, 3627.37 p67
      James, 1767, 3627.37 p187
      Jane, 1763-1764, 3627.37 p67
      Jane, 1767, 3627.37 p70
      Margaret, 1767, 3627.37 p187
      Mary, 1767, 3627.37 p187

      11. On file with me are early plats drawings of Duncan Creek prepared by Lee Adair.
      From Lee Adair 13 Sep 2005 [wadair1@tampabay.rr.com]: "I have platted most of the available deed surveys up to 1846 for the Duncan Creek area of Laurens County using the software Deedmapper. The problems with such deed platting are: 1) surveyors weren't always accurate; 2) the terrain was not perfectly flat. In acquiring all the plats, I also had to acquire all the deed records and land transactions and I now have the Laurens County deed books up to Book O (about 1846). These two sources allowed me to place surveys in about the correct positions on the map. I am aided in this by the several rivers and creeks that run through the county and which are platted on the surveys. If there are any specific plats that you need, I can make copies of them and send them to you. One file (Duncan3.jpg) is included to provide a bearing. In the lower left is what looks like the streets of a city. This is Clinton. The interstate running diagonally across this image is I-26. The Duncan Creek Cemetery is located where the D in the text for Duncan Creek Cemetery is.
      One of the properties of Joseph Adair (wife Sarah) is in bright blue just to the right and adjoining that of James Adair (bright yellow). It was a SC land grant that he received in 1786. He sold that with the adjoining property of Samuel Ewing that he had purchased to William Holland in 1796. Whether he and Sarah actually lived there is an open question. The bright blue large tract owned by Joseph Adair is that of Joseph Adair Sr. wife Sarah Laferty. There may be additional properties of Joseph Adair and Sarah, but I have not placed them yet. There are a number of Joseph Adair properties in which I don't have a reliable spouse name. As always there is more work to be done."

      12. From Lee Adair 16 Oct 2005 with more on the specific James Adair plat just above Joseph Adair, the cooper, who gave part of his land to Joseph his son who married Sarah ___: "The property description for the James Adair plat that I sent is as follows:
      SC Memorial Book 13, p. 230. 2 Jan 1775. James Adair, Sr., a Memorial on 200 acres in 96 Distr. on Duncins (sic) Creek between Broad and Saludy Rivers, bounded W on John Brotherton; NW on James Montgomery, NW on John McCrary; NW on John Adair; SE on Saml. Ewing. Survey certified 3 Jun 1773; granted 11 Aug 1774. Quit rent in 2 years. John Rodgers, DS. Delivered 14 Aug 1775 to James Adair.
      150 acres of this property was later sold to John Jones (wife Hannah) in 1784.
      The date alone suggests that this is most likely James Adair, wife Eleanor, and this is confirmed by the following two deed book entries:
      Laurens Co. Deed Book F, p. 10. 24 Feb 1784. James Adair Senior and wife Eleanor to John Jones blacksmith 150 acres.) Witnesses: James Adair sadler, James Adair Jr., James Miller, Roger Brown.
      We know that this is part of the 200 acre James Adair grant because of the following:
      Laurens Co. Deed Book F, p. 8. 1 Aug 1795. Hannah Jones (widow of John Jones) & son William Jones to John Craig, 50 acres on Duncan Creek, part of 200 acre grant to James Adair Sr. 11 Aug 1774 (150 acres conveyed in by sd J.A and Eleanor in 1784 to John Jones). Bordering properties: John Montgomery, Alexander Fillson, John Owens.
      I have attached a zoomed out version of the Duncan Creek plat area."

      13. Jett Hanna [jettplane@aol.com] provided me on 8 Jul 2005 with a copy of his analysis of the Brownlee manuscript as follows. It mirrors my own understanding; however, anything with which I disagree I note in [brackets]. Jett entitles his paper as "Laurens County Area Adair Family Trees." It is broken down by three families: James Adair who married Eleanor, his brother Joseph who married Sarah Laferty, and a William of whom absolutely nothing is known except just his name on the Williams Petition and that Brownlee notes he died 1780-84 and that his estate was administered 1784 per Abbe Wills, p. 10. Text quoted as follows:
      "This tree is based on Early Adairs of Laurens County, South Carolina, by Mildred Brownlee. This was provided to me by W. Lee Adair, who obtained it from the Laurens County Public Library. Handwritten notes show a date of 1990 on Brownlee's manuscript. I have not examined these deeds personally. In some cases, notes and questions below are my own additions. This analysis seems to discredit some of the trees in the Adair History and Genealogy, and adds significantly to what is know of the Laurens area Adairs. I have not fully finished analyzing this work, and may have left out parts that are not as critical to my work.
      "Based on this work, it appears very possible that the elder Joseph Adair (m. Sarah, m. Susannah) and his brother James (m. Eleanor) settled in Laurens County at the same time, as suggested by the Adair History and Genealogy. I do not believe, however, that this James was the author of the book on the Indians and reputed patriarch of the Cherokee Adairs. This James was a cooper (barrel maker) according to the deeds. Modern editions of the History of the American Indians suggest that the author James Adair was a direct immigrant to South Carolina, but with no concrete evidence.
      "The Williams Petition: In the tree, LCW is Laurens County Wills; LCD is Laurens County Deeds. Also mentioned is the Williams petition. This petition is a significant document in analyzing the Laurens County Adairs. Published in the South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research, Vol. XV, No. 1 1987, p. 32-33, the original is #5767, Manuscript Department, Wm. Perkins Library at Duke University. The petition is in support of Colonel James Williams, a militia leader of the Patriots in the Laurens area (Little River Regiment). The petition, signed by members of the Little River Regiment, is directed to the Governor of South Carolina and the Privy Counsel, and attests to Williams' devotion to the Patriot cause. Williams led militia in a number of battles. I suspect that this petition was provided prior to Williams' elevation to the rank of Brigadier General following the Battle of Musgrove Mill, which was fought in what is now Laurens County. Williams had been accused of puffing his role in the battle. Williams went on to die at Kings Mountain - one of the few Patriot casualties that day on October 7, 1780. Williams had run for the South Carolina legislature as a Patriot in 1778, only to lose to Robert Cunningham, the infamous Loyalist leader. For more on Williams, see Draper, "Kings Mountain and Its Heroes," (Cincinnati, 1883). Signers of the Williams petition include the following Adairs: Isaac Adair, Jms. Adair, James Adair, Sr., Joseph Adair, Jr., Joseph Adair, Benjamin Adair, Joseph Adair, Sr., James Adair, Jr, son of James, William Adair, John Adair, and John Adair, Sr., and Alexander Adair. Comparing deed and will records to the names, Brownlee identifies the Adair signers [copies Brownlee's explanations]. Brownlee's identifications look very logical to me.
      "The Laurens County Adair Tree:
      2. Joseph Adair m. Sarah Lafferty, m. Susannah Long: 250a land grant, present site of Duncan Creek Presbyterian Church. Was sold 1778 to Benjamin Adair LCD A/189, 1778). Release by wife??? Will in LCW A-1/19, dated 1788, other info says death 1801. Joseph 414(5) 1790 Census?
      2.1 Joseph Adair m. Elizabeth - Joseph's son named in father's will. His will LCW D-1/104; Bundle 65, Pkg. 10, proven 1/14/1813.
      2.1.1 John m. Jane Jones: John named as son in father's will.
      2.1.2 James m. Rebecca: James named as son in father's will.
      2.1.3 Robert: Robert named as son in father's will.
      2.1.4 Elisha m Elizabeth (Betsy) Reese?: Elisha named as son in father's will.
      2.1.4.1 Joseph: Named as grandson in grandfather's will
      2.1.4.2 Washington
      2.1.4.3 Isaac
      2.1.4.4 Thomas R. m. Jane Blakely
      2.1.4.5 Allen
      2.1.4.6 Richmond
      2.1.4.7 Matilda
      2.1.5 Elizabeth m. George Davis: Elizabeth named as daughter in father's will. Husband's name in will is John Huston.
      2.1.5.1 Mary Davis m. Robert Cunningham Hanna
      2.1.5.2 Hannah Davis m. Robert McCord
      2.1.5.3 George Davis
      m. John Huston
      2.1.5.4 Joseph Hughston
      2.1.5.5 Elisha Hughston
      2.1.5.6 Nancy/Agnes Hughston m. James Wilson
      2.1.6 Jean m. Thomas Holland: Jean named as daughter in father's will. Husband's name is in will. Thomas Holland 101 1790 Census?
      2.1.7 Cassy m. Thomas McCrary: Cassy named as daughter in father's will. Husband's name is in will.
      2.1.8 Charity m. ___ Farmer: Charity named as daughter in father's will. Husband's name in will is David Little.
      2.1.8.1 Mary Farmer: stepdaughter mentioned in will of David Little.
      m. David Little
      2.1.8.2 David Little
      2.1.8.3 Elizabeth Little
      2.1.8.4 Joseph Little
      2.1.8.5 James Little
      2.1.8.6 Jane Little
      2.1.8.7 John Little
      2.1.8.8 Nancy Little
      2.1.8.9 Thomas E. Little
      2.1.8.10 Holland Little
      2.2 James Adair m. Rebecca Montgomery: James named as son in father's will. 110a from Nathaniel Hillen, 144a granted to him directly. POA to brother Benjamin in Book G, Pg. 666. Does POA mention Rebecca? Or dower releases? Deeds LCW J/161-162, A/308. J/161 is sale to sons of James Sr. -Joseph and George R. James 327 1790 Census? If 13 children, only 10 in this census.
      2.2.1 Joseph Adair: LCW J/160 sells interest to brother George R.
      2.2.2 George R. Adair m. Rachel Musgrove: George named in deed from brother Joseph.
      (From Indiana Data according to Brownlee:)
      2.2.3 Margaret Jane Adair m. John Ewing
      2.2.4 Rebecca Adair m. James Remy
      2.2.5 John Adair
      2.2.6 Jane Adair m. ___Eads
      2.2.7 Isaac Adair m. Jane Holland
      2.2.8 Lucretia Adair m. John Wildridge
      2.2.9 James Adair
      2.3 Benjamin Adair m. Nancy (George?): Benjamin named as son in father's will. Benjamin's will Box 1, Pkg 1. I have seen another cite for will. Benjamin 133 1790 Census. Only 3 of 5 sons accounted for, 2 of 4 daughters. Children below in his will.
      2.3.1 Zadock
      2.3.2 William
      2.3.3 John
      2.3.4 d m. James Jamieson
      2.3.5 d m. Samuel Bowie
      2.3.6 Isaac
      2.3.7 Benjamin
      2.3.8 Margaret
      2.3.9 d m. William Craig
      2.4 Jean/Jane Adair m. Ramage
      2.5 John Adair m. Sarah Adair (son of Joseph???). Died in Revolution. Note: Sarah named in Joseph's will. Might have been daughter in law, wife of the deceased son John. [Jett places John as a son of Joseph Sr. whereas Brownlee makes a case for him being a possible son of either Joseph or his brother James.]
      2.5.1 Benjamin Adair, Jr.
      2.5.2 Joseph Adair
      2.5.3 Martha Adair
      2.5.4 Hezekiah Adair
      2.5.5 Isaac Adair

      14. "The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research," vol. 3, pp. 24, 26, preface remarks: '1784 Tax Returns. The following lists were gathered from documents at the South Carolina Archives contained in five boxes entitled 'Tax Returns 1783 - 1796.' The list of tax collectors is from a document entitled 'total Amo't of Taxes paid into the Treasury on account of the year 1784.' The list itself is undated, but internal evidence shows that it was compiled a few years later than 1784. Along with the names of the collectors, this document gives the amount of taxes received in their respective areas and notations concerning the collectors' progress in bringing the monies into the State treasury.'
      "Little River district:
      Robert Gillam
      Joseph Adair
      Robt Griffith
      Samuel Wharton
      John Rodgers."
      [Joseph Adair is one of three possible Josephs: the original Joseph Adair the cooper, his son Joseph, or Joseph the son of the original James Adair the cooper.]

      15. "The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research," vol. 6, p. 26: "Laurens County Estate Book A-1," p. 7:
      "Will of Hanse Miller being sick and weak of body... 14 April 1788. Wit: Joseph Adair, Thomas Ewings, James Adair."
      [Joseph and James Adair could be the sons of the original Joseph Adair the cooper or the sons of the original James Adair the cooper or the two original Joseph and James, both coopers; Most likely it is the the sons since the two original Adairs may be deceased by this date.]

      16. "South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research," vol. 13, pp. 213-218, "Memories of Laurens County,' contributed by Mary A. Seyle, CGRS. Selected entries:
      "Wallace in his 'History of South Carolina' tells us that as early as 1731 the king sought to interest colonists for Carolina and other provinces where the older settlements were in danger of attacks by the Indians. It has been stated that many settlers came to South Carolina at the close of the French and Indian Wars. However, there were already a number of settlers in the Laurens area and other communities before Braddock's defeat in 1755.
      That is also the year when Governor James Glen concluded a treaty with the Cherokees whereby the Indians ceded to the crown all the land south of the old Indian line, thus making room for more settlers. They came down from Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and from countries overseas. They came, they inspected, they admired, and a goodly number settled in Carolina, quite a number in present Laurens County.
      The earliest settler of Laurens County, we are told, was one John Duncan, who came from Aberdeen, Scotland, to Pennsylvania. He then visited South Carolina for a while, in 1742, and later, about 1751 returned to South Carolina with his family and some friends. Other early settlers whose names still may found in the area came down after Duncan. John Craig from Ireland was granted a tract along the Enoree River. John Kern came from England; Frederick Kern, from Germany...
      At this time, while the settlers were busy establishing homes, cultivating new land, and dealing with the Indians who were no longer so friendly as they had been, another trouble kept them busy. The lawless element that is present in any new community appeared in upper South Carolina, stealing stock, robbing and murdering, when the colonists sought to protect themselves, and generally adding to the hardships the new community had endured. The responsible citizens finally took matters in their own hands and formed bands of Regulators, as they called themselves, meting out what they considered just punishment. The lawless ones retaliated, sometimes the inhabitants were sued by the outsiders, there were incidents of violence, and the honest men suffered. After many protests, the citizens of the upper part of the province made their voice heard. They felt that as subjects of the king, they were entitled to the same rights and privileges as other free Englishmen, and asked for themselves and their families schools, churches, and a part in the government of their community.
      A justifiable compliant of the up-country was that all courts sat in Charleston, all cases were tried there, and no lawyer was allowed to practice unless he had 'been admitted to the bar by the Court of Common Pleas of Charleston, or any attorney of that court, and a resident of this Province.' Travel was slow in the 18th century, and it was a long trip for a man to take from the upper part of the province to Charleston even to be admitted to the bar, and a very long way to go to register a deed or transact any legal business.
      Eventually vigorous protests were heeded, and under the Court Act of 1769 entitled 'An Act for the More Convenient Adm