Chris & Julie Petersen's Genealogy

James Adair

Male Abt 1714 - 1796  (~ 70 years)

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  • Name James Adair 
    Born Abt 1714  of, County Antrim, Ireland Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died From 25 Feb 1784 to 12 Feb 1796  of, Laurens, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I3679  Petersen-de Lanskoy
    Last Modified 27 May 2021 

    Father Adair 
    Family ID F1825  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Eleanor,   b. Abt 1726, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Aft 7 Jan 1803, of Duncan Creek, Laurens, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 77 years) 
    Married Abt 1744  Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
     1. James Adair,   b. Abt 1748, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 18 Aug 1818, Duncan Creek, Laurens, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 70 years)
     2. Joseph Adair,   b. Abt 1750, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Aft 5 Feb 1804, of, Laurens, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 54 years)
     3. Laferty Adair
     4. John Adair,   b. Abt 1754, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. From 4 Nov 1815 to 4 Dec 1815, of, Oconee, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 61 years)
     5. Edward Adair,   b. Abt 1756, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Aft 3 Nov 1800, of, Oconee, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 44 years)
     6. Hannah Adair,   b. Bef 1759, of Duncan Creek, Laurens, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Aft 1810, of Duncan Creek, Laurens, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age > 53 years)
     7. Adair,   d. Aft 1791, of, , Georgia, United States Find all individuals with events at this location
    Last Modified 28 May 2021 
    Family ID F1142  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Notes 
      1. The following genealogical summary of the family of James Adair was provided to me from Shawn Potter Aug 2015. Shawn and his wife Lois are the authors of a book to be published sometime in the future entitled "Chickasaw Wife and Family of James Adair, Author of the History of the American Indians." The book uses extensive historical documentation and modern DNA analysis to assemble the following family. I provide only a summary of the family and the book should be consulted for the footnotes, more detail, and evidence which all support the following conclusions. (If you are a descendent of this family, Shawn would appreciate your contacting him if you are willing to submit your DNA test results as part of the study upon which the book will be based.) The summary:
      "James Adair was born probably in Ireland say about 1714. He immigrated to America before 1735. James married Eleanor of the Chickasaw Nation in about 1744. Eleanor was born in the Chickasaw Nation say about 1726. She was a member of the Panther clan. James died probably in Laurens County, South Carolina, after 25 Feb 1784 and before 12 Feb 1796. Eleanor died probably in Laurens County after 3 Jan 1803. James and Eleanor were the parents of the following children:
      1. James Adair, Jr., was born in the Chickasaw Nation say about 1748. He married Hannah probably in Laurens County say about 1772. Hannah was born probably in Laurens County on 28 Sep 1750. James died in Laurens County on 18 Aug 1818. Hannah died in Laurens County on 10 Nov 1826.
      2. Joseph Adair was born in the Chickasaw Nation say about 1750. He married Sarah probably in Laurens County say about 1776. Joseph died perhaps in Laurens County after 5 Feb 1804.
      3. John Adair was born in the Chickasaw Nation say about 1754. He married first Ga-Ho-Ga of the Cherokee Nation probably in Laurens County say about 1780. Ga-Ho-Ga was born in the Cherokee Nation say about 1760. Ga-Ho-Ga died perhaps in Laurens County after 7 Feb 1789. John married second Jane Kilgore probably in Laurens County say about 1790. Jane was born probably in Laurens County say about 1773. John died in present-day Oconee County, South Carolina, after 4 Nov 1815 and before 4 Dec 1815. Jane died perhaps in present-day Oconee County after 4 Dec 1815.
      4. Edward Adair was born in the Chickasaw Nation say about 1756. He married first Margaret in Philadelphia on 7 Apr 1784. Edward married second Elizabeth Martin of the Cherokee Nation probably in the Cherokee Nation say about 1789. Elizabeth was born probably in the Cherokee Nation say about 1769. Edward died probably in present-day Oconee County after 3 Nov 1800. Elizabeth died probably in the Cherokee Nation after 13 Jul 1816.
      N.B. James and Eleanor had "children" in 1748; and a daughter lived in Georgia between 1788 and 1791."
      My comments:
      1. To this list of children, I would add at least two more children based on my own research. The first is a son named Laferty Adair based on the LDS records of St. George Utah Temple as reported by relatives in the 1870s. The second one is less certain but possible: Hannah who married John Jones, which can possibly be construed but not proven from a land deed. See the notes in this database for both of these individuals for a fuller explanation. For now, I continue to show these two individuals as children of James Adair subject to further research.
      2. Before Shawn's new analysis of this family, I had two additional daughters based on my previous (but now less certain) assumption that the James Adair of Pennsylvania was our same James Adair. The following is from "The Pennsylvania Genealogical Magazine," v. 19 (1952-1954), pp. 303-305, "Register of Baptisms 1701-1746, First Presbyterian Church, at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania." The magazine notes: "...the "original of the record is in the Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadelphia. It is published here to complement the Calendar of the Marriages, 1701-1745, in the Pennsylvania Archives, 2nd series, vol. IX... Other publications of contemporary Philadelphia Church Records include the Calendar of marriages from the register of Christ Church (founded in 1695 as the first parish of the Established Church of England), in the Pennsylvania Archives, 2nd series, vol. VIII; the Baptism and Burials of 1709-1760 from the same register in the 'Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography,' vols. 12-1 and 1-7 respectively; and a digest of the minutes and registers of Philadelphia Monthly meeting of Friends, in Hinshaw, 'Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy,' vol. II. "In this register of baptisms is found evidence of considerable missionary travelling by the Rev. Jedidiah Andrews, (the first minister, who served from 1698 until his death in May 1747) as far north as Staten island, New York, and south as Cape May, New Jersey. [A list of place names is included and described in the article.]" The two children born to a James Adair:
      a. Charity, dau. of James Adair, b. 3rd inst., bapt. 6 Jul 1740.
      b. Jane, dau. of James Adair, b. 28 ult., bapt. 3 Jun 1742.
      Note that even though we cannot prove the above James Adair is the same as ours, it is a possibility that needs to be further researched. There are mentions of other James Adairs in early Pennsylvania records as evidenced by the following. In each case, note the location of each James Adair in regards to Joseph Adair, the brother of our James Adair, who lived in West Fallowfield Twp. of Chester Co. in 1753 and Lancaster Co. in the early 1760s:
      a. Http:// shows James Adair on the 1753 List of Taxables for Sadsbury Township of Chester County. Chester County was due east of Lancaster County adjoining the State of Delaware. On the same list is Andrew McCleary who may in fact be the Andrew McCreary who was associated with the early Adairs in Laurens Co., SC, in the 1760s. Sadsbury and West Fallowfield are adjoining townships in Chester County and both are right on the county line with Lancaster County." The proximity of James and Joseph would seem to indicate this may be our James; however, his activities as an Indian trader in the Chickasaw Nation would seem to be at odds with this. It would seem that this is not the man who dies in Bucks County in 1760 since Bucks County is a bit removed from this area.
      b. The probate of a James Adair in Bucks County, Book No. 3, p. 33, with a will date of 2 Jul 1760 and a proven date of 19 Nov 1760 (his wife was executrix and sole legatee; note that there was no mention of children including Charity and Jane). Bucks Co. is a couple counties north of Lancaster Co. The 1760 death proves this man is not our man, but the fact that no children are listed in the probate opens up the possibility the children belong to a different James, perhaps even ours (on the other hand maybe the daughters were already deceased or married).
      c. "The Pennsylvania Gazette," 13 Jan 1763, "List of Letters remaining in the Post Office in Philadelphia": James Adair, Lancaster County. This could very well be our James Adair since his brother Joseph was living in Lancaster Co. Certainly different from the James Adair who died in 1760. He may not have been living there as much as using his brother's address. There is not enough information in this entry to know if this could be the father of the two children Charity and Jane.

      2. From: Shawn & Lois Potter March 19, 2005: "If you can document each generation of your lineage to Thomas Adair (born about 1775 in Laurens County, SC), who married Rebecca Brown, then you have some very interesting ancestors. According to Margaret Brownlee's manuscript (pp. 17-18), this Thomas Adair was the eldest son of Joseph Adair (born about 1755 or before), who married Sarah ___. This Joseph Adair was a son of James Adair, Sr. (born about 1715 and died before August 2, 1790) and Eleanor ___. This James Adair, Sr. was a brother of Joseph Adair, Sr. (born about 1718 and wrote his will on January 9, 1788), who married secondly Sarah Lafferty, and an uncle of Joseph Adair, Jr. (born about 1745 and wrote his will January 20, 1812), who married Elizabeth ___. All these James Adairs and Joseph Adairs can get very confusing. I am descended twice from James Adair, Sr. and Eleanor ___ and once from Joseph Adair, Sr. and Sarah Lafferty. But, I have a lot more research to do before I will feel like I have them figured out. I think Margaret Brownlee, the author of the manuscript I sent to you, has passed away. She would have been someone to consult."
      Also from Shawn: "Thanks for your note. I received Margaret Brownlee's manuscript from either Lee Adair ( or Jett Hanna (, both of whom have contributed notes to the bulletin board for the Adair surname. I can only judge Margaret's reliability from my use of this one manuscript. I have noticed a few mistakes that might be described as typos -- a few obviously wrong dates and perhaps wrong names in her text. But, on the whole, I am very impressed with her work. She tried to document all her statements and she appears to have gained access to many original records. Her manuscript provides a radically better understanding of these families than existed before her work. Having said that, I do suspect she was wrong about her statement regarding the identity of James Adair the Indian trader. I am not yet certain, but I suspect that James Adair, who married Eleanor, was the Indian trader..."
      My follow-up note 1 Sep 2015: Since the above was written ten years ago, Shawn and his wife Lois are the authors of a book to be published sometime in the future entitled "Chickasaw Wife and Family of James Adair, Author of the History of the American Indians." The book uses extensive historical documentation and modern DNA analysis to make a persuasive case that James Adair was indeed the Indian trader and author and that Eleanor his wife was a Chickasaw Indian woman. Having contributed to and reviewed working copies of their book, I am convinced.

      3. Manuscript "Early Adairs of Laurens County, South Carolina," compiled by Mildred Brownlee, 1990, copy at the Laurens County Library; Source Records: Wills; Intestate Estates; Deeds; Court Records; Cemetery Inscriptions. Some dates of birth and death obtained from Lineage Charts. Dates of birth and death subject to correction. Spelling of names subject to correction." [Note that bracketed comments are later additions by other reviewers including myself - Kerry Petersen.]:
      A. "SC Archives, Council Journal 34 p. 39, 2 Feb. 1768 - Petitions for Warrants of Survey:
      James Adair - 150 a. - Waters of Duncan Creek - granted 1768 (James was noted as James, Sr. up to his death.)
      Joseph Adair - 250 a. - Waters of Duncan Creek
      Council Journal 34, p. 236, 7 Dec. 1768 - Petitions to Prolong Warrants:
      Joseph Adair - 250 a. - on Duncan Creek
      His 250 a. was granted in 1770 (where Duncan Creek Church now stands). Joseph Adair sold this grant in 1778 to Benjamin Adair. (Deed Bk. A, p. 189)
      The above is the first record for Joseph Adair, Sr., cooper, found in Laurens Co. [This is incorrect. Joseph Adair petitioned for 200 acres on the Waters of the Santee (Council Journal of 3 Dec 1766, p. 874). The Memorial for this property reads as follows: A Memorial exhibited by Joseph Adair, 200 acres of a Plantation or tract of land contg. 200 acres situate in Berkly County on the So. side of Enoree River on a branch thereof called Millers Creek bounded Ewardly on land of Frances McCall, and on all other sides on vacant land. Survey certified the 7th of March 1769 (Plat Book 9, p. 341) and granted the 2nd day of June 1769 to the memorialist. Quit rent to commence two years hence. SC Memorial Book 8, p. 482. 9 Sep 1769]. James Adair who petitioned for land on the same date as Joseph is possibly the James Adair who married Eleanor and who had died in Laurens Co. prior to 12 Feb. 1796. Early deeds refer to him as James Adair, cooper. His 150 a. grant is evidently the one shown on Union Co. Land Grant map #4 and #12 on a branch of Duncan Creek which is called McCall's Branch on map #4. Other early maps refer to this branch as Miller's Fork. On present day maps it is called Sand Creek ... NE of Clinton, in the area between Hwy. 72 and Hwy. 98. Since available deeds do not make clear the disposition of the above 150 a., there is still some uncertainty that the grant was to James Adair, wife Eleanor; however, it is certain that he was in Laurens Co. 11 Aug. 1774 when he received a grant of 200 a. on a branch of Duncan Creek. Land Grant map #4 says granted in 1770 but deeds say 1774; this grant lying between the main branch of Duncan and Philson's Crossroad, and very near to Joseph Adair, Sr.'s original grant.
      Since both Joseph Adair and James Adair have been identified as coopers and they both petitioned for land on the same date, it seems logical to think that they were brothers. (Dr. James Adair's History states that James Adair, Indian trader, was a brother of Joseph Adair, Sr.) [Modern DNA research on descendants of the Indian trader James Adair provided me in 2015 by Shawn Potter now substantiates this claim.]
      Council Journal 34 should be consulted for any other possible information which might be contained in the land petitions of Joseph and James Adair in 1768.
      The exact year that Joseph Adair arrived in South Carolina has not been determined. He was in Lancaster Co., Pa. in 1759 when he was given Power-of-Attorney to sell land for John, Josiah, and Jennet Ramage. In his History of the Presbyterian Church in SC, George Howe, D.D. states that in 1763 or 1766, Joseph Adair, Thomas Ewing, Wm. Hanna, and the McCrearys had united in building a house of worship. The June 9, 1896 issue of The Laurens Advertiser has an article about the 130th anniversary of Duncan Creek Presbyterian Church which was "organized in summer of 1766."
      B. "James Adair, Sr., cooper, & Eleanor, his wife. As stated on p. 1, it has not been definitely determined that this James Adair was the one who petitioned for land along with Joseph Adair, cooper, in 1767; however, he has been documented as the James Adair who received a grant of 200 a. on Duncan Creek 11 Aug. 1774. Surety for this grant was certified 3 June 1773, so James Adair was in Laurens Co. before that date, (See Deed Bk. F, pp. 8, 9, 10).
      He is also considered to have been the James Adair, cooper, to whom John Brotherton and wife, Esther, sold in 1774, 60 a. on a spring branch of Duncan Creek. (See Deed Bk. A, p. 185.)
      Birth date of James Adair, Sr., cooper, is not known. He died sometime between 24 Feb. 1784 (date of deed to John Jones, blacksmith) and 12 Feb. 1796 (date of deed to which Eleanor, widow of James Adair, dec'd, released her right of dower). Birthdate of Eleanor Adair is unknown; last record of her is also 12 Feb. 1796, release of dower. On 6 Feb. 1792, she was witness to a deed from William Price and wife Margaret, to James Adair, son of James. [Actually Eleanor's last mention is 7 Jan 1803 with her release of dower in a land transaction as reported further below.]
      James Adair, Sr. left no will in Laurens Co. No estate papers have been located in Laurens Co. Eleanor Adair left no will or estate papers in Laurens Co. Data from Laurens Co. deeds indicate that a son of James and Eleanor was Joseph Adair.
      Deed Bk. F, p. 109 - 12 Feb. 1796, Joseph Adair, Jr. to Wm. Holland, 120 a. on a small branch of Duncan Creek. N on John McCreary now John A. Elmore, SW by John Adair now Benj. Adair, S by me, a grant of 2 Oct, 1786; the other plantation of 100 a. purchased from Samuel Ewing 16 Dec. 1778, part of 150 a. grant to Samuel Ewing 30 Sept. 1774, Joining the above tract.
      Joseph Adair, Jr.
      Wit: B.H. Saxon, JA Elmore, Basil Holland
      Release of dower: Sarah Adair, wife of Joseph Adair, Jr.; Eleanor (x) Adair. Widow of James Adair, dec'd.
      (Joseph Adair called "Jr." to distinguish from Joseph Adair, son of Joseph Adair, cooper, who was at that time called Joseph Adair, "Sr.", after the death of his father in 1789.)
      Deed Bk, G, p. 570 - 7 Jan. 1803, Joseph Adair, planter, to John Daniel Kern of Charleston, merchant, 86 a. on N side of Duncan Creek, adj. said J. D. Kern. N 10, W 40, S 30, etc., on Joseph Adair line, S 80, E ??, etc. on Mistres ?Musgrove (seems to be error for "Mistress Montgomery").
      Joseph Adair
      Wit: Thomas Martin, Tailor; William Dabbage
      Release of Dower: Sarah Adair, wife of Joseph Adair, Jr.; Eleanor (x) Adair, widow of James Adair, dec'd."

      4. James Williams Petition listing the Adair family Patriots. Note that Thomas Adair's parents are the ones listed as number 4 (Joseph and Sarah) and his grandparents are number 3 (James and Eleanor). Most of the other Adairs were brothers or cousins. The petition has come to me from Mildred Brownlee's manuscript "Early Adairs of Laurens County, South Carolina" and also from the "South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research," vol. 15, p. 32. James Williams was one of the most reknown Patriots of the Laurens area and this listing of signers of the petition of the area gives us a good source of patriots also associated with him. Col. James Williams and Capt. Josiah Greer were also military leaders of many of these same individuals during the 1778 American invasion of British East Florida per the source of Doctor George Ross' medical reimbursement papers quoted in this database under Rebecca Montgomery's notes. The source of this petition is Item #5767, Manuscript Dept., Wm. M. Perkins Library at Duke University, Durham NC, submitted by Mrs. Mary Ann McCrary and published with permission of the Manuscript Dept. This petition pre-dates the Battle of Kings Mountain (7 Oct 1780), as Col. James Williams was killed at that time. [NB: a second version of the petition was located in the South Carolina Library in 1999 and the gaps in the Duke University petition were filled in as indicated by brackets.] {Any notes or comments added by me are in these brackets.}
      "To his Excellen[cy John Rutledge, E]sq. Governor & Commander in Chief in & [over th]e state of South Carolina, the Honourable the privy Counsel, the Honourable the Senate & House of Representatives in General Assembly.
      Whereas we (the zealous friends to our country, and to all who love and distinguish themselves in her cause) do understand & are exceeding sorry to hear that there are false & [evilly designing] Accusations either lying on or about to shortly be laid against James Williams, our present Colonel in & over Little River Regiment, and designed (as we believe) by the private Enemies of our country to deprive us of so worthy a friend of his Country in general a good officer to us in particular & thereby do a very singular Piece of Service to the common enemies of America. We do briefly & anxiously remonstrate this: that we experimentally know Colo. James Williams to have been a zealous Patriot from the commencement of the America contest with Briten; and to have always stood foremost in every occasion when called upon to the defence of his country. We do further declare that we have never known said Colo. [Jas.].Williams to distress any individuals in the Regiment who voluntarily & judiciously, when legally called upon and commanded to the field, have turned out in the Defence if their Native Rights & Privileges together with that of their Country; & we do avow it from our knowledge, that whensoever Colo. Jas. Williams either directly or indirectly executed any distressing things, it was upon the stubborn & refractory, whose practices of obstinacy declare them inimical to their country: & and that this he did, as being last promissing Effort to reduce them to the dutiful obedience of loyal & fellow citizens. Without delaying you; we your humble Petitioners do earnestly beg that you will hear this our faithful Remonstrance & proceed with our respected Colo. James Williams & all such unjust & disaffected Clamours as may come before you against him, as your superior Judgements may direct: only begging leave to conclude with this one Remark, that doubtless you know that such clamours are frequently the necessary Effect of Disaffection to the Country.
      [Signed:] Robt. McCrery Lt. Colo.; George Davis, Capt.; Matthew McCrar[e]y, Lt.; George Young; Matthew Cunningham; Andrew McCrary; James Greer; [James Dillard]; [John Owens]; [Samuel Ewing]; [William Davis]; [Absolom Filby]; [John McCrary Sener]; [John McCrary Juner]; [Robert Long]; [Matthew McCrary]; [William Bean]; [John Williams J.P {note J.P. is crossed out}]; [Wm. Arthur Capt.]; Josiah Greer; Joseph Ramage; John Robinson; John Bourland; John Greer Juner; Isaac Adair; Jms. Adair; [Thos McCrery J.P.]; [James Ones]; [Andrew Ones]; [John Watson]; [Hughes Manford (?)]; [David Watson]; [Isaac Greer]; [James Ralley]; [John Ramage]; [John Glenn]; [John Jones (M L. (?)]; Henry Atwood; James Adair, Sr.; Joseph Adair Jr.; Joseph Adair; Benjamin Adair; Joseph Adair Sr.; James Adair Jr., son of James; [William Adair]; [John Finney]; [John Adair]; [John Adair Sener]; [James Craige]; [William Craig]; [James Howerton]; [Phillip Whitten]; [John Gray]; [John Greer]; [James Montgomery]; Thomas Ewing; William Blake; James Gamble; [Edward Stapleton]; [John Gamble]; [William Huddleston]; [James Huddleston]; [Alexander Adair]; [Benjamin Willson]; [Benja. Goodman]; [Daniel Williams]
      Suggested identification of the Adairs who signed this petition:
      1. Isaac Adair - Killed in Apr. 1781, left widow, Ruth.
      2. Jms. Adair - b. 1747, son of' Joseph Adair, Sr.; mar. Rebecca Montgomery.
      3. James Adair, Sr. - died before 1796; wife, Eleanor.
      4. Joseph Adair, Jr. - Son of above James & Eleanor; wife Sarah.
      5. Joseph Adair - died 1812; son of Joseph Adair, Sr.
      6. Benjamin Adair - died 1823; son of Joseph Adair, Sr.; wife Nancy.
      7. Joseph Adair, Sr. - died 1789-90; wife: Susannah.
      8. James Adair, Jr., son of James - son of James Adair & wife Eleanor; died 1818, wife Hannah.
      9. William Adair - died 1780-84. Estate administered 1784, Abbe. Wills, p. 10.
      10. John Adair - died 1813 in Ga., wife Jane; son of Joseph Adair; grandson of Joseph Adair, Sr.
      11. John Adair, Sr. - Killed in 1782, wife Sarah. Abbe. Wills, p. 10. Probable son of Joseph Adair, Sr. {Kerry's note: or maybe James Adair, Sr.}
      12. Alexander Adair - Scotch-Irish immigrant in 1767? See Protestant Immigrants to SC - Janie Revill, p. 74.
      {Note the above suggestions are as provided by Mildred Brownlee. I make the following additions of individuals related to the Adairs:
      13. James Gamble - father of William Gamble who marries Martha Adair, daughter of James Adair who was son of James Adair, Sr., the original settler and cooper.
      14. Robert Long - Son of Susannah Murdough from her first marriage before she married Joseph Adair the cooper.
      15. John Owens - Husband of Mary Long. Mary was the sister of Robert Long and a daughter of Susannah Murdough from her first marriage before Joseph Adair.
      16. John Ramage - Husband to Jean or Jane Adair, the daughter of Joseph Adair the cooper and his first wife Sarah Laferty.
      17. George Davis - Died 1781- 1783. First husband to Elizabeth Adair, daughter of Joseph Adair, Jr. and Elizabeth ___.
      18. James Montgomery - Father to Rebecca who married James Adair, the saddler and son of Joseph Adair the cooper. James' other daughter Isabella married Dr. George Ross who was a physician with many of the above in their East Florida expedition in the early days of the Rev. War.
      19. John Jones - There were two John Jones in the area at the time. One was the husband of Hannah Adair, {possible} daughter of James and Eleanor Adair. Unsure which John Jones this may be. Our John Jones died before Sep 1788."

      5. Jett Hanna [] provided me on 8 Jul 2005 with a copy of his analysis of the Mildred Brownlee manuscript as follows. His analysis mirrors my own understanding; however, anything with which I disagree I note in [brackets]. Jett entitles his paper as "Laurens County Area Adair Family Trees." It is broken down by three families: James Adair who married Eleanor, his brother Joseph who married Sarah Laferty, and a William of whom absolutely nothing is known except his name on the Williams Petition, Brownlee's note that he died 1780-84, and that his estate was administered 1784 per Abbe Wills, p. 10. Text quoted as follows:
      "This tree is based on 'Early Adairs of Laurens County, South Carolina,' by Mildred Brownlee. This was provided to me by W. Lee Adair, who obtained it from the Laurens County Public Library. Handwritten notes show a date of 1990 on Brownlee's manuscript. I have not examined these deeds personally. In some cases, notes and questions below are my own additions. This analysis seems to discredit some of the trees in the 'Adair History and Genealogy,' and adds significantly to what is known of the Laurens area Adairs. I have not fully finished analyzing this work, and may have left out parts that are not as critical to my work.
      "Based on this work, it appears very possible that the elder Joseph Adair (m. Sarah, m. Susannah) and his brother James (m. Eleanor) settled in Laurens County at the same time, as suggested by the 'Adair History and Genealogy.' I do not believe, however, that this James was the author of the book on the Indians and reputed patriarch of the Cherokee Adairs. This James was a cooper (barrel maker) according to the deeds. Modern editions of the History of the American Indians suggest that the author James Adair was a direct immigrant to South Carolina, but with no concrete evidence. [Recent DNA analysis conducted by Shawn Potter as of 2015 shows that in fact James Adair, the Indian trader and author, is the same James Adair married to Eleanor and brother of Joseph Adair.]
      "The Williams Petition: In the tree, LCW is Laurens County Wills; LCD is Laurens County Deeds. Also mentioned is the Williams petition. This petition is a significant document in analyzing the Laurens County Adairs. Published in the South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research, Vol. XV, No. 1 1987, p. 32-33, the original is #5767, Manuscript Department, Wm. Perkins Library at Duke University. The petition is in support of Colonel James Williams, a militia leader of the Patriots in the Laurens area (Little River Regiment). The petition, signed by members of the Little River Regiment, is directed to the Governor of South Carolina and the Privy Counsel, and attests to Williams' devotion to the Patriot cause. Williams led militia in a number of battles. I suspect that this petition was provided prior to Williams' elevation to the rank of Brigadier General following the Battle of Musgrove Mill, which was fought in what is now Laurens County. Williams had been accused of puffing his role in the battle. Williams went on to die at Kings Mountain -- one of the few Patriot casualties that day on October 7, 1780. Williams had run for the South Carolina legislature as a Patriot in 1778, only to lose to Robert Cunningham, the infamous Loyalist leader. For more on Williams, see Draper, "Kings Mountain and Its Heroes," (Cincinnati, 1883). Signers of the Williams petition include the following Adairs: Isaac Adair, Jms. Adair, James Adair, Sr., Joseph Adair, Jr., Joseph Adair, Benjamin Adair, Joseph Adair, Sr., James Adair, Jr, son of James, William Adair, John Adair, and John Adair, Sr., and Alexander Adair. Comparing deed and will records to the names, Brownlee identifies the Adair signers [copies Brownlee's explanations]. Brownlee's identifications look very logical to me.
      "The Laurens County Adair Tree:
      1. James Adair m. Eleanor: 150a land grant to James Adair-same date as Joseph 250a. Both referred to in records as coopers (barrel makers). James, cooper in LCD F/8,9,10, A/185. Eleanor released right of dower on deed dated 2/12/1796; date of transfer by James was 2/24/1784. Which deeds correspond with which dates? See Joseph below. Eleanor was also witness on deed from William Price and wife, Margaret to James Adair, son of James, 2/6/1792.
      1.1 Joseph Adair m. Sarah Dillard [Surname Dillard is a Jett addition and I don't believe proven even though many LDS lines also use but again never with documentation.]: Joseph Adair, Jr. to Wm. Holland, 120 ac. Release of dower by Sarah, wife of Joseph Jr., and Eleanor, widow of James Adair, dec'd, LCD F/109. Suggests land owned by James m. to Eleanor, but how does it correspond to land grants? If land belonged to Joseph junior by intestacy laws, why wasn't James m. to Hannah on deed, too? LCD G/570 has dower release for Sarah Adair, wife of Joseph.
      1.1.1 Thomas Adair m. Rebecca Brown: LCD H/22, Joseph Adair of Duncan Creek to eldest son Thomas Adair. Witness Jane Adair. Dower releases for Rebecca in LCD H/129, H/209, and land purchased H/228.
      1.1.2 ?Hannah m. John Jones: see F/8,9,10. 8 & 9: 8/1/1795. 10: 2/25/1784. F/10 is deed from James Sr. and wife Eleanor to John Jones, has witnesses James Adair, saddler, and James Adair, Jr. [Without giving a reason, Jett places Hannah as a possible daughter of Joseph, son of James -- this is probably because Brownlee indicates she believes her to be a daughter of the original James and Eleanor which would make her a sister to Joseph son of James. This appears to be speculative based on the deed her husband had involving the Adairs.]
      1.2 James Adair m. Hannah: Corresponds to James son of James in the Williams petition per Brownlee. James m. Rebecca had a son James, but probably not old enough to sign petition as James m. Rebecca born 1747 per Indiana tombstone. Petition 1780 would mean James m. Rebecca was 33 in 1780; doubtful his son James could be of fighting age. Compare to Adair compilation. LCD M/77-78 reports death of James Adair, Sr., widow Hannah. Hannah Adair's will LCW F/65, proven 1826. James 115(2) 1790 Census. 2 daughters not accounted for. James Jr. was under 16 according to this census.
      1.2.1 Elizabeth m. James? Parlmore (Palmer): LCD M/77-78.
      1.2.2 Mary m. John Prather: LCD M/77-78. Susannah Prather (Prater?): Witness on will of Hannah LCW F/65. Hannah Prather m. Joseph Dollar Linny m. William Prather Archibald m, Susannah Meadors Martha Prather Betsy/Priscilla Prather m. Daniel Owens James Prather Mary (Molly) Prather Bryce Prather Elinor Prather
      1.2.3 Nelly (Eleanor) m. Ramage: LCD M/77-78, LCW F/65. Benjamin Ramage John Jewell Ramage Washington Ramage
      1.2.4 James Adair Jr.: LCD M/77-78, LCW F/65.
      1.2.5 Hannah m. Rueben Meadors: LCD M/77-78, LCW F/65.
      1.2.6 Susannah m. William Cassels (Castles): LCD M/77-78, LCW F/65.
      1.2.7 Nancy m. Willis Langston: LCD M/77-78, LCW F/65.
      1.2.8 Martha m. Wm. Gamble: LCD M/77-78. Patsey Gamble: LCW F/65."

      6. FHL book 975.731 H2b "A Laurens County Sketchbook," by Julian Stevenson Bolick provides a good historical background of Laurens County, South Carolina [with my edited notes added in brackets]. This background assists in better dating our Adairs and in sorting out some published errors in other sources:
      Pg. 1: "An early record showing an original grant from George III to an ancestor of the Putnams of Gray Court has Laurens District in Craven County. "Wallace's History of South Carolina" verifies the fact that a vast tract of land to the south of Virginia had been granted in 1663 by Charles II to eight British lords. Craven County, an extensive region covering most of South Carolina and parts of North Carolina, was a part of this sprawling acreage. In 1719 the people threw off the rule of the Lords Proprietors, at which time the rights of the government and seven-eighths of the soil were ceded to the King. A later territorial separation placed Laurens in the Ninety Six District. On March 12, 1785, Laurens was made a separate District by an Act of the General Assembly…
      "Major Jonathan Downes, a colonial officer, headed a group of influential citizens commissioned to survey the territory. Gentleman Justices serving with Major Downes included James Montgomery [father of Rebecca Montgomery who married James Adair. Jr.], Silvanus Walker, William Mitcherson and Charles Saxon. After the districting was made legal by the act of legislation, the justices were authorized 'to build and keep in good repair at the charge of the county one good and convenient courthouse with necessary jury rooms and one good and sufficient county gaol together with a pillory, whipping post and stocks…"
      Pg. 3: "In 1790 the first government census taken after the adoption of the Constitution gave Laurens District 1,395 heads of families, with a total population of 9,337 including Negro freedmen and slaves. Laurens District, at that time, had a larger population than any other district above Newberry, the latter outnumbering Laurens by only a few hundred.
      Pg. 4: "The first permanent white settler to come to Upper Carolina is believed to have been John Duncan of Aberdeen, Scotland. He first stopped in Pennsylvania, but as early as 1753 he was known to have been in the Ninety Six District on land bordering a creek later named for him.
      "On a return to Pennsylvania, Duncan influenced friends to come to Ninety Six and establish homesteads. He brought his own family and a pair of fine stud horses to pull the first wagon ever to roll over soil between the Broad and Saluda rivers. A lush growth of maiden cane bordering the creek had been the deciding factor for closing out his interests in Pennsylvania.
      "Two of the settlers to accompany him were David and Charles Little, for whom a community was named later. [David Little, 1767-1812, married Charity Adair].
      "Records show early land grants to Andrew McCrary (McCreary), Joseph Adair, Robert Hanna, Thomas Ewing, James Pollock, Thomas Logan and Thomas Craig - all in the group following Mr. Duncan to Carolina."
      Pg. 5: "Still another friend of John Duncan was Joshua Palmer, a minister, who was so influential in the new community that when he moved to Indiana about 1828 he carried with him several families from his ecclesiastical society…
      "Robert Long was brought to this country at the age of five months, and at the age of two years was moved from Pennsylvania to the South. Robert's father was a well-known construction engineer, who by government contract in 1769 built Fort Charlotte on the Savannah River. [Robert Long, son of Daniel Long and Susannah Murdough; Susannah becomes Joseph Adair, Sr.'s second wife after Sarah Lafferty. Brownlee states Daniel died in 1767; is this a different Robert Long? On the other hand the British built the fort for the French and Indian War, which was 1756-1763 - so the 1769 date could be in error.]
      "From North Carolina James Williams came, having been attracted to the fertile lands bordering Little River where he pursued farming and engaged in a mercantile business. His plantation was named Mount Pleasant..." [James Williams was the subject of the James Williams Petition that most early Adair men in Laurens County signed.]
      Pg. 7: "After peace was secured by a vigorous and successful campaign against the Indians in 1761, the backwoodsmen of Carolina, as all people in the territory remote from Charles Town were called, gave their undivided time to replacing the temporary dwellings with more adequate homes. Many of the settlers had stopped in Virginia, but there it was made clear that only those who belonged to the Established Church were welcome; consequently, the ones believing strongly in freedom of worship came on into Carolina. They were principally Scotch-Irish and by no means adventurers…"
      Pg. 17: "Littlesville: One of the first centers of population in Laurens County was Littlesville on Duncan the Adairs, are buried in the old Duncan's Creek Church cemetery. One of the gravestones bears the inscription 'David Little, a native of Ireland.' It is not known which of the early Adairs was the father of Charity, but the Adairs were in this section, probably as early as were the Little brothers. [Charity was the daughter of Joseph, son of the original Joseph Adair the cooper.] Joseph B. [Sr.] came from Ireland in 1711 and died in Laurens County in 1801; Joseph, Jr., [son of Joseph Sr.] was born in Pennsylvania (the state from which John Duncan recruited settlers) in 1733 and died in Laurens in 1812; and John B. was born in Duncan's Creek neighborhood in 1758 and died in Georgia [son of Joseph Jr. and brother to Charity]. Doctor W.S. Glenn of Spartanburg had in his possession in 1930 a map of a very early date which showed a community called Littlesville, about three miles from the historic Duncan's Creek Church. The site is no longer listed even in the crossroad category, the majority of the people from this creek bank settlement having moved to the thriving community of Clinton…
      Pp. 42-43: "Duncan's Creek Presbyterian: One of the early utilitarian buildings was Duncan's Creek Presbyterian Church in the rural section of Jacks Township. Servants of the John Duncan family had erected a brush arbor about 1753, at which time John Duncan had come into the area. A more permanent building of fieldstones was put up in 1764, and that date is visible in a cornerstone of the presently used building erected in 1842. The date 1764 was retained for historic purposes. The original granite walls, two feet in thickness, and the straight-backed pews of oak attest to the strong faith of the era and of the congregations of that particular church. In recent years the small-outmoded reed organ from the fieldstone church was given to Thornwell Home for children in Clinton, where it is still used on occasions calling for a colonial atmosphere. During the Revolutionary War, the church building served as a place of protection for the people of that area. Often referred to as the mother of Presbyterian churches, it is the oldest church organization in the upper part of the state. Both Lisbon Presbyterian and Clinton First Presbyterian were started as mission extensions of the Duncan's Creek Church. The first minister was the Reverend Hezekiah Balch, year 1776. In the same year John B. Kennedy was ordained and continued as pastor intermittently for fifty years. In 1788 the Duncan's Creek Church became involved in serious difficulties. The majority of the members being canny old Scotchmen, theological discord was instituted over whether to use Rouse's or Watt's version of the Psalms. Sixty-three members seceded to form other churches. Although each plantation had its own burial ground, Duncan's Creek church offered burial plots in its churchyard in 1776. Some of the ancient mounds have lost their identity, but one bearing the marking 'Samuel Long, aged 19 years, November 15th, 1776, is still legible [brother of Robert Long and son of Daniel Long and Susannah Murdough]. Sixteen soldiers of the Revolution are buried in the churchyard. In October of 1964, Duncan's Creek Presbyterian Church observed with appropriate ceremony the two-hundredth anniversary of its founding…"

      7. "South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research," vol. 13, pp. 213-218, "Memories of Laurens County," contributed by Mary A. Seyle, CGRS. The selected entries below give additional good history on the establishment Laurens County. :
      "Wallace in his 'History of South Carolina" tells us that as early as 1731 the king sought to interest colonists for Carolina and other provinces where the older settlements were in danger of attacks by the Indians. It has been stated that many settlers came to South Carolina at the close of the French and Indian Wars. However, there were already a number of settlers in the Laurens area and other communities before Braddock's defeat in 1755.
      That is also the year when Governor James Glen concluded a treaty with the Cherokees whereby the Indians ceded to the crown all the land south of the old Indian line, thus making room for more settlers. They came down from Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and from countries overseas. They came, they inspected, they admired, and a goodly number settled in Carolina, quite a number in present Laurens County.
      The earliest settler of Laurens County, we are told, was one John Duncan, who came from Aberdeen, Scotland, to Pennsylvania. He then visited South Carolina for a while, in 1742, and later, about 1751 returned to South Carolina with his family and some friends. Other early settlers whose names still may found in the area came down after Duncan. John Craig from Ireland was granted a tract along the Enoree River. John Kern came from England; Frederick Kern, from Germany...
      At this time, while the settlers were busy establishing homes, cultivating new land, and dealing with the Indians who were no longer so friendly as they had been, another trouble kept them busy. The lawless element that is present in any new community appeared in upper South Carolina, stealing stock, robbing and murdering, when the colonists sought to protect themselves, and generally adding to the hardships the new community had endured. The responsible citizens finally took matters in their own hands and formed bands of Regulators, as they called themselves, meting out what they considered just punishment. The lawless ones retaliated, sometimes the inhabitants were sued by the outsiders, there were incidents of violence, and the honest men suffered. After many protests, the citizens of the upper part of the province made their voice heard. They felt that as subjects of the king, they were entitled to the same rights and privileges as other free Englishmen, and asked for themselves and their families schools, churches, and a part in the government of their community.
      A justifiable compliant of the up-country was that all courts sat in Charleston, all cases were tried there, and no lawyer was allowed to practice unless he had 'been admitted to the bar by the Court of Common Pleas of Charleston, or any attorney of that court, and a resident of this Province.' Travel was slow in the 18th century, and it was a long trip for a man to take from the upper part of the province to Charleston even to be admitted to the bar, and a very long way to go to register a deed or transact any legal business.
      Eventually vigorous protests were heeded, and under the Court Act of 1769 entitled 'An Act for the More Convenient Administration of Justice in this Province,' courts were established, rules for the election or appointment of sheriffs and other officials were laid down, the and duties of the judges were clarified. Jails were built, and dates for the sitting of the courts were set. At Ninety-Six, the court house town for the area now Laurens County, courts were to sit on the 15th of April and November. If Court Day fell on a Sunday, the court was to begin the following day...
      Having won her independence and the Treaty of Paris having been formally signed in 1783 (although the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown in 1781 virtually ended the fighting) South Carolina now turned her attention to internal orgainization and development. No longer a province, but now a state, she busied herself laying out counties, building court houses and setting up her own government. And with a very few exceptions all of our counties were created after the close of the Revolution.
      Laurens County was created... 12 March 1785... Six counties for the district ... called Ninety Six...
      Charles Woodmason, an Anglican missionary to the 'wilds of South Carolina' in his book 'Carolina Up Country before the Revolution' takes a very pessimistic view of the manners and morals of this part of the state prior to and shortly after the Revolution. However, the records show several churches in the present Laurens County before the Revolution.
      John Duncan who was the first settler in Laurens is said to be responsible for the first Presbyterian Church in the county. He is the man from whom the area Duncan's Creek is named, having settled there about 1751. As early as 1764, he erected a 'brush arbor' where those who wished to worship could assemble for their services. Later he had a meeting house erected. The arbor was actually used before the church itself was built, and that is said to date from 1764.
      Hazel Crowson Sellers of North Carolina in her book on 'Old South Carolina Churches' says that John Duncan was joined by his friends Joseph Adair and Robert Long, both of whom were Revolutionary War soldiers, and that Hezekiah Balch held services at Duncan's Creek as early as 1752. Joseph Palmer, a minister, is also said to have been a friend of John Duncan, and was so popular that when he went to Indiana in 1828 a number of the old friends followed him.
      The present building at Duncan's Creek is said to be the third erected on the lot, having been built in 1842, and earliest known grave is that of Susannah Long, dated in 1776. A number of soldiers went from this church to fight in the patriot's cause..."

      8. The following two quotes are general background information of the larger Scots-Irish migration to America and the South. We know of James Adair's presence in the Southeast and it may have been his influence that helped spur his brother Joseph Adair to migrate south to Laurens County. Alternately is it possible that Joseph was part of the larger Scots-Irish migration pattern to this part of South Carolina that enticed James to settle down with him?
      A. The book "The Howard Leytham Stoker Von Dollen Family Histories," FHL 929.273 H833a, by Doris Lewis, 2017 So. 80th Ave., Omaha, Nebraska, 68124, p. 5: "National origins from the 1790 US Census: English 60%, Scotch Irish 9.5%, and German 8.6%. [Accompanying map shows Scots-Irish in the frontier portion or western portions of the states of SC, NC, and VA with a smattering in northern GA and southwestern PA. The Germans are concentrated in south-central PA, western MD, northwestern VA, and with a smattering in central SC and NY. The English are generally coastal.] The Scotch-Irish were used in the old country and again in the new, as 'borderers'. They were fighting families sent out to hold a frontier against aliens. In 1641, 120,000 Scots had been planted in Ulster [Ireland]. In the 1750's, 12,000 came yearly to America, and by 1770, that number grew to 25,000 to 30,000. They were the hardiest and boldest of all immigrants. In 1764, 1000 Scotch-Irish wagons passed through Salisbury, South Carolina, on the way to the mountains."
      B. The book "A History of the Baptists," by Robert G. Torbet, p. 228: "The central and western counties of North Carolina were fertile soil for evangelism, with twenty to thirty thousand inhabitants in 1755, followed by a steady stream of settlers who were attracted there by land grants and the state of freedom existing there."

      10. Excerpts of "Adairs" from the book "Laurens County South Carolina - Minutes of the County Court, 1786-1789," by Brent H. Holcomb, SCMar, Columbia, South Carolina, 2004. The book notes: "This is a record that has only been recently found after being lost for so many years. It is incomplete missing the first 54 pages, pages 103-126, and an unknown number of pages at the end of the volume. There is at least one other volume, still missing, covering the years 1790-1799. The "Minutes" are small court cases, lists of deeds presented to be recorded, applications for administrations on estates and wills proved (beginning in 1787), jury lists, petitions of various kinds, appointments for various offices, apprenticeships, estray animals tolled, and other items. The cases heard for debt or damages could not exceed £50, and cases heard for personal damages could not exceed £20. Criminal cases heard could not call for the loss of life or corporal punishment. Larger court cases were heard in the district courts, such as Ninety-Six."
      The Adair records mention mainly James and Joseph Adair - the only problem was there were at least three Josephs and three James who were all adults at the same time as these court records. The two original brothers/settlers, James and Joseph Adair, were in the Laurens County area by the early 1760s. James was born ca 1715 and died in Laurens Co. sometime between 1784 and 1796. Joseph was born ca. 1718 and died after Jan 9, 1788 when his will was written. James had at least two sons who were alive in the time period of these court records: Joseph (ca. 1745 - ca. 1820) who married Sarah and James (1752-1818) who married Hannah. The other original brother, Joseph whose first wife was Sarah Lafferty and second wife Susannah Murdough, widow of Daniel Long, had at least three sons, Joseph (1735-1812), James (1747-1831) whose trade is noted as "saddler", and Benjamin (1752/1754-1823/1825). Generally speaking, the eldest living Adair of a given name was given the suffix of Sr. or no suffix at all while the younger Adairs were noted as Jr. or "son of" - in some cases an uncle could be a "Senr. The citations could be a mix of all. The following are just the James Adair quotations:
      Pg. 63, 16 Mar 1786: "A Lease and Release for the Conveyance of 60 acres of Land from John Brotherton to James Adair Proven in open Court by the oath of Thomas Ewing & ordered to be Recorded."
      Pg. 68, 18 Mar 1786: James Adair was on a jury in the case of Robert McNees Plt vs. John Martin Deft concerning debt.
      Pg. 70, 18 Mar 1786: James Adair was on a jury in the case of George Caldwell Plt vs David Allison Deft concerning debt.
      Pg. 73, 18 Mar 1786: "James Adair Plt vs Thos Hughes and Charles Saxon Deft. In Debt. Came the Plt by James Yancey his Attorney and the Defts in their proper Person and Confessed Judgment for £1 s15 d10¼ sterl'g. Thereupon it is Considered by the Court that the Plt. recover against the s'd Defts his Debt aforesaid and his cost by him in this behalf Expended and the s'd Deft in Mercy &c."
      Clerk fees £ 11
      Sheriffs fees 3 6
      Attorney's fees 14
      £ 8 6
      Pg. 88,13 June 1786: "A Lease and release for the conveyance of 110 acres of land from Mary Hillon and John Hillon to James Adair proven in open court by the Oaths of George Ross and John Cammel & Ordered to be recorded."
      Pg. 88, 13 June 1786: "A lease and release for the conveyance of 140 acres of land from Mary Hill and John Hillon to John Cammel proven in open court by the oaths of George Ross and James Adair & ordered to be recorded."
      Pg. 96, 16 June 1786: "James Adair vs Jonth'n Gilbert. Debt S.P. By Consent of the parties this suit is ordered to be Continued till next Court."
      Pg. 98, June 16, 1786: "James Adair vs Thos Persons. Attachment. Trover. This day came the Plaintiff by J. Yancey his Atty and the attachment being Returned Executed, and the Deft not Replevied by appearance or put in special bail tho solemnly called, on motion of the Plaintiff by his atty aforesaid it is ordered that Judgment be entered for the Plt for what damages he hath sustaind by Accation of the Trover & Convertion in the Declaration mentioned to be Inquired of by a Jury unless the Defendant shall appear and Plead to Issue at the next court." [Kerry's note: the case just before this was for exactly the same thing for James Montgomery vs Thos Persons.]
      Pg. 134, 14 Dec 1786: "David Wlch Plft. vs John Barnet Deft. In Debt. By consent of the Parties by their attys they have mutually submitted the Determination for this Suit to Nathan Barksdale, James Adair, and Charles Simmons and agreed that their award thereupon should be made the Judgement of the Court, which s'd aware was Ordered to be Returned into Court Immediately."
      Pp. 148-149, 13 Mar 1787: James Adair was sworn as Grand Juror for the county.
      Pg. 149, 13 Mar 1787: James Adair participated as a Grand Juror in the case State vs. Mansfield Walker and John Blackwell. Indictment for Sabbath braking.
      Pg. 152, 14 Mar 1787: "James Adair vs. Henry Johnston & David Simpson. By consent this suit is ordered to be dismist at Plfts. Cost."
      Pg. 159, 16 Mar 1787: "James Adair vs. Thomas Pearson. This day came the Plft by his Attys and the attachment being returned execution on 300 acres of land the Property of Deft and the said Deft not appearing to Replevy the same or Plead to the Plfts Declaration agreeable to a former Order of this Court, Therefore upon a Jury to wit [jury named]… upon their oaths do say that the Plft hath Sustained by accation of the Trespass in the Declaration mentioned, upon their oaths do say that the Plft hath Sustained Damages by accation thereof to s note: There were three exact same cases against Thomas Pearson with James Montgomery, James Adair, and Joseph Adair as individual plaintiffs with all three in sequence.]
      Pg. 165, 12 June 1787: "James Adair, son of James Adair, is appointed Overseer of that Part of the highway leading from Hughes's mill on Enoree and James Young's on Bush River in the room of Tho's Ewing. Ordered that he cause the free male inhabitants and slaves contiguous to and convenient to said road, to work thereon and to cause the same to be kept in repair for one year as the law directs."
      Pg. 215, 11 Mar 1788: "A power of Att'o from James Templeton to James Adair proven in Open Court by the oath of John Lindsey and Ordered to Ly for further proof."
      Pg. 216, 12 Mar 1788: "A Lease and Release for the conveyance of 100 acres of land from Thomas Allison to James Adair acknowledged in Open Court and Ordered to be Recorded."
      Pg. 301, 12 Mar 1789: John D. Kern vs Charles Hutchings. In Case. This day came the parties by their attorneys & thereupon Came also a Jury [jury named] upon their oaths say that the Deft is not Guilty on fhe Nonperformance of the promises & assumptions in the Declaration mentioned & that he go hence without day and Recover against the s'd Plft his Cost by him in this behalf expended, Whereupon it was ordered accordingly.
      On application made on oath by James Adair a witness in said suit, ordered that the Plft pay him the sum of 35/ for 14 days attendance at 2/6 P'r day.
      Also Joseph Adair the sum of 32/ for 13 days attendance at 2/6 P'r day."
      Pg. 324, 18 Sep 1789: "James Adair vs. James Miller. In Slander. By consent this suit is ordered to be Dismist at Deft's cost."
      Pg. 326, 18 Sep 1789: James Adair was drawn as a petty juror.
      Pg. 317, 15 Sep 1789: "James Adair vs. Eliphaz Riley. S. Process Debt. Continued by Consent till next court."
      Pg. 322, 17 Sep 1789: "James Adair vs. Eliphaz Riley. By Consent of the Parties ordered that a Commission issue directed to John Calloway Smith and Wm Robertson Esq'r or any other Justices of the County of Wintown (sic, for Winton) to take the Examination of John Wild a witness for the Deft he giving the adverse party Ten days previous notice of the Time and place of s'd Examination & Return a Certificate of the same to our next Court Together with this commission."
      Pg 331, 16 Dec 1789: James Adair vs. Eliphaz Riley. S. Process debt. This day came the Parties by their attorneys & thereupon came also a Jury [jury named] upon their oaths do say that the Plft take nothing by his bill but for his false Clamour be in Mercy &c & that the Deft Go hence without day & recover against the s'd Pft his cost by him in this behalf Expended &C."
      Pg. 334, 16 Dec 1789: "The last will and testament of Joseph Adair Dec'd was presented in open court by James Adair the Ex'r and proven by the oath of James Montgomery and Ordered to be Recorded. Ordered that a Probate thereof issue in due form &c.
      Ordered that a warrant of Appraisement Issue to four freeholders of this county to View and appraise the estate of the s'd Jo's Adair Decd & Return an account of the same to the Ext'r within the Time Prescribed by Law."

      11. FHL book 975.7 N28w, 1994, "Citizens and Immigrants - South Carolina 1768, abstracted from contemporary records by Mary Bondurant Warren." This book follows the colonial SC records for one complete year. The following information is from the "Council Journals." The book explains: "The Royal Governor and/or Lieutenant Governor, and the Council had a number of responsibilities in the colony. Acting in an executive capacity the Clerk of the Council kept the Council Journals, which provide excellent records of their activities in providing land, payment of bounties, and hear petitions from individuals for redress or relief. Actions of the Council when sitting as the Upper house of the Assembly follow and were recorded in a series of volumes called the Upper House Journals." Originals of these records are in the South Carolina Archives in Columbia, SC.
      "Tuesday 2 February 1768. Petitions for warrants of survey, and to certify plats, p. 39, listed together in sequence:
      "James Adair, 150 acres, Waters Duncan's Creek.
      Joseph Adair, 250 acres, Waters Duncan's Creek."
      Note: no other entries for Adairs were found for the year covered by this book.

      12. On file with me are early plats drawings of Duncan Creek prepared by Lee Adair:
      A. From Lee Adair 13 Sep 2005 []: "I have platted most of the available deed surveys up to 1846 for the Duncan Creek area of Laurens County using the software Deedmapper. The problems with such deed platting are: 1) surveyors weren't always accurate; 2) the terrain was not perfectly flat. In acquiring all the plats, I also had to acquire all the deed records and land transactions and I now have the Laurens County deed books up to Book O (about 1846). These two sources allowed me to place surveys in about the correct positions on the map. I am aided in this by the several rivers and creeks that run through the county and which are platted on the surveys. If there are any specific plats that you need, I can make copies of them and send them to you. One file (Duncan3.jpg) is included to provide a bearing. In the lower left is what looks like the streets of a city. This is Clinton. The interstate running diagonally across this image is I-26. The Duncan Creek Cemetery is located where the D in the text for Duncan Creek Cemetery is.
      One of the properties of Joseph Adair (wife Sarah) is in bright blue just to the right and adjoining that of James Adair (bright yellow). It was a SC land grant that he received in 1786. He sold that with the adjoining property of Samuel Ewing that he had purchased to William Holland in 1796. Whether he and Sarah actually lived there is an open question. The bright blue large tract owned by Joseph Adair is that of Joseph Adair Sr. wife Sarah Laferty. There may be additional properties of Joseph Adair and Sarah, but I have not placed them yet. There are a number of Joseph Adair properties in which I don't have a reliable spouse name. As always there is more work to be done."
      B. From Lee Adair 16 Oct 2005 with more on the specific James Adair plat just above Joseph Adair, the cooper, who gave part of his land to Joseph his son who married Sarah ___: "The property description for the James Adair plat that I sent is as follows:
      SC Memorial Book 13, p. 230. 2 Jan 1775. James Adair, Sr., a Memorial on 200 acres in 96 Distr. on Duncins (sic) Creek between Broad and Saludy Rivers, bounded W on John Brotherton; NW on James Montgomery, NW on John McCrary; NW on John Adair; SE on Saml. Ewing. Survey certified 3 Jun 1773; granted 11 Aug 1774. Quit rent in 2 years. John Rodgers, DS. Delivered 14 Aug 1775 to James Adair.
      150 acres of this property was later sold to John Jones (wife Hannah) in 1784.
      The date alone suggests that this is most likely James Adair, wife Eleanor, and this is confirmed by the following two deed book entries:
      Laurens Co. Deed Book F, p. 10. 24 Feb 1784. James Adair Senior and wife Eleanor to John Jones blacksmith 150 acres.) Witnesses: James Adair sadler, James Adair Jr., James Miller, Roger Brown.
      We know that this is part of the 200 acre James Adair grant because of the following:
      Laurens Co. Deed Book F, p. 8. 1 Aug 1795. Hannah Jones (widow of John Jones) & son William Jones to John Craig, 50 acres on Duncan Creek, part of 200 acre grant to James Adair Sr. 11 Aug 1774 (150 acres conveyed in by sd J.A and Eleanor in 1784 to John Jones). Bordering properties: John Montgomery, Alexander Fillson, John Owens.
      I have attached a zoomed out version of the Duncan Creek plat area."
      108. James Adair as listed below could be either the original James Adair the cooper, the son of this same James, or the son of the original Joseph Adair the cooper. The death date of the original James Adair the cooper is unknown. Laurens County Estate Book A-1:
      P. 7: "Will of Hanse Miller being sick and weak of body... 14 April 1788. Wit: Joseph Adair, Thomas Ewings, James Adair."
      Pp. 98-100: "An account of the sale of the Estate of Joseph Greer decd., 15 of August 1794; purchasers: Andrew McCrary, Joseph Greer, Joseph Adair, John Hansel, Saml McComuthey, Thos McCrary, Joseph Greer, Wm Hunter, John Login, John Elmore, Minasa Willson, Benj. Adair, Newton Higgins, John Grary, Robert Scott, John Owens, James Rammage, Hugh Skelton, Saml Bishop, James Dillard, John Rammage, James Dillard, Robert Grier, Bazzel Brater (cooper tooles), James Adair Senr., John Watson, Simon Tedford, Jonas Greer, J.A. Elmore, George Ross, Ben Adair, Joseph Parkes, Wm Price, Wm Gray, Robert Greer. Total ¤ 56 13 9."
      Pp. 210-213: ""Memorandum of articles sold the estate of John Jones decd, 16 Jul 1784 by Patrick Bryant admr. Purchasers: John Adair, James Dillard, James Adair, Philip Harvey, Littleberry Harvey, Patrick Bryant, Samuel Ewing, Wm Price, John Gorley, Philip Harvey, Thomas Donaldson, John Huston, John Owens, John Robeson, John Rammage, David Simpson, Thomas Hughs, John Robinson, Reuben Pyles, Haunner Miller, Thos Ewin, Jas Saxon, Wm Brown; copy from my office Julius Nichols Junr. [This estate was probated originally in Ninety Six District, the papers of which are in Abbeville County Court House]."

    • 13. This note concerns the problems with Dr. James B. Adair's book "Adair History and Genealogy" in regards to the origin of James Adair and his brother Joseph. Unfortunately, many of this author's wrong conclusions continue to persist in online genealogies even to this day.
      "Migration of Adairs to America began during the early mid-1700s. They came from the Ulster counties in Northern Ireland, and from Galloway, Scotland," wrote Dr. James Barnett Adair in his 1924 book "Adair History and Genealogy." Adair's book indicates these Adairs stopped in Maryland, New Jersey, and (in larger numbers) Pennsylvania, later scattering to South Carolina and other southern states. My own research does place Joseph Adair, the brother of James Adair, in Delaware in association both with some legal dealings for the Ramage family and with a marriage record to Sarah Lafferty.
      Dr. Adair in his book purports that a Thomas Adair (who came from county Antrim in Ireland about 1730 to Chester County, Pa.) was believed to have three sons (James, Joseph, William) born in Ireland and who traveled to this country as single men. He further indicates Thomas came with his sons to Laurens Co., South Carolina. However, researchers have not found any proof to connect a Thomas Adair with James and Joseph Adair who acquired land patents in 1768 on waters of Duncan Creek, which is now in Laurens County, So. Carolina; neither have they found proof of any early Thomas Adair in Laurens Co. East of Adair's settlement in Laurens Co. was the better known Waxaw Colony, settled by other Pennsylvania Scot-Irish and of which a William Adair and his son John Adair were a part. This John Adair later achieves note by becoming Governor of Kentucky. There is no proof that James and Joseph of Laurens Co., had a brother William or that this William was that brother. On the other hand, we are somewhat confident that James and Joseph were brothers based on Mildred Brownlee's well-documented work quoted elsewhere in this database. This has now been confirmed as of 2015 by DNA analysis conducted by Shawn and Lois Potter. It is also Dr. Adair's unsupported contention that Thomas was the son of Alexander Adair, and grandson of Rev. Patrick Adair of County Antrim in Ireland, that Rev. Patrick married his cousin Miss Jean Adair daughter of the first Sir Robert Adair, that Rev. Patrick Adair had four sons and one daughter with his third son being Alexander Adair the father of the supposed [imaginary] immigrant Thomas Adair. He further states that neither the names of Alexander's wife nor the name of the wife of Thomas Adair are known.
      It should be noted that Dr. Adair in his book for these early Adairs cannot be relied upon since there are many proven errors and Adair fails to document or provide his sources if indeed he had any to begin with for these early Colonial American Adairs. My research in South Carolina, PRONI in Belfast, and Edinburgh at the National Library in Scotland confirms that Dr. Adair took any reference to any Adair and fancifully wove them into a forced genealogy. Unfortunately, this fanciful work has misled and continues to mislead generations of Adair family researchers. We are confident that James and Joseph were brothers and that they were from Ireland as part of the larger movement of Scots to Ireland and then to America Our James Adair is described as an Irishman by his contemporaries. The ethnicity of the surname Adair is definitely of County Galloway in the western tip of Scotland near Portpatrick at the nearest point to Northern Ireland. We also find Adairs across the narrow strait in Ulster near Ballymena where there was an Adair manor. There is however no reference to our two brothers that has ever been found in either locality in spite of a thorough search in Archives in both countries. Even though our James appears to have been very educated knowing both Hebrew and Latin and both brothers were apparently trained in the coopering craft, we have found no record for them overseas. Their era overseas was one in which there was a paucity of records and they seem to predate the earliest Scottish Church records. Most of the early settlers of upcountry South Carolina were Scot-Irish and several familiar families appear to have come together to Laurens Co., S.C. from Pennsylvania (i.e. Ramages, McCrearys, Ewings, and Hannas). There are no extant immigration records for our Adairs from Europe; consequently, I have tried to use these associated families by following them overseas to see if they were possibly associated with Adairs before America -- I certainly have also found their surnames in County Galloway in Scotland, but I have failed to date in seeing them in association with our two Adair brothers.
      Dr. Adair, in his book, continues his fanciful work by purporting that the Indian trader, James Adair, was granted land in the Laurens Co. area directly from King George II of Great Britain due to his commercial influence and patronage. He indicates this land was beyond the Indian frontier of that time. Supposedly James influenced his father Thomas and his two brothers, William and Joseph, to come from Pennsylvania to settle on the land. In going from the settlements to see this land, they found no roads, no surveys and no white settlements; just a virgin forest, but a beautiful country. So they cut out a road as they went in order that they might find their way out again. After examining the land, and selecting their locations, some of the party went to work to build houses and clear land for cultivation, while others were sent back to Pennsylvania after their livestock which they drove overland on foot from the Susquehanna River to Duncan Creek. Their corn mill was also brought along and set up for operation by nailing it to a tree. It was something like an old-fashion coffee mill. It was a curiosity to the Indians, who had been accustomed to grind their corn by rubbing it between two stones. This colony obtained their supply of corn the first year by trading with the Indians.
      Besides already determining there was no father named Thomas, we find Dr. Adair has made other errors in the above story. The land James and Joseph obtained in the 1760s was directly from the South Carolina government and at the same time in conjunction with each other which does not support James granting land to his family. Additionally, this area was never called Adair Colony since Duncan had been the first into that part of the land and it was he that apparently influenced many of his previous acquaintances from Pennsylvania to immigrate to South Carolina. James Adair may, however, have been aware of and even one of the of the earliest settlers of available land in Laurens County due to his knowledge of the area from his past Indian trading activity.
      Respected family researcher Jett Hanna comments: "Mildred Brownlee has done a lot of very good analysis of the Laurens County Records and some state records. She also located a petition in the Duke library that is signed by many of the Adairs during the Revolution ... Her work is Brownlee, "Early Adairs of Laurens County South Carolina" (1990), and is in the Laurens County Library. She has put together a very plausible tree for the Laurens County Adairs ... After reviewing Brownlee's work, it is clear how sloppy the "Adair History and Genealogy" is."

      14. Various mentions of "Joseph Adair" and "James Adair" in Colonial Pennsylvania records before Joseph traveled the "Great Wagon Road" to South Carolina in the mid-1760s. These are the earliest records that we have thus far on our Joseph Adair in America. Note that the name Joseph Adair is extremely rare and basically non-existent in the earliest Scottish Church records for all of Scotland -- so any mention of Joseph Adair in Colonial Pennsylvania and South Carolina seems to be so far confined to the brother of our James Adair. (In fact any occurrence of the name Joseph Adair in Scotland may well be the best key to finding the pre-American presence of both James and Joseph in Ireland and Scotland. The name James Adair on the other hand is somewhat common, which complicates our efforts to find our specific James Adair. I present the following abstracts of early mentions of both Joseph and James in Colonial Pennsylvania to provide context and to see if we can find our early James by following the pre-South Carolina presence of his brother Joseph. While this gives a great picture of Joseph, the references to James seem to show that he was not a real presence in Pennsylvania and that we are probably looking at one or more other James Adairs. What is interesting is the wealth of references on Joseph, but the scarcity of James Adair, which we may possibly consider to be attributable to his movements as an Indian trader in southeast America. By not having a real presence in Pennsylvania, it seems to backhandedly confirm the presence of our James elsewhere. I find no direct dealings between the two brothers even though we are confident of their brotherly relationship in South Carolina. James only occurs in notes "J" and "N" below. Note also that the date Joseph Adair arrived in South Carolina is unknown, but he is listed with those who united in 1763/1764 to build a house of worship (George Howe, D.D.'s "History of the Presb. church in SC). The June 9, 1896, issue of the "Laurens Advertiser," noted the celebration of the 130th anniversary of the Duncan Creek Presbyterian Church, which it indicates was "organized in the summer of 1766." The abstracts:
      A. 1739 Joseph: Abstracts from Benjamin Franklin's "Pennsylvania Gazette 1728-1748," part 1, p. 216, compiled in 1975 by Kenneth Scott, shows that in 1739 the "following persons have unclaimed letters at Post Office in Philadelphia since November 2 past: Adaire, Joseph."
      B. 1739 Joseph: January 4, 1739, The Pennsylvania Gazette: List of Letters which have been brought into the Post-Office at Philadelphia, since the 2d of November past, and remain unredeem'd: Joseph Adare, Cooper, phi." (Note: phi=Philadelphia)
      Comment: This is significant because of the mention of cooper as Joseph's profession.
      C. 1740 James: "The Pennsylvania Genealogical Magazine," v. 19 (1952-1954), pp. 303-305, "Register of Baptisms 1701-1746, First Presbyterian Church, at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania." The magazine notes: "...the "original of the record is in the Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadelphia. It is published here to complement the Calendar of the Marriages, 1701-1745, in the Pennsylvania Archives, 2nd series, vol. IX... Other publications of contemporary Philadelphia Church Records include the Calendar of marriages from the register of Christ Church (founded in 1695 as the first parish of the Established Church of England), in the Pennsylvania Archives, 2nd series, vol. VIII; the Baptism and Burials of 1709-1760 from the same register in the 'Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography,' vols. 12-1 and 1-7 respectively; and a digest of the minutes and registers of Philadelphia Monthly meeting of Friends, in Hinshaw, 'Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy,' vol. II. "In this register of baptisms is found evidence of considerable missionary travelling by the Rev. Jedidiah Andrews, (the first minister, who served from 1698 until his death in May 1747) as far north as Staten island, New York, and south as Cape May, New Jersey. [A list of place names is included and described in the article.]" The two children born to a James Adair:
      a. Charity, dau. of James Adair, b. 3rd inst., bapt. 6 Jul 1740.
      b. Jane, dau. of James Adair, b. 28 ult., bapt. 3 Jun 1742.
      Comment: Note that even though we cannot prove the above James Adair is the same as ours, it is a possibility that needs to be further researched. See note J below for the presence of a different James Adair who died in Bucks County, PA, in 1760 (but without any children listed in his probate).
      D. 1741: Philadelphia County Administration Book "D," 2 Jul 1737-8 April 1743, page 181: #75: Letter of Administration to John Morrison, of Philadelphia, labourer, and Joseph Adair, of Philadelphia, cooper, administrators of Robert McCleland, 31 Jul, 1741. (Source: Pennsylvania Genealogical Magazine, v. 28 (1973-4), p. 261.)
      Comment: This is significant because of the mention of cooper as Joseph's profession.
      E. 1743 Joseph: The article "History of Lancaster County's Highway System (From 1714 to 1760)," by H. Frank Eshleman, 1922, p. 64, as reported in the FHL book "Papers Read before the Lancaster County Historical Society," Vol., 24, No. 3: "1743-Road, Unicorn to Kinseyville (Miles Ford): "In pursuance of an order issued at May session 1743 (2 D. 100) a report was made dated July 1 and presented to August Court of a road from a road called Brown's Road in Drumore Township, to Miles Ford on Octorara in Little Britain. It began where the Brown's Road forked toward James Gillepsie's and it took a general southerly course and passing William Montgomery's and passing Samuel Gibson's reached Little Conowingo about 5 miles from starting point. Farther on, it reached Samuel Scott's. It then passed on south by Joseph Adaire's and Robert Gleim's. Farther on about 3 miles by a very crooked course from its crossing over Little Conowingo it intersected the road from Caleb Pennel's to Miles Ford and then followed that road to Miles Ford and on into Maryland. It was reviewed in part a year later in 1744 (2 D. 33) but not greatly changed. Its starting point was about half a mile east of Unicorn and a mile and half west of Puseyville at which place Brown's Mill stood."
      F. 1747 Joseph: The records of Holy Trinity (Old Swede's) Church, Wilmington, Del, From 1697 to 1773 and Catalogue and Errata of the Records of Holy Trinity (Old Swedes) Church, Wilmington, Del., from 1697-1773, translated from the Original Swedish by Horace Burr, with an Abstract of the English Records from 1773 to 1810." Reprinted, two volumes in one, for Clearfield Company, Inc. by Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, MD, 1999: marriage record of Joseph Adare (Adair) and Sarah Lafferty in Sep 1747.
      G. 1748 Joseph: The article "History of Lancaster County's Highway System (From 1714 to 1760)," by H. Frank Eshleman, 1922, p. 66, as reported in the FHL book "Papers Read before the Lancaster County Historical Society," Vol., 24, No. 3: "1748-Road, Chestnut Level to Peach Bottom. At August sessions 1748, a road was laid out from near Chestnut Level Church running south by east, half a mile and then to a road laid out through a Maryland tract called Slate Hill. Thence it follows the Maryland road, south-east to Conowingo Creek and goes on by an old road leading from Joseph Adair's to Porter's Store. This road, making use of several old roads duplicates roads already laid out (2 D. 105)."
      Comment: I have a copy of the warrant map as copied from the book "The Warrant Maps of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Including an Every-Name Index," by Geri Gilbert, 2005, Masthof Press, 219 Mill road, Morgantown, PA 19543-9516.
      H. 1750 Joseph: The book by Ellis, Franklin, and Samuel Evans, "History of Lancaster County, 1883," pp. 848-866, Chapter LVI, Fulton Township: "This township was formed in the year 1844 by a division of Little Britain township; taking its name from Robert Fulton (the celebrated inventor of the steamboat), who was born within its territorial limits. It is bounded on the east by Little Britain; on the south by Mason and Dixon's line, separating it from the State of Maryland; on the west by the Susquehanna River..." The following surnames from Laurens Co., SC, also appear in the same township at the same time: McCrearys, Hannas, and Ewings. Similar information is also from "Pennsylvania Archives," printed in 1897, vol. 24, 3rd Series, pg. 352. There are two Adair entries as follows:
      i. "Joseph Adair also occupied a large tract in the southeastern section of the township, his survey being returned 422 acres by warrant of Aug. 20, 1750. He sold 287-3/4 acres to Samuel Coulson, Oct. 29, 1764, the balance having been previously transferred to James Hanna. Coulson failed soon after, and the sheriff sold the above (with other land of his) to David Jenkins, Aug. 7, 1767."
      ii. "Other Land-Warrants issued prior to 1800. - Joseph Adaire, Aug. 20, 1750, 250 acres, next to Michael and Robert Smith; 422 acres acres surveyed, now in Fulton township, near the State line, now belongs to the Jenkinses and others. Included in the above is 134-1/4 acres patented to James Hanna, Nov. 7, 1763. Book AA, vol. iii. page 525, etc." (Also same information is from "Pennsylvania Archives," printed in 1897, vol. 24, 3rd Series, pg. 352.)
      Comment 1: I have a copy of the warrant map as copied from the book "The Warrant Maps of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Including an Every-Name Index," by Geri Gilbert, 2005, Masthof Press, 219 Mill road, Morgantown, PA 19543-9516. From other sources noted below, Joseph Adair was in the southeastern corner of modern Fulton Twp. An 1864 map of the area on file with me shows several Hannas and Jenkins in that area, which are names with whom he had land dealings.
      Comment 2: The book "The Ramage Family of Laurens, South Carolina," 1999, Martis D. Ramage, Jr., 4218 Ridgemont Drive, Belden MS, 38826, FHL film 2055402, Item 2, pp. 9-10: "Joseph Adair, father of Jean Adair Ramage. Joseph Adair received a warrant of 259 acres in Little Britain Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania in 1750. In 1764, Joseph Adair sold his property in Lancaster County to Samuel Coulson. It should be noted that one of the deeds in Lancaster County (Deed Book 3, page 246) indicates that Joseph Adair's wife was named Sarah (maiden name thought to be Lafferty). Other records in Lancaster County indicate that Joseph Adair's profession was a 'cooper.' Joseph Adair was never listed on a tax list in Lancaster County after 1764."
      I. 1753 Joseph: The book "Futhey and Cope, History of Chester County," 1881, pp. 162-200, Townships and Boroughs, Etc.; West Fallowfield Taxables, 1753, lists several dozen men including "Joseph Adair." No other Laurens Co., SC, related surnames appear on the list except a James Huston.
      J. 1753 James: Http:// shows James Adair on the 1753 List of Taxables for Sadsbury Township of Chester County. Chester County was due east of Lancaster County adjoining the State of Delaware. On the same list is Andrew McCleary who may in fact be the Andrew McCreary who was associated with the early Adairs in Laurens Co., SC, in the 1760s. Sadsbury and West Fallowfield are adjoining townships in Chester County and both are right on the county line with Lancaster County.
      Comments: There is another James Adair that shows up in early records of southeastern Pennsylvania two counties north in Bucks County (Falls Township). He is not our James since his probate in Bucks County, Book No. 3, p. 33, indicates a will date of 2 Jul 1760 with a proven date of 19 Nov 1760. His wife was executrix and sole legatee. As reported in the book "Abstracts from the Pennsylvania Gazette, 1748-1755," by Scott and Clarke (FHL 974.811-B38sa), this same James of Falls Twp. shows up four times in 1752 as giving a deposition in a matter dealing with a Richard Perot of Penn's Manor being robbed. Since Bucks County James died in 1760 in Pennsylvania, he would not have been our James who lived two or more decades longer. Subject to the Indian activities of our James in 1753, there is a possibility that the tax list James could be ours due to the proximity to Joseph and Andrew McCreary -- or it may be an earlier appearance of the Bucks County James Adair or even a totally different James Adair.
      K. 1754-1758 Joseph: FHL book "A New Index Lancaster Co., Pennsylvania before the Federal Census; Volume 3 Index to the 1750 Tax Records," by Gary T. Hawbreaker and Clyde L. Groff. Joseph Adair shows up three times in Little Britain Township: "Joseph Addair, 1754; Adair 1756; 'Cooper' in 1758." This is significant since Joseph's profession in South Carolina is also listed as a cooper. The book notes that Lancaster County was created in 9 Jun 1729 from Chester County. Lancaster originally had 17 townships, which eventually further divided. The southernmost township was originally known as Drumore, then it divided in half in 1738 with the southern half known as Little Britain. Little Britain further divided in 1844 with the western half named Fulton. The three southernmost original townships, Martic, Sadsbury, and Drumore were considered the Presbyterian and Quaker area with the northern townships more Germanic. The book notes that these tax records are the earliest available records for Lancaster County after it was founded in 1729. These records are located in the Lancaster County Historical Society. It also notes that many of the Scot-Irish surnames are gone by 1780 since whole congregations of Scot-Irish Presbyterians would migrate down the Great Wagon Road through the valley of Virginia into the upcountry of North and South Carolina. The book also notes the following about Little Britain Township: "The records of 'Little Brittain' begin in 1754 with Jams. Dixson the collector. The next available list is for the 1756 (there are two lists) and John Atchison is the collector. Appeal is to be made "In the Court House" on 20 Dec 1756. John Allison is the collector for 1757." The first settlements in the area were 1714.
      Comment regarding the land of the "Southern End" from an article appearing in the "Philadelphia Weekly Press," 21 Jun 1872: The principal mineral constituents of the soil of the lower Lancaster county are silica, clay, slate, micaeous earth, and serpentine, ingredients unaided by fertilizers that are anything else then favorable to an abundant yield of farm products. Hence it is plain that our ancestors, unacquainted with our modern fertilizers, were not so successful in acquiring from the products of the farm the accumulated wealth of their German neighbors, who had anticipated the English and Irish emigrant by settling to the north in fertile valleys of the Pequea and Conestoga."
      L. 1755 Joseph: FHL book "New Castle County Delaware Land Records 1755-1762," by Carol J. Garrett, 1999, notes in the Introduction: "The patent which granted William Penn territory, soon to be called Pennsylvania, was signed by King Charles in 1681. Delaware, as a part of Pennsylvania was referred to as the Lower Three Counties." On p. 102 is noted the following connection between Joseph Adair and the Ramage family: "359. Power of Attorney. 9 Sept 1755. Jannet Tate, John Ramage and Josiah Ramage, all of the Co. of Cumberland in the Province of Penn., yeomen, have ordained our trusty friend, Joseph Adaire of the Co. of Lancaster, yeoman, our true & lawful Attorney for us or either of us, and in our names ... to the lands, tenements and real estate whatsoever belonging to Joseph Ramage, late of Newcastle Co., dec'd, by his last Will and Testament bearing date 30 Dec 1730. Signed: Jannet Ramage, John Ramage, Josias Ramage. Wit: Daniel Clark, William McCall. Rec: 29 Aug 1759 (S1-595)."
      Comment: From Jett Hanna 10 Jul 2005 in commenting on Joseph Adair with Power of Attorney for the Ramages in Delaware: From the Delaware Archives probate site: Ramage, Joseph - 1754-1756 - New Castle County. It looks to me like Joseph Adair was not involved in a 1730 probate, but rather was given a power of attorney to deal with the estate in 1750s. I'll bet that Josiah was intestate, and they didn't resolve the land title until the 1750s. Joseph Adair is probably appointed administrator in a later probate, maybe this one.
      M. 1759 Joseph: FHL book 975.11R29m "New Castle County Delaware Land Records 1762-1765," by Carol J. Garrett, 2000, p. 152: "405. Deed. 23 Aug 1759. Jannet Tate (late Jannet Ramage), spinster, John Ramage and Josiah Ramage, all of the Co. of Cumberland in Province of Pennsylvania, yeomen, for the sum of 110 pounds, sold unto Robert Barr of Miln Creek Hun. in Co. of Newcastle on Delaware, farmer, a tract of land in sd place containing 114 acres and 30 perches, together with all and singular, this is whereas Josiah Ramage, late of Miln Creek in sd Co., in his lifetime was seized of a parcel of land situate in sd place, on the north side of the land late of Thomas Brackin (being also a corner of the land late of John Read). It bounded the land late of William Emmit, crossing by the land late of John Brackin to land late of sd Thomas Brackin. It contained 114 acres and 30 perches of land. Then so seized, sd Josiah Ramage made his Last Will dated 30 Dec 1730 and devised (viz) 'to make my two sons (John and Josiah) to come of age of 21. I leave to them all the whole plantation in which I now dwell equally to be divided between them.' Whereas sd Jannet Tate, John Ramage and Josiah Ramage by their letter of Attny dated 29 Dec 1755, did ordain Joseph Adair of the Co. of Lancaster, yeoman, their lawful attorney, they impowered him to sell sd tract of land and premises. Signed: Jannet Tate, John Ramage, Josiah Ramage (by Joseph Adair, their attny). Wit: Thomas McKean, Daniel McConnell. Ack: Aug Term 1759. Rec: 10 Jan 1764. (W1-138)"
      N. 1763 James: "The Pennsylvania Gazette," 13 Jan 1763, List of Letters remaining in the Post Office in Philadelphia: James Adair, Lancaster County.
      Comment: As noted in note "J" above, there was an unrelated James Adair in early Pennsylvania whose death is documented in 1760 -- so this entry must pertain to a different and later James. Since James Adair the trader did travel around a bit, it could possibly be our James. Lancaster County is the location of where his brother Joseph was living at this time in Fulton Township.
      O. 1768 Joseph: "The Pennsylvania Gazette," 4 Feb 1768, List of Letters remaining in the Post Office in Philadelphia: Joseph Adair, Philadelphia.
      P. 1768 Joseph: "The Pennsylvania Gazette," 28 Apr 1768, List of Letters remaining in the Post Office in Philadelphia: JOS. Adair, Philadelphia.
      Q. 1769 Joseph: "The Pennsylvania Gazette," 26 Oct 1769, List of Letters remaining in the Post Office in Philadelphia: Joseph Adair, Philadelphia.

      15. The name James Adair occurs often in Colonial America. It is apparent that there were more than one James Adair in Colonial and Revolutionary War South Carolina. The following are miscellaneous references to the various James Adairs of South Carolina who may or may not be our James Adair:
      A. Reviewed the several volumes of "Passenger and Immigration Lists Index" at the FHL in Salt Lake City. Most all early Adair records are from the 1800s and too late to be of value. There are no matching records for the earliest Joseph and James Adair of Laurens Co., South Carolina. The records earlier than the Rev. War appear very spotty and incomplete. There are however these Adair entries coming thru Charleston, South Carolina. Subject from where the ships carrying the two James Adairs came, could they possibly our James traveling about in promotion of his book?
      Alexdan, 1767, 3627.37 p187
      Alice, 1767, 3627.37 p184
      James, 1763-1764, 3627.37 p67
      James, 1767, 3627.37 p187
      Jane, 1763-1764, 3627.37 p67
      Jane, 1767, 3627.37 p70
      Margaret, 1767, 3627.37 p187
      Mary, 1767, 3627.37 p187
      B. The book "A Compilation of the Original Lists of Protestant Immigrants to South Carolina 1763 -1773," compiled by Janie Revill, 1981, FHL 975.7 R326, p. 13, lists a James Adair as an "Irish Protestant lately arrived on the encouragement of the bounty" with payment of passage done through certificates granted to "James Egger Commander of the ship they came over on." No other Adairs listed; however, other name entries include both males and females from which we can conclude James immigrated alone. I inadvertently did not copy the page with the date; however, the succeeding entry is dated 2 Mar 1764 in the Council Journal 30, page 42-45. May be same James as listed in previous note "A" above. Our James already had children and would not be immigrating from Ireland at such a late date to claim an immigration bounty.
      C. See separate notes in my database for James Adair with "Unconnected Adairs" in which I include some references to William Adair of Waxhaw, South Carolina in Chester County. William was the father to John Adair who later achieved notoriety in the War of 1812 and as Governor and Senator of Kentucky. William had three sons named John, James, and William Jr. who fought in the Revolutionary War. James Adair of Chester County area shows up in same area after the War and is not our James.
      D. Citation unknown but the following is from a photocopy in my possession from some privately published family history: "General Francis Marion - One of the great Partisan Leaders of South Carolina, was of Huguenot descent. He was known as the Swamp Fox, because he operated in the swampy forests of the state. His strategy was to dash out quickly with his superbly mounted men, surprise and cut the enemy's supply lines, kill their men and release American prisoners, then swiftly back again to 'the thick recess of the deep swamps.'" The author then lists a few of Marion's soldiers including a "Jas. Adair." It should be noted that Marion was from the lower country of South Carolina and operated in the same area; our Adairs were in the upper country. Our James was probably too old to be the James involved; however, maybe his son James or his nephew James (son of Joseph, Sr.) could have been possibly involved but more research would need to be done to prove it. Most of Marion's men were irregulars from the countryside as militia and not necessarily trained soldiers. The movie "The Patriot" with Mel Gibson is loosely based on elements of General Marion.
      The "Swampfox" website lists four Adairs who served as officers: James, John, Joseph, and William. All four are listed as Lieutenants. The site references "Kinfolks" 1269, 1236, and 1233 respectively for the first three Adairs and William has the reference of De Saussure's "List of South Carolina Officers in the War of the Revolution" as published in the Charleston Year Book of 1893, page 209. Listed as non-commissioned officers and privates are the following Adairs with references as noted:
      Alexander Adair, stub indent S347: served in militia.
      Benjamin Adair, stub indent S348; Annuitant's Claims: served in the militia, last a horse in service, and was killed on 10 Mar 1781.
      Isaac Adair, stub indent S346; Annuitant's Claims: served in Picken's Brigade (one source says Marion's Brigade) and was killed in April 1781.
      James Adair, stub indent Y1522.
      James Adair, Jr.
      William Adair.
      See the next entry for more on this group of men.
      E. From the Internet: "Stub Indents are another important resource. When South Carolina paid claims for goods, services, or damages from the Revolutionary War, they were paid with certificates called indents. Rather like stub checkbooks, the certificates were in two parts: one part was issued to the claimant as compensation; the other part was a stub on which pertinent information, such as the claimant's name, the nature of the claim, and the amount paid was recorded. The state retained the stub of the indents, and they are found at the South Carolina Department of Archives and History in Office of the Commissioners of the Treasury, Stub Indents and Indexes, 1779-1791, 22 vols."
      The following indents are for various Adairs and are from "Accounts Audited of Revolutionary Claims Against South Carolina," ed. by A.S. Salley, The Historical Commission of South Carolina, 1935, copy at FHL. Many of these men would be our relatives considering their location in Laurens Co and the Ninety Six District as this area was originally called:
      a. Vol. 1, #20: No. 347 S; Alexander Adair; addressed to Charleston from Laurens Co. 3 Aug 1786. Alexander gives Robert Scott the power to receive the indent; subscribing witness was James Montgomery; rec'd. 14 Jun 1785. Based on militia duty as a private "before and since the reduction of Charlestown"; mentions Col. Anderson's return.
      b. Vol. 1, #21: No. 348 S; Benjamin Adair; dated 24 Mar 1785; subscribing witness was John Magee, received 14 Jun 1785; based on "a horse lost in public service in 1779"; no locality shown for Benjamin; mentions Col. Robert Anderson's return.
      c. Vol. 1, #22: No. 346 S; Isaac Adair; addressed 5 May 1785 from "Ninety Six District"; empowered Capt. James Dillard to receive payment; subscribing witness was James Montgomery; rec'd 14 Jun 1785; based on militia duty as a private "before and since the reduction of Charlestown"; mentions Col. Anderson's return.
      d. Vol. 1, #23: No. 350 S; James Adair; addressed 18 Sep 1785 from "Ninety Six District, Laurens Co."; empowered John Hunter, Esq. to receive payment; subscribing witness was James Montgomery; rec'd 14 Jun 1785; based on militia duty as a private "before and since the reduction of Charlestown" and as wagon master for Col. Ja's Williams from 29th Mar 1780 to 20 May for 52 day; mentions Col. Rob't Anderson's return.
      e. Vol. 1, #24: No. 340 W; James Adair, Junr; addressed 7 Sep 1783; received 8 Aug 1785; for "flour supplied the militia in 1783 also for recovery of Horses lost in 1779"; also mentions "flour for the use of the widows and distressed families in Col. Casey's Reg't"; also mentions "horses lost at Augusty [Augusta] under the Command of General Williamson 11 of may 1779"; subscribing witness was Robert Hanna.
      f. Vol. 1, #25: No. 1522 Y; James Adare, addressed 27 Jun 1787; based on "120 days Militia duty in Gen'l: Marion's Brigade in 1781, also for a Gun impressed; mentions Lt. Col. Hugh Horry.
      g. Vol. 1, #26: No. 349 S; John Adair; addressed 15 Sep 1785 from "96 District"; empowered John Hunter to receive payment; subscribing witness was James "Adear"; rec'd 14 Jun 1785; based on militia duty as a private "before and since the reduction of Charlestown"; mentions Col. Anderson's return.
      h. Vol. 1, #27: 1955 X; Joseph Adair; addressed 20 May 1785; empowered John Hunter to receive payment; subscribing witnesses included Robert Anderson, J.P., Col. Levi Casey, and Charles Saxon; based on "Joseph Addairs Commissary Commencing 20th of August 1781 and ending the 1sd of March 1782" including sundries, flour, Indian corn, fodder, "Rations and Necessarys for 2 Wounded Men belonging To Gen'l Greens Army 49 days," "1 Gun & Accoutements lost at Savannah," "Corn & Fodder for Col. Jones of Georgia," "Rations for 9 Horses of Capd. Mac bee Comp'y," "Oats for Col. Washington's Men," work with wagon and team.
      i. Vol. 1, #28: No. 106 I; William Adair; addressed 27 Jul 1783; several different men received endorsements in 1786 and 1787 including John Adair, Philip Hart, and John Lewis Gervais; based on service as adjutant for Col. Lacey's Regt. for 60 days June 18, 1780, and 30 days Feb. 12, 1781; subscribing witness was Joseph Palmer, J.P.
      Note also that John Adair shows up empowered to collect in behalf of William Kay and John Edward Auston. He also shows up as "John Adair, J.P." the subscribing witness of Ambros Ball.
      F. The book "Roster of South Carolina Patriots in the American Revolution," by Bobby Gilmer Moss, lists the following James Adairs. The first James appears to be a conglomeration of two or three persons with the last part of the entry perhaps being the author James Adair's son. I am not who are the other James Adairs but they may be the same as others elsewhere in this particular note. I do not have the abbreviation list as to the sources the author give:
      "James Adare, Sr., S9264, b. 8/15 May 1752, Bucks Co., Pennsylvania, d. 18 Aug 1818, m. Hannah ___. He entered the service during 1776, while residing in York District, and served under Capt. Frank Ross and Col. Neel. In the same year, he joined a unit under Capt. John McCool and Col. Hopkins. In 1777, he was under McCool and Hopkins and was wounded at Horseshoe Battle on War Woman Creek. He was discharged as a result. Later, he appears in Picken's brigade as one who recovered horses lost at Briar Creek. During 1782, he was under Capt. James Dillard, Col. Casey and Gen. Pickens. He supplied food for distressed widows and families for Casey's unit and was a wagon master for Col. James Williams from 29 March to 20 May 1780. A.A. 21; Patriot Index."
      Other James Adairs:
      "James Adare. He served 120 days in the militia under Gen. Marion during 1780 and 1781. At one time, he was under Lt. Col. Hugh Horry. Kinsfolk, 1269; A.A. 21; S350; Y1522."
      "James Adair, Jr., b. c. 1755, d. July 1835, m. Anna ___. He served in the militia. Patriot Index."
      G. As a matter of interest, there were other Adairs in South Carolina closer to Charleston. The following is from letters dated Jul 1981 and 9 Jan 1982 of Barbara Langdon, hired researcher for Ron B. Hales. She notes that there are "two distinct groups of Adairs, one group in the area of Charleston and the other in Laurens County." She identifies some of these "Charleston" Adairs; however, I do not believe there was any direct relationship with our Adairs in Laurens County.
      Barbara notes her research is from the South Carolina Library from the book "History of Williamsburg," by Wm. W. Boddie, The State Co., Columbia, SC, 1923:
      P. 115: Soldiers in Marion's Brigade: Alexander Adair, Benjamin Adair, James Adair, John Adair.
      P. 118: John Adair furnished supplies (Revolutionary War).
      Pp. 142, 153, 154: Samuel Adair in Williamsburg, 25 March 1789. Claims granted to: 1735 William Hamilton; present proprietor: Samuel Adair; Lot# 390.
      P. 153: In 1800 the following men or their heirs owned lots in Williamsburg: Samuel Adair, Lot #391.
      Barbara also notes:
      "Williamsburg Census: 1790: Adair, Samuel 1-3-3-14."
      "State Grants 1784-1821," (unpublished): "James Adare, Georgetown District, 100 acres, 5 March 1787."
      "There are numerous references to Adairs in the areas north of Charleston which in the 18th century were Georgetown and Williamsburg. The men in this area were often involved in General Francis Marion's Brigade during the Revolution. The Revolutionary War Records are available, but they contain mostly pay vouchers. The records in these areas, Horry and Williamsburg Counties, were destroyed during the Civil War. Horry and Williamsburg Counties sent their courthouse records inland to Chesterfield County for safety during Sherman's march to the sea. Horry and Williamsburg were among the surviving courthouses. Chesterfield burned."
      Barbara also comments on Laurens Co.: "The index to the Laurens County Land Records are not only incorrect and incomplete, they are often illegible."

      16. Various quotes collected as of 20 Apr 2003 concerning James Adair the Indian Trader and Author:
      A. From an unsourced online encyclopedia: "Adair, James, Indian trader and author, lived in the 18th century. He resided among the Indians (principally the Chickasaws and Cherokees) from 1735 to 1775, and in the latter year published his "History of the American Indians." In this he attempted to trace the descent of the Indians from the Jews, basing his assumption upon supposed resemblances between the customs of the two races. At that time such a hypothesis was regarded as visionary, but the idea has since found many supporters, among them being Boudinot in his "Star of the West."
      Comments: I have found on a copy of the "Star of the West" which was written by Elias Boudinot from notes of the deceased James Adair. Elias was a president of the Continental Congress. It is a remarkable book. It was first published in 1816 and reprinted in 1970. It is a remarkable book because it somewhat "anticipates" the precepts of the "Book of Mormon," which also purports part of the American Indian ancestry to be of Israelite origin. James spent most of his life with the southeastern Indians and provides written history of their ceremonies, language, traditions, and etc. long before they had much contact and interaction with the whites. He documents and makes a case of his conviction that the American Indians were and are of Israelite ancestry. The Book of Mormon also documents in detail the same except that James had it figured out several decades before the metal plates from which the Book of Mormon was translated were found. The Adair family (and associated families of Mangums and Richeys) were converted as a large group once the Mormon religion found them in Alabama and Mississippi. Was this coincidence or can we speculate that they may have already been prepared by the writings of James Adair? Was it coincidence that many Adairs and Mangums go on to be famous Indian missionaries with Jacob Hamblin in southern Utah and Arizona? One other coincidence is the name Elias Boudinot, the author of the book, who met the Cherokee Indian chief Major Ridge's nephew. This nephew adopted the name Elias Boudinot as his own and worked for the same cause as Major Ridge. He was also assassinated with the Ridges in connection with the Cherokee Trail of Tears. His life is interesting and is given in detail at <>. Chief Ridge's daughter Nancy marries William Richey, whose son James Richey marries James Adair's great-granddaughter Margaret Ann Adair. Again, are all these Indian connections coincidence in light of James Adair?
      B. From "Who Was Who in Native American History." by Carl Waldman, 1990: "Adair, James (d. 1783). Trader, anthropologist; reformer. James Adair was an Irish trader out of South Carolina who lived among the Chickasaws for nearly 40 years in the mid-1700s. He took several Indian wives by whom he had many children. He used the Chickasaws, Cherokees, Catawbas, Creeks, and other tribes of the Southeast as informants for his book "The History of the American Indians," published in 1775 after his return to England. Although he provided much ethnographic information plus valuable suggestions for Indian policy, Adair also made the erroneous case for the Native Americans as descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel.
      Comment: The death date of 1783 is in error and the death was in Laurens, SC, sometime from 25 Feb 1784 to 12 Feb 1796.
      C. From "Who's Who in American History, The Historical Volume (1607-1896)": "Adair, James: Indian trader; author, b. County Antrim, Ireland, circa 1709. Came to America 1735; traded with the Catawba and Cherokee Indians 1735-44, with Choctaw Indians 1744-51; moved to District 96, Laurens County SC 1751; commanded band of Chickasaws as Captain during Indian War 1760-61. Author: The History of the American Indians (maintaining Indians are descendants of ancient Jews), 1775. Died NC circ 1783."
      Comment: The death in North Carolina is in error and the death was in Laurens, SC, sometime from 25 Feb 1784 to 12 Feb 1796. The death in NC is confusion with a separate Robert Adair who only has a surname in common.
      D. From "The Dictionary of American Biography": "Adair, James (c1709-1783), pioneer Indian trader, author, is said to have been born in County Antrim, Ireland. The dates given above are merely conjectural. The known facts of his life are few, gathered in the main from the personal incidents narrated in his book, "The History of the American Indians" (1775) and occasional references in South Carolina chronicles. A recent book, "Adair History and Genealogy" (1924), by J.B. Adair, gives many biographical details purporting to be based on family tradition, but few of them are verifiable by any available records. It is certain that Adair was highly educated. By 1735 he had come to America, probably entering at the port of Charleston, SC. In that year he engaged in trade with the Catawbas and Cherokees, continuing with them until 1744. He then established himself among the Chickasaws, whose villages were on the headwaters of the Yazoo, in Mississippi, where he remained for about six years. During the latter part of this period he frequently visited the Choctaws, in an effort to counteract the influence of the French and to win them to an alliance with the English. The effort was successful, but it involved him in difficulties with other traders and with James Glen, royal governor of South Carolina from 1743 to 1756, which resulted, he asserts, in his financial ruin. In 1751 he moved to District Ninety-six (the present Laurens County), SC, and resumed trade with the Cherokees, remaining there until about the end of 1759. His activities during these years covered a wide range. He was several times called in council by Gov. Glen, with whom he could never agree and whom he heartily detested. Among the Indians he was a diplomat and a peace maker, but he was also a fighter - "a valiant warrior," says Logan; and when he could not compose their quarrels he not infrequently took sides in their wars. At various times he was engaged in conflicts with the French. In the Indian war of 1760-61 he commanded a band of Chickasaws, receiving his supplies by way of Mobile. In 1769 he visited New York City. Either then or a few years later he probably voyaged to London. Of his later life nothing authentic is recorded. He was, as the conclusion of his book amply shows, a vigorous defender of the rights of the colonies, but there appears to be no mention of him in Revolutionary annals. He is said to have been married and to have had several children and also to have died in North Carolina shortly after the close of the Revolution. Adair is chiefly known through his history of the Indians. Primarily it is an argument that the Indians are the descendants of the ancient Jews. The theory was accepted by Elias Boudinot, one-time president of the Continental Congress, who gave it hearty support in his book, "A Star in the West" (1816). Adair's work has outlived its thesis. Its' account of the various tribes, their manners, customs, their manners, and vocabularies, its depiction of scenes and its narration of incidents in his own eventful career, give it a permanent value. It is a record of close and intelligent observation, and its fidelity of fact has been generally acknowledged. The book must have required many years of toil. In his preface he says that it was written "among our old friendly Chickasaws" (doubtless during his second period of residence with them) and that the labor was attended by the greatest difficulties. Though some passages may subsequently have been added, it was probably finished by the end of 1768. In the "Georgia Gazette," of Savannah, October 11, 1769, appeared an item dated February 27th of that year, apparently copied from a New York newspaper, announcing the arrival of Adair in New York and saying that "he intends to print the Essays." The care with which the book is printed indicates that he gave it personal supervision through the press. From the dedication it is evident that he had the friendship of the noted Indian traders, Col. George Galphin and Col. George Croghan (with the former of whom he may for a time have been in partnership) and Sir William Johnson; and from various references it is certain that he was highly respected by those who knew him. Logan credits him with the quick penetration of the Indian audacity, cool self-possession, and great powers of endurance, and Volwiler says that he was one of the few men of ability who personally embarked in the Indian trade. Sources -- J. H. Logan, "A Hist. of the Upper Country of SC" (1859); John Thos. Lee, letter in the Nation Aug 27, 1914; manuscript notes supplied by Robt. L. Meriwether; brief references in A.T. Volwriter, "Geo. Croghan and the Westward Movement, 1741-1782" (1926) and Edward McCrady, "Hist. of SC under the Royal Government" (1899).
      Comment: The death date of 1783 is in error and the death was in Laurens, SC, sometime from 25 Feb 1784 to 12 Feb 1796.
      E. From "Family Traces" by David and Kathy Grooms: "John was the son of James Adair, an explorer and trader who lived among the Cherokees for over forty years, along with his two white sons, John and Edward, sons of an English woman. James Adair, one of the first traders among the Cherokees, was a member of the powerful Fitzgerald family, Adair or Adare being the name of the ancient family estate. He was a younger son, leaving home against his parents' wishes, to explore for himself the excitement of the new-world. He arrived in Charleston in 1735 and by the year 1736, he entered North Carolina and settled in the most western recesses among the Cherokee people. He was forthright, honest and had a genuine respect for the Cherokee people. He took to wife a Cherokee bride and had several children by her. He spent the remainder of his life among his new people. James was firmly convinced that the historic Indians known to him as the Cherokee, were relics of the "Ten Lost Tribes of Israel," and devoted his life to proving by systematic comparisons of language and customs, that the Indians were close kin to the ancient Hebrews. One of the myths handed down through the generations, was one of crossing a dry sea-bed as the waters were held back by a "Great Spirit." The name of this leader who led his people across the dry sea-bed, had been over the centuries, changed to the Cherokee form, but translated to English, meant "Moses." At this time, the Cherokee had no written language. These myths were handed down by word of mouth. They also had no knowledge of the Holy Bible until the white men brought it to them in the late 1700s. James Adair filled a large portion of his book "History of the American Indians" with his findings and theories..."
      Comment: There are several errors in this summary. Modern DNA testing shows James Adair's wife, Eleanor, was of Native American blood of the Chickasaw tribe. Links to Fitzgerald family are unproven and conjectural; the author probably relied on the unreliable author Dr. J.B. Adair for this. Nothing is known of James' parentage, early life in presumably Ireland, nor of his arrival in America.
      F. From "The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research," p. 213: "Payments for Colonial Services," continued from Vol. 4, page 167. To pay Captain James Adair, for leading the Chickesaws at New Savanna, during the time he shall be in actual service, 200 00 00. Volume VIII. Winter, 1980 Number 1. "Laurens County Estate Book A-1" (continued from Vol. VII, page 225), pp. 98-100: An account of the sale of the Estate of Joseph Greer decd., 15 of August 1794; purchasers: Andrew McCrary, Joseph Greer, Joseph Adair, John Hansel, Saml McComuthey, Thos McCrary, Joseph Greer, Wm Hunter, John Login, John Elmore, Minasa Willson, Benj. Adair, Newton Higgins, John Gray, Robert Scott, John Owens, James Rammage, Hugh Skelton, Saml Bishop, James Dillard, John Rammage, James Dillard, Robert Grier, Bazzel Prater (cooper tooles), James Adair Senr., John Watson, Simon Tedford, Jonas Greer, J. A. Elmore, George Ross, Ben Adair, Joseph Parks, Wm Price, Wm Gray., Robert Greer. Total 56 13 9."
      G. From "The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research": "William Adear ... a plantation or tract of Land Containing two hundred and Sixty acres Situate as Supposed when run out to be in Tryon County in the Province of North Carolina on the waters of fishing Creek, Joining his own Land ... Gillispies Corner ... Joining Thomas Scott's Land ... Also a plantation or tract of Land Containing 200 Acres Situate as Supposed above on the waters of the South fork of fishing Creek, Joining Robert Kerr's land ... James Williamson's Corner ... Craft's Corner ... Joining McClean's land ... both which tracts of Land were Originally granted by his Excellency William Tryon Esqr then Govr of N. Carolina the 4th day of May 1769, the 260 Acres to William Watson and the 200 Acres to William Bratton, which each Conveyed by Deed of Release bearing date the 22d of January 1771 to William Adear the Mem'st ... but by a late resurvey of the boundary line by order of his present Majesty the above two tracts of land fall within the Province of South Carolina in Craven County ... (sworn) the 10th day of April 1773, del'd Sepr 22d 1774 to James Adair (vol. 12, p. 154)."
      Comment: This James Adair is most likely not our James.
      H. It is reported that there is massive compilation of material with a wealth of information pertaining to many Adair lines in the Texas Archives Genealogy Library by Harry and Leo Z. Adair. Three volumes of the Leo Z. Adair scrapbooks are supposedly also at the Connecticut State Library in Hartford. There may be other repositories for this information as well.

      17. Stories follow that I have assembled involving our ancestral Mangum and Adair Families in the Laurens County area of South Carolina in the American Revolutionary War.
      In John Mangum the Patriot's application for his American Rev. War pension, he mentions serving with several of the following commanders. He specifically states he was with Col. Joseph Hayes when he was killed and that he received a wound under the hands of the Tory leader William Cunningham aka "Bloody Bill." The following accounts help understand John's and the Adair family's patriotic commitment and puts some flesh to names. See separate notes in the Adair family notes for John Mangum's Adair family comrades in arms who signed the James Williams Petition which would mean that the Adair and Mangum families probably first came in contact both knowing and serving under James Williams. Both modern Laurens and adjoining Newberry Counties were in the old District Ninety Six of South Carolina.
      "A Laurens County Sketchbook," by Julian Stevenson Bolick, FHL book 975.731-H2b, p. 9, in speaking of the American Revolutionary War: "The people, cut off as they were from the coast and seat of government [KP note: at Charles Town or Charleston as it was later known], were not aware of the many grievances of the colonists toward the mother country. Naturally, in the months to follow, many of the Up Country people remained loyal to England, and particularly those who had been given large grants by the king. These people became known as Tories, and a gentleman's agreement was reached among some of the colonists whereby the Tories in the Carolina "Back Country" should remain in a state of neutrality. Since this agreement was made without the knowledge of Robert Cunningham, a man of high esteem and immense influence among his neighbors in Ninety Six District, he did not feel bound by the agreement. Thus, he continued to urge opposition to the revolutionary movement to the point of being apprehended on an occasion by a group of men dressed as Indians. Learning of Robert's proposed confinement in Charles Town, his brother Patrick gathered a body of friends and set out in pursuit of the group. The pursuers failed to overtake the first group, but Patrick and his men learned of, and captured, 1000 pounds of powder being sent as a present to the Cherokee Indians by the governor. Because of the proximity of the Cherokees, it was customary to make gifts from time to time to the Cherokee Nation to encourage friendship. An amount of gunpowder, included with cloth and trinkets, was intended to be only enough to meet the Indians' needs for hunting, and not a sufficient quantity to incite them to attack the settlers...
      "Unbiased recounting of history must include here the distasteful authority and influence exerted by two Tory leaders over their followers in dealing with their enemies, the Whigs [KP note: pre-Revolution]. The two 'Bloody Bills', William Bates and William Cunningham, headed the list of atrocities ... Cunningham ... belonged to one of the best families in the province. A cousin of Robert and Patrick Cunningham, Bill was the only member of the family to depart from its high standard of chivalry and honor ... William was a Whig at the beginning of the struggle ... William was ordered to the Low Country, was whipped for some minor offense and was placed in chains. His work of pillage and murder apparently was a retributive vengeance on those who had wronged him, especially his former commander in arms.
      "So, the good citizens and the bad citizens were divided in their partisanship. Before the end of hostilities, the great plantations where hospitality had been dispensed in generous and gracious manner were closed to friendship because of divided loyalties and sympathies. These homes included White Hall, home of Andrew Williamson; Rosemont and Peach Hill, Cunningham seats and Mount Pleasant, owned by James Williams. In many cases, animosity continued. In the election of 1778, Colonel Williams and Cunningham engaged in gentlemanly fisticuffs, in which the wife of the Colonel seized Cunningham by his queue before friends could come between them. The fact that Cunningham was elected to office was evidence of the strong Tory influence in the district. It will be recollected here that Robert Cunningham had been arrested by Colonel James Williams in 1775 and sent to Charles Town, where he refused to recognize the authority of the Provincial Congress. His arrest created indignation in the "Back Country", and three years later his friends gave full support to his candidacy.
      "Logan's History of the 'Upper Country of South Carolina' characterizes this area as reek. While the armed forces on the coast had been occupied with the defense of Fort Moultrie, the western frontier of the state had become ablaze with Indians on the warpath [KP note: the neutrality of the Indians was broken when the British and their allies could use strong persuasion]. Inhabitants along the Saluda River had taken refuge in an old fort known as Lyndley's, located on Rabun Creek. Early morning of July 15, 1776, 88 Indians and 102 white men attacked the safety station. Major Jonathan Downes with 150 men had arrived at the station the evening before. The latter were on a mission to join forces with Major Williamson in an effort to suppress the Indians who erroneously had been told that their gift of gunpowder and lead captured so recently would be used by the Whigs to kill them. The attack on the fort was repulsed and thirteen prisoners, all whites dressed as Indians, were sent to Ninety Six for confinement.
      "On another occasion, Major Downes, commanding a small force of Whigs, happened to come upon an armed aggregation of Indians in the Scuffletown area. Tradition says that the Major overcame the Indian chief in a hand-to-hand fight, and that he took off his suspenders, tied the Indian's hands behind his back and left the fighting field with the captured chieftain astride Downes' horse.
      "In August of 1780, the Battle of Musgrove's Mill was fought about twelve miles north of the present city of Laurens on the Enoree River. Major Downes again served gallantly; in this encounter was, also, Colonel Joseph Hayes, who was among those massacred at Hayes Station the following year. In the home of Major Edward Musgrove a garrison of 500 British troops maintained headquarters. They were regimented soldiers retrained by platoons. The Major, too old for active duty, remained neutral in his sympathies; but his family took a very active part with sons fighting on both sides. On that August day the Whigs took up position within one mile of the mill and were in the process of planning an attack when a skirmish between a British patrol and a Whig reconnaissance group brought the entire British garrison to the scene. Young Captain Shadrack Inman asked permission to take 25 men and act as a decoy to draw the Tories into a three-pronged trap formed by force commanded by Colonel Isaac Shelby on the right, Colonel Elijah Clarke on the left and Colonel James Williams in the center. Shadrack Inman was shot seven times following the retreating British. A simple stone marks the spot where he fell.
      "The battle is said to have been one of the hardest ever fought in the county with small arms alone '...the smoke so thick as to hide a man at a distance of twenty rods. With the aid of Tories, the British had hoped for a quick victory in the South; instead they suffered heavy losses and their strength in South Carolina's Up Country had been badly shaken.
      "November, 1781, will be remembered as a month of terror for the Whigs and their families in the Ninety Six District at the hands of William Cunningham, who had left Charles Town in August for the purpose of inflicting punishment on the Whigs. Crossing Saluda River, 'Bloody Bill' and his band of 300 ruthless followers attacked Hayes Inn, a station which before had been known as Edge Hill, on the stagecoach route through this part of the Up Country. The exact date of this attack is not known, but McCrady in his 'History of South Carolina in the Revolution' traces the movements of the group of Tories. On November 7, 1781 thirty Whigs had taken refuge in an unfinished log house without door or windows on a small stream called Cloud's Creek in Edgefield County. Two of the thirty escaped, the rest being slaughtered after they had surrendered. Mr. McCrady states 'it was a fine morning after the massacre at Cloud's Creek, when at ten o'clock a party led by John Hood rode up to the station (Edge Hill) at full gallop...' Hayes Inn was burned by shooting out of a musket a ramrod tipped with flax, saturated in tar and set afire. The flaming roof caused suffocation and terror among those inside. "Captain Daniel Williams, with a group of patriots, had rested overnight at the inn. The Captain, only eighteen years of age, and Colonel Joseph Hayes, owner and operator of the inn, were promptly hanged from a pole of the fodder stack. The pole broke; and Cunningham, continuing the cruelty with gave him the name 'Bloody Bill,' cut the half strangled men to pieces with his sword. The encounter is recorded as 'Hayes Station Massacre,' a terrifying experience related by the one survivor...
      "It was such odious treatment of human beings that prompted General Nathanael Greene of the Whig side to make the following declaration: 'The inhabitants hunt one another like wild beasts. If a stop cannot be put to these massacres, the country will be depopulated in a few more months, as neither Whig nor Tory can live." In the District of Ninety Six alone, there were 1400 hundred widows and orphans as a result of the war."
    • 18. Family researcher Jett Hanna has spent considerable effort studying James Adair. I communicated with him in the mid-2000s as did Shawn Potter. Shawn was skeptic of James Adair the trader and author being the same as James Adair of Laurens co.; however, he always left the possibility open subject to further research. I was also of Jett's opinion until 2015 when I reviewed an advance copy of Shawn Potter and his wife Lois' new book entitled "Chickasaw Wife and Family of James Adair, Author of the History of the American Indians" (to be published sometime in the future). The book uses new historical documentation and extensive modern DNA analysis to surmise that in fact the two men are the same. Even though dated, I include the following emails for the good information they contain, but bear in mind the newer conclusion. Also at this early date we did not have available to us the new 2011 edition of James Adair's "History of the American Indians" edited by the a professor of Southern American History, which provides much new research into the life and times of James. I do not yet know Jett's opinion of either of these two new books or of Shawn's new pioneering DNA research. Some of these emails are copies of past communications between Jett and Shawn:
      Email from Jett Hanna to me 9 Jul 2005:
      "Long email with lots of stuff cut and pasted from old emails. Hope this makes some sense; there is much more detail that goes into it, but you can get a sense of the issues involved in trying to test whether your James was the author. Almost every statement made has a source-if you want more detail on a particular item, let me know. My bottom line analysis when I stopped working on this: I have a hard time with the author being the person who received the 1768 land grant based on the book; I have a hard time believing Adair would travel from an SC base to New York, Philadelphia, England, Cork, etc.; and the connection of John Adair, apparent ancestor of the Cherokee Adairs to your James Adair is pretty good. It has been a long time since I looked at this; this really was fun to put together. Shawn and I both caught each other on errors at times-really was a collaborative effort. Makes me revive my desire to write a biography of James Adair someday...I'll save this email to remind me of the big picture. If I get time, I'll try to figure out a way to get all the emails together - this is a fraction of the discussion that occurred. Jett
      Here is a timeline I have for James Adair, beginning in 1761. It doesn't conflict with the Williams petition. Is there evidence of him in England after 1775? As you'll see, the biggest problem I have is with the February 1768 land grant timing. "Cole" is the Samuel Cole version of the book. The 1774 deed with a James Adair witness to a Creek land transaction suggests he was in America in 1774, before publication of the book (assuming it is the same James Adair - high probability given that it was an Indian matter.)
      1760-1761: Adair was "on the spot with a Captain's commission from South Carolina" in the New Windsor/Augusta area. (Cole 393, 366)
      1765: Adair at a congress on tariffs in Mobile (Cole 395,367)
      October 18, 1765: Adair threatened by the Choctaw (Cole 310-314, 290-293)
      1766: Adair listed in a Stuart report as a Chickasaw trader. <>. Location at time of writing not clear.
      1767: Adair present at a meeting of Chickasaw traders and head men of the nation. Location is unclear, but the preceding paragraph discusses Adair delivering a remonstrance to the superintendent at Mobile. (Cole 397, 369-370) At 398 Cole, Adair compares Johnson and Craghan favorably in comparison to the southern officials (the Stuarts, who are not mentioned by name.)
      January 1768. James Adair was at Fort Tombigbee (Alabama) when it was abandoned.
      February 2, 1768. James Adair petitioned for a warrant of survey of 150 acres in Berkeley County on Duncan Creek.
      May 1768: History of the American Indians, p. 290 Cole, p. 271 org. describes a raid of the Great Mortar on the Chickasaw. It is clear this was the western Chickasaw, because the Great Mortar (an upper Creek chief) set up camp "with in 150 miles of the Chikkasah country, which was half way from the western barriers of their own..." See <> regarding the Great Mortar-Adair is mentioned and cited. Adair says that "(t)his was the beginning of May, in the year 1768, a few hours after I had set off for South Carolina." He then describes the actions of four Chickasaw who chases the raiders. "In a few days after, I fell in with them ... and I had the uncourted honor of their company, three different times before I reached my destined place, on account of a very uncommon and sudden flow of rivers, without any rain." In the same narrative, Page 294 Cole, 275 original, Adair then talks about being a half day ride from Augusta. In short, we can put Adair in western Chickasaw territory in the middle of May 1768. In various places, it is clear that Adair was in the vicinity of the western Chickasaw in 1765, 1766, and 1767. I think the chances that he was in Charles Town in February 1768 and returned to South Carolina in May 1768 are slim.
      Did petitions for land require a personal appearance? I suspect they did, but need to make sure. Grants were based on family size and marriage, and land speculation would have been rampant if personal appearance was not required. (I think I did find that personal appearance was required.)
      Shawn's reply on 1768: If the February 2, 1768 petition could not have been submitted by a representative of James Adair, and if we have no reason to believe that James Adair was mistaken when he wrote that he left Chickasaw country for South Carolina in early May 1768, then we still need to know if it is possible - or even probable - that James Adair left Charleston shortly after February 2, 1768, spent about two and a half months among the Chickasaw, then departed for South Carolina in early May 1768. My initial impression is that such a scenario is possible. In fact, such a scenario even appears reasonable if the trader was trying to spend relatively more time in South Carolina than in the western Chickasaw Nation - which one might expect as James Adair aged.
      My note on 1768: James Adair's base of operation had changed to Mobile. When the Brits took over West Florida, there was no reason for him to go to Augusta any more. He could trade much more rapidly at Mobile. Indeed, that is where he was registered. He also had problems with the SC governments in the past ... see discussion in other emails at the end.
      The return from the wilderness in 1768 is the last major event James recorded in the book.
      December 10, 1768. Sir William Johnson wrote a letter from Johnson Hall to General Thomas Gage, recommending James Adair.
      May 10, 1769. William Johnson of Johnson Hall wrote a letter to James Adair.
      August 12, 1769. Joseph Galloway wrote a letter recommending James Adair to Benjamin Franklin.
      September 7, 1769. An article in the South Carolina Gazette described James Adair's book and solicited subscriptions.
      October 11, 1769. An article in the Savannah Georgia Gazette described James Adair's book and solicited subscriptions. The article also cited a similar article in New York gazette dated February 27th.
      June 4-8, 1772. James Adair was in Cork, Ireland, recovering his manuscript, which had been stolen in London a few weeks earlier.
      June 3, 1773. 200 acres on Duncan Creek surveyed for James Adair.
      March 25, 1774. Benjamin Franklin wrote a letter recommending James Adair to Charles and Edward Dilly, who would publish his book.
      August 11, 1774. 200 acres on Duncan Creek (tract surveyed on June 3, 1773) granted to James Adair. A bit of an explanation about the 1774 deed surveyed in 1773. The petition in the Council Journal in 1768 is for 150 acres of land, but the grant in 1774 is for 200 acres. For this reason, I suspect that the 200 acre grant is based on another petition, and not on the 1768 petition. Could even be a petition for someone else that was transferred; the transfers are not always on record.
      October 28, 1774. James Adair witnessed a deed from Creek leaders to Jonathan Bryan of Georgia for half of the Florida panhandle. He probated the deed in Granville County, South Carolina.
      1775. History of the American Indians published.
      January 7, 1775. Memorial for 200-acre grant (tract surveyed on June 3, 1773) signed by James and Eleanor Adair, and witnessed by James Adair, saddler (their nephew), James Adair, Jr. (their son), and James Miller.
      Before October 7, 1780. James Adair signed James Williams Petition.
      February 25, 1784. James and Eleanor Adair sold to John Jones, blacksmith, 150 acres adjacent southwest on John Adair, northeast on James Montgomery, and southeast on John McCreary."
      Emails on James Adair's base of operation 1763-1768
      Jett and all,
      You are right: I have not digested some of the book yet, and we need to further examine his base(s) of operations. Thank you for your thoughts on this point.
      The following citation addresses the question of whether James Adair took his pelts to Charleston, Savannah, or ... As James Adair began to trade, Augusta became the primary market for British traders in the region. The timeline shows that he occasionally went down to Charleston, but those trips in every case related to other business - not trading.
      Prior to 1700 traders had reached the Indian tribes on the Mississippi; in that year they were found there by the French. McCrady says that many of the early fortunes of Charleston families were built up by the Indian trade. This is more than can be said of the traders who adventured themselves into the wilderness encompassed by manifold dangers to make possible the merchants' fortunes. Augusta followed as chief mart. "It was laid out in the beginning of the year 1736, and thrives prodigiously. It is the chief place of trade with the Indians.
      There are several warehouses in it well furnished with goods for the Indian trade. There are five large boats which belong to different inhabitants of the town, and carry about nine thousand weight of deer skins, each; and last year about one hundred thousand weight of skins was brought from there. All the Indian traders from both provinces of South Carolina and Georgia, resort thither in the spring. In June, 1739, the traders, pack-horsemen, servants, townsmen, and others dependent upon that business, made about six hundred whites who live by the trade in the Indian nations. Each hunter is reckoned to get three hundred weight of deer skins in a year, which is a very advantageous trade to England, for the deer skins, beaver and other furs are chiefly paid for in woolen goods and iron." An Impartial Inquiry, London, 1741, also in Ga. Hist. Coll. I, 153 et seq."[Samuel Cole Williams, "Adair's History of the American Indians," (New York, NY: Promontory Press, 1930), p. 394]
      Another comment by Williams addresses the issue of James Adair trading in Mobile:
      "To the far-away Chickasaws, the trader turned to recoup his fortunes after the termination of the Cherokee War and his repulse in the matter of his second memorial. There was real need for Adair's services on the part of the gallant people. The French were attempting to make a breach between them and the Choctaws. They were "in great want of ammunition" and goods. [Footnote: South Carolina Gazette, August 9, 1760] Adair chose Mobile as mart for his peltry, after the surrender of the country by the French under the peace treaty of 1763."[Samuel Cole Williams, "Adair's History of the American Indians," (New York, NY: Promontory Press, 1930), p. xvii]
      Before France ceded the port and river of Mobile to Britain at the Treaty of Paris on February 10, 1763, British traders risked their lives operating in the west - as described by James Adair in vivid detail. So, British traders would not trade in Mobile before 1763. Whether James Adair changed his trade route after the Treaty of Paris to capitalize on this newly available shorter route should be examined. But, even if he did, then he traded for almost 30 years prior to 1763 using an east-west trade route between northern Mississippi and Augusta, and only a relatively few years on the shorter north-south trade route between northern Mississippi and Mobile. In his December 10, 1768 letter to General Gage, William Johnson, describing James Adair, said, "..., who I am informed was for many years a Trader ..." [Samuel Cole Williams, "Adair's History of the American Indians," (New York, NY: Promontory Press, 1930), p. xiii]. If James Adair traded in Mobile after 1763, but retired from his career as Indian trader before 1768, then his operations on that route constituted a very minor part of his overall career.
      To be continued ...
      Thanks, Shawn Potter
      Well, Shawn, you just haven't digested some of the book yet, then.
      Page 318/298: "I have reason to remember this well; for, a little after those white men were murdered, business calling me to Mobille by myself, I chose to decline the eastern path, and the middle one that leads me by the Chackchooma old fields, as they were much exposed to incursions by the Muskohge; and rode through the chief towns of the nation, along the horse path that runs from the Chikkasah, nearest to the Mississippi to Mobille."
      Discussing a problem with the Creeks in 1765, Adairs says:
      " Mobile I delivered my remonstrance to the superintendent. p. 397(Cole)p. 369 (Adair). On the same page, he notes all Chickasaw and Choctaw traders being summoned to meet at Mobile with the Governor and Superintendent."
      On pg. 398/370, Adair discusses a further meeting regarding the Mississippi-Indian trade with the deputy superintendent in 1767. A tariff had be imposed on trade through Mobile earlier, and this had already reduced trade. The superintendent had proposed to bring the trade with the Chickasaw under the same "standard" as the Creek trade, which I take to be the same exchange rates (i.e. how many trade goods per skin, etc.) or tariffs, less money for the traders which ever it was. Adair goes on to say:
      "We concluded by observing the great disadvantage of navigation that Mobille lay under, to which Charles-town was no way exposed in imports and exports; and that if the aforesaid Indian trade should, by any act be reduced below the present standard (i.e. less money for the traders, I think -- Jett), it must necessarily cease of itself, unless as free-men, we said No to the command. Which the traders did, and resolved to support it."
      As I read this, Mobile had become the focus of Chickasaw trade. Adair and his fellow traders were saying that if the Government burdened the trade further, it would no longer be profitable. I think it is clear that Adair was working through Mobile, otherwise he would simply go to Charles Town and be unaffected by the tariffs at Mobile.
      I know Adair working through Mobile makes a continuous "base" or presence in SC less likely at a critical time, but it must be examined.
      Jett (and all),
      I disagree with your interpretation regarding the locations of James Adair's bases of operations. I don't see any evidence that James Adair traded a north-south route between the western Chickasaw and Mobile or New Orleans. Rather, his writings indicate an east-west trade route between the western Chickasaw and Charleston. In addition, the timeline (and reason) indicates a pattern of at least annual trips to the western Chickasaw, which would mean that he must have spent at least part of each year in South Carolina - perhaps among the eastern Chickasaw. This would make sense from the perspective of demands on the life of a trader, and also from the perspective of his statement that he had spent 40 years among the Indians.
      I hope you are enjoying the book and look forward to hearing more of your thoughts.
      Shawn Potter
      I have my book now, still reviewing. What has struck me regarding the timeline is that his base from about 1763 to 1768 was not in South Carolina with the Eastern Chickasaw as I had speculated, but rather at Mobile. After the French and Indian War, Mobile was ceded to the French. Mobile was much closer to Chickasaw territory without mountains in the way, though trade with other colonies and Europe was more difficult since you had to go around Florida. Note his discussions of Gov. Johnstone of British West Florida. In 1768, one source I've found indicates that Johnstone died, and then administration of British West Florida fell apart when his successor died shortly thereafter. Apparently the Brits withdrew military support about that time. Perhaps this is part of what motivated him to leave.
      On Ninety Six, it looks like he was definitely there (perhaps as a base for trading) until 1756 and probably up to 1759. By that time, the security situation became precarious and he appropriately withdrew to Ft. Moore, where he based his activities during the Cherokee War (1760-1761), which was essentially part of the French and Indian War (1756-1763). I doubt he started trading with the Chickasaw again until the treaty with the French was signed, but may have resumed trading with the Cherokee for a short while."
      Jett Hanna to Kerry Petersen September 28, 2007:
      "Re: James Adair. I could be wrong or not remembering everything I've written (it's been a long time since I looked at all of this) but I don't disagree with you that much, Kerry, one of the other James Adair researchers I corresponded with (can't recall his name right now) did a lot of original research and concluded that it was likely that Joseph's brother James was the Indian trader, but we disagreed on the implications of his findings. I've looked at a lot of devil's advocate propositions in various writings and emails over the years trying to figure out this mystery, so something I've said might have given you a different impression at some time. On the whole, I think where I am is that it is more likely than not that the James Adair who was Joseph's brother was not the Indian trader, but there is still a window of possibility. The Indian trader was definitely within a short distance of where Joseph Adair settled, based on his travels that can be documented. The proximity, however, was a brief one in the 1750s, apparently long before Joseph Adair settled there. Joseph was clearly in Pennsylvania from about 1747-1764, and I can't see how he would miraculously join up with his brother in the South Carolina back-country after he had been living and trading among the Indians. James Adair the Indian trader spent most of his time from after the French and Indian War (ended in 1763) with the Chickasaw in what is now Mississippi, trading out of Mobile which was then in British West Florida. When he wasn't there, his preferred base was with the "eastern Chickasaw" in the Augusta, Georgia area. The eastern Chickasaw had been given a reservation many years earlier in that area since they were British allies. There are some suggestions of a connection between the Laurens area (but not necessarily the Laurens Adairs) and the Cherokee Adairs. I don't think it has been proven that the Cherokee Adairs were descended from the Indian trader; however, James the trader did live among the Cherokee at one time, but he fought against them during the French and Indian War with his favored Chickasaw. To give you an idea of how complicated this all gets, there were five different James Adairs in the Lauren County, SC area who signed the same [Williams] petition in 1780. I don't think it is certain that James the trader was still alive at that time. The petition supported a patriot militia leader, and I think that the trader's writings and circumstances demonstrate that he was unlikely to have supported the Revolution, though that is not a done deal. His beloved Chickasaw were loyal to the British during both the French and Indian War and the Revolution, and suffered for it after the Revolution. I can't see him turning on them. On the other hand, James trader dreamed of establishing a British colony near the Chickasaw in northern Mississippi, while the Brits were generally dead set against encroachment on Indian lands. I see part of the book as an attempt to persuade, not a declaration of war on his country for opposing his dream. The American revolutionaries were chafing under the restrictions on crossing the Appalachians, ready to take Indian lands (the Revolution wasn't all about taxes...). Nothing to date has suggested a link between the Laurens area Adairs and James Robert Adair in NC. I think that the Indian trader probably has nothing to do with Dr. James Robert Adair in NC. The only thing that kind of goes the other way is that I think the trader had to have a slightly more upper class background to lead the life he did. He clearly had more formal education than was typical of the other Indian traders. James Robert Adair had some connections with land in Ulster -- an indication of better than usual circumstances. James the trader had made connections with British military and the upper class in his eventually successful endeavors to get his book published in London. Lisa Bowes website ( is very useful, particularly the research by Mary (there is a link way down the page). The documents listed there pertaining to James Adair in NC just don't fit in a number of respects with the travels that can be documented in the History of the American Indians and other sources. Nothing in the trader's chronology suggests the connections to Virginia documented for James Robert Adair. The critical time period I've looked at most closely is 1763-1767, when it is clear that the Indian trader was nowhere near the Carolinas, and yet he supposedly executed many documents in NC. Land grants to Joseph's brother James in the Laurens area were in 1768, about the time that the Indian trader clearly started working on selling his book and gave up trading in the wilderness. James the trader began, in 1768, almost unending travels to get his book published by 1776, spending the later years in England. It's been a long time since I've looked at all this, and won't be reopening it for a few years at least. Hope this helps a bit." [Kerry's note: see my other comments in a separate note herein concerning the confusion many have made of Dr. Robert Adair of Bladen, N.C. with our James Adair -- even to the point of making up the imaginary name "James Robert Adair." Jett also sensed this same disconnect.]

      19. The following notes are somewhat indicative of the many various public accounts that have confused our James Adair, the Indian trader and author, with other Adairs on the East Coast. Unfortunately, our James Adair left no first-hand account of his own biography or genealogy -- a void that many have tried to fill by creatively and fancifully blending lives of various Adairs with ours. These accounts mix a little fact with a lot of make-believe and should not be relied on of their own account. Shawn and Lois Potter are the authors of a book to be published sometime in the future entitled "Chickasaw Wife and Family of James Adair, Author of the History of the American Indians." The book uses extensive historical documentation and modern DNA analysis to conclude that the James Adair of Laurens County, often referred to in deeds as a "cooper," is actually the same man as the trader and author. With this conclusion, it is now easy to weed out the false accounts which I include below as research references to help stem the furtherance of these false associations and accounts:
      A. Dr. Robert Adair, alias James Robert Adair, of Bladen County, North Carolina. Burke's Law Book of English laws indicates is was illegal to have a first and middle name (a practice that changed in America after the Revolution -- yet unknowing person have created the name "James Robert Adair" to try to blend these two men together. This concoction seems to have even extended to an historical sign that may have been placed in Bladen Co. purporting to be the final resting place for our James Adair when it was actually the unrelated Robert Adair.
      a. The following article is from "Notes, Queries and Corrections", v. 14, no. 2, Oct. 1943, of the publication "Pennsylvania Genealogical Society," which I found at the Lancaster Co., Pennsylvania, Historical Society in their Adair family file. The query was written by Brigadier General William Curry Harllee and cross-references to the sketch in his separate publication "Kinfolks," v. II, pp. 1223-1298. Note that Robert's own will proves he was not the father of any of the trader's known sons that married Cherokee wives, i.e. Edward and John (since proved by DNA analysis by Shawn Potter). One needs to disregard any references in the following linking Robert to our James who was the author and trader. Mr. Harllee writes:
      "The story of our Adair is of intriguing interest. It has plenty of drama. So far as the Indians are concerned it transcends that of Samuel Houston, the Texas statesman, who followed him nearly a century later among the Cherokees.
      Until I learned more while collecting information for "Kinfolks," I knew little of Adair beyond the fact that I was descended from Dr. Robert Adair who had lived in the Carolina border community in which I was brought up, just across the state line from my South Carolina home. Hundreds of his descendants still live in that community of North and South Carolina with center at old Ashpole Church, incidentally, the mother church of many Presbyterian churches throughout the "seven states." Here the women still sing "Robin Adair" with only a vague idea that our Adair had a love affair with a lady in England whom he married. They adhere to the tradition that this song was about our Adair. Some of them were provoked at me for not taking it seriously and wanted me to "put it in the book 'Kinfolks'," which is a collaboration of many, that our Adair was "Robin Adair." It seemed to me to be too fantastic and would detract from the factual and authentic character of my work.
      But the ladies still persisted. So, after "Kinfolks" was published, I set to work to quiet them by proving alibis for the Dr. Robert Adair of England, the veritable "Robin Adair," and our Dr. Robert Adair and vice versa. After several years of diligent search during which I have found many evidences covering almost every year of the latter's active life, I cannot prove an alibi. Indeed, the records and information I have gathered support the thesis that our Dr. Robert Adair was the identical Dr. Robert Adair celebrated "Robin Adair," of the Lady Caroline Keppel's lament, surgeon to his majesty the king and to his royal family, and surgeon general of the British army. The circumstantial evidence is so strong that I am now convinced that he was the veritable Robin Adair.
      His identity has been concealed for two centuries. It was purposely concealed. The British nobility of his time regarded colonists of provincials with a half contemptuous scorn; all traders with contempt, while traders with the Indians as still more degraded. Yet fortunes were made in the trade with the Indians, which was the most profitable business of the times and one which engaged the attention of politicians and governments of the period. Adair as a provincial used the name James Adair in his business affairs and all of his dealings of record, although he was known to his family and neighbors only as Dr. Robert Adair. He belonged to the gentry in the old country where he was Dr. Robert Adair. Provincially, he was James Adair, except to his family and neighbor friends.
      When I found his will recorded at Elizabethtown, county seat of old Bladen County, North Carolina, made under the name of James Adair, but showing conclusively that he was none other than our Dr. Robert Adair, my joy knew no bounds. He named in his will some of his grandchildren, among them the brothers of my own great-grandmother and other grandsons, whose sons and daughters I personally knew and have always understood they and their progeny knew him as Dr. Robert Adair. This gave me a new interest in the celebrated trader among the Indians, James Adair, author of the scholarly work, Adair's "History of the American Indian" (1763), recently re-printed by the Tennessee Society of the Colonial Dames, because Adair was the first of the English race to flourish in what is now Tennessee, his stamping ground, fifty years before Daniel Boone and the Robertsons invaded it. Incidentally, it is a work of fascinating interest. In those days the writing of books was beneath the dignity of the British nobility. At the time it was published Adair had connected himself with the nobility by his marriage to Lady Caroline, daughter of the Earl of Albemarle, Governor of Virginia, who never deigned to go to the province for having descended to be the writer of a book and states that he had intended to write it anonymously. He did not divulge his name, Robert Adair, but gave the name of James Adair as author.
      By his Virginia wife, Clark Hobson, he had three daughters and no son. Their progeny now numbers in the thousands; many of whom are registered in "Kinfolks." By Lady Caroline he had one son, Robert, incidentally mentioned in his will, and two daughters. A feature in his will as yet unaccountable to me are the bequests. Immediately following his first bequest which was: "I give unto Robert Adair, or his heirs, near the town of Billy Myansborough and Nutrann, a short mile of Gilgoram in the County of Antrim in Ireland ten pounds." "Unto James Box (which I believe should be Fox), or his heirs in the Island of Bennet the sum of nine pounds," and "unto Alexander Johnston, or his heirs in Ireland, or his heirs in the county of Chester, Pennsylvania, the sum of seventeen pounds." It may be that James Box (or Fox) and Alexander Johnston were guardians of his daughters by the Lady Caroline, small children at this time, which was after her death, and that Adair used the device of bequeathing nominal sums to his son and the guardians of his daughter, so that all would be informed of his death should he die in this country.
      I had vainly hoped that James Box (or Fox) and Alexander Johnston were the husbands of his two daughters by the lady Caroline, which would have shown conclusively that the devisor was the father of the children of the Lady Caroline, as well as those of Clark (Hobson) Adair, hence the identical Dr. Robert Adair of England and also of our locality. Later I learned the date of death of the Lady Caroline and the dates of birth of her children, who were small when Adair wrote this will; also that one of the daughters married Viscount Barrington, and the other Mr. Clavering. So Box (or Fox) and Johnston were not their husbands.
      At that time in England and the Carolinas it was futile to devise anything to a married woman or "femme covert" as they could not hold title to property, real or personal, and such as they had as "femme sole" passed instantly to their husbands on marriage. Hence little was generally devised to the female of the species.
      In his family life in this country Adair, according to tradition and I believe to fact, was dignified almost to the extent of being austere. But he loved the "call of the wild" and away from home was hilarious and uproarious and loved to sing as well as drink. The story of Adair in England shows a disposition that to snub him, that he snubbed the snobs, heard again the "call of the wild" and returned to his beloved Cherokees and Chickasaws, thus restoring his depleted fortunes by further engaging in the Indian trade.
      The Indians were devoted to Adair and he to them, especially the Chickasaws and Cherokees. It was his influence with them which prevented them from attacks on the feeble outpost pioneer settlements, and which made them resist the intrigues of the French and Spanish of Louisiana and the Floridas to incite them to war against the British settlers, and to drive out the British traders. Adair was an adventurer transcending the dramatic interest the adventurers of fiction. He went along with the Indians in their wars among other Indians and organized them and led them with the English colonials against Indians and also Spaniards in South Carolina's wars with the Creeks and other Indians and Spaniards.
      The Lady Caroline Keppel was not the only lady who intrigued him. The Chickasaw ladies also greatly interested him and he is said to have had a special fondness for his Chickasaw progeny of whom I know nothing, except that he wrote most of his "History of the American Indians" while among his Chickasaw family, at Chickasaw Bluffs, where Memphis, Tennessee, now stands, and is said to have been devoted to them.
      There is plenty of record of his Cherokee progeny. Curiously enough, his only progeny, now known to bear his surname, Adair, are those of his Cherokee descendants, and they are proud of their descent from him. One of them was a colonel in the Confederate Army. They are now people of influence and high standing in Oklahoma and elsewhere and some of them have become immensely wealthy from the oil business. Emmet Starr's "History of the Cherokee Indians" has a register of his descendants, somewhat similar in form to the registers in "Kinfolks."
      It has been said that in West's painting "Death of Wolfe," Adair was the surgeon attending General Wolfe when he was mortally wounded, 1759. Writers who have but a superficial knowledge of this many-sided man contend that he could not have been with Wolfe because there is no record of his accompanying the expedition from England. However, it is quite possible, and I think probable, that Adair was there and with Wolfe. I know that a month or more previously he was at his "Manor House" at "Fairfields," in present Green County, North Carolina, making arrangements to leave. A ride on horseback over the good roads from North Carolina to Quebec in the fine weather of August and September was an easy jaunt of much less time than a month to a rider like Adair, who rode the trackless country across the mountains and deep, wide rivers in all seasons of the year amid Indians on the war path, from Charleston, South Carolina, his trading base, to his lodge at his Chickasaw home on the bank of the Mississippi. Adair's record shows that he participated in the military expeditions within his reach and this was doubtless no exception. Naturally he would have repaired to the headquarters of the commanding general and the husband of the daughter of Earl of Albemarle, governor of Virginia, would have been welcomed and retained there.
      So we find this remarkable man, gentleman, scholar, author and historian, adventurer, trader among the Indians, trusted and beloved by them, mingling among the royal family as surgeon to the king, and among the nobility as husband of one of them and, in Virginia and the Carolinas, in the dignified life of a country gentleman with a respectable provincial family, and with homes and families among the Cherokees and the Chickasaws at the then extreme limit of English exploration.
      Perhaps one reason why Adair has not been heralded in American history is that he was thoroughly a Briton and deplored the Revolution. He was in England in 1775 when it broke out; he returned to North Carolina in 1778, arranged his affairs there, made his will and then evidently returned to England and never again came back. His will indicates a coolness to his sons-in-law, John Cade and John Gibson, red hot rebels, and a fondness for his widowed daughter, whose husband, William McTyer, was, I think a Tory, but would not dare say so to his great-great-granddaughter, my beloved cousin, Evelyn Adair McTyer Woodbery, an enthusiastic D.A.R., who did doctor the wounds of his grandsons who were shot by Tories. Adair was not an active tory. He merely deplored the revolution.
      Adair did not disregard convention and law by having more than one wife at the same time. He had his wives and families consecutively: first, Clark Hobson with three daughters; second, Lady Caroline Keppel with son, Robert, and two daughters; then came the Cherokee family; and last, but not least beloved, his Chickasaw princess and family. In acquiring his Indian wives he probably conformed to the conventionalities and laws of custom of the Indian nations. These four families probably knew little, or nothing, of each other. At least tradition among the Clark Hobson branch is silent on that point.
      Let me suggest that you re-read the biography of CA2 James Robert Adair ("Kinfolks", Vol. II, pp. 1223-1298. Then it will be clear why I should like to learn something of Alexander Johnston* mentioned in his will.
      (*Alexander Johnston, of New London Township, Esq. Will dated 29 July 1790; proved 3 September, 1790; Recorded Chester County Wills Liber 8 465-468 ff. [Note this footnote continues with all of the beneficiaries of Alexander.])"
      b. Lisa Bowes posted the following on the Internet in the early 2000s: "New information has come in regarding James, and I need your help! Here are the details: In Robeson County NC (formerly a part of Bladen) on Highway 710 near the Town of Rowland, there is a historical marker that notes that James Adair, Indian trader and historian is buried nearby. Rowland lies along the border of NC and SC. You can visit Rowland by visiting the following website: Go to the town's page and scroll all the way to the bottom, where the listing for Rowland, NC is. The historical description mentions Dr. Robert Adair, Indian Trader and Author. I would be so grateful if I could find someone in the area to find this marker and transcribe and photograph it for me so that I can post them on this page! So many people would love to see the monument. I have written to the local Historical Society and an Indian Museum in the area. If anyone has other suggestions, let me know" [Comment: Many have tried to merge Robert Adair of Bladen co., NC, with our James Adair. Robert Adair's will proves he is not the James Adair and any marker place there, if there is such a marker, is in error.]
      c. From online comments of Donald Panther-Yates dated November 13, 2001 entitled "Who was James Adair?":
      "I have begun to take another look at James Adair, author of "The History of the American Indians," published in London in 1775. Listers may be familiar with Adair as the promoter of the theory that the Southeastern Indians were a long lost tribe of Israel. Elias Boudinot took this theory up after Adair and published "A Star in the West" in 1816. Adair's book is loaded with Hebrew words and expressions. He was supposed to be writing it on the headwaters of the Tombigbee River in northern Mississippi among the Chickasaws in the 1760s - a rude frontier. How did he do that? In Christian society, Hebrew was not taught in the 18th century except to advanced doctors of theology at the Sorbonne, Oxford and elsewhere, for the express purpose of Bible study (see Adam Smith's notes in "The Wealth of Nations," 1775). Even a doctor of theology (which Adair was certainly not - he was a merchant and adventurer) would hardly have the command of Hebrew from memory that Adair shows. It gets more interesting. Until recently, no one knew where Adair died. He says absolutely nothing about his parentage or lineage. That has not prevented the numerous Adair descendants in America (many of whom claim to be Cherokee) from elaborating a family tree back to medieval Ireland and Scotland and ancient Troy. But was the sizable settlement of Adairs on Fishing Creek on the border of S.C./N.C. really Irish before they mixed with the Cherokee? Well, on a lonely highway in Robeson County, N.C. is a historical plaque that states James Adair, famous Indian trader, is buried nearby. Genealogists have even uncovered his will, dated 1778. He married a woman named Clark Hobson and had three daughters, one of whom he left a pittance, effectively cutting her out, because she married or at least got pregnant by John Gibson. Both the Gibsons and Hobsons are noted in early records for being "free persons of color." The laugh is that many African-American Genealogy websites parade these cases forth as instances of Negroid persons owning land, marrying whites, etc. Several famous cases disproved any Negroid blood. In reality, these were Portuguese, Sephardim, Moors, etc. If they were Negroid, why would they have African slaves and even deal in them? Gideon Gibson is infamous in South Carolina history as a "mulatto" proved to be non-Negroid, some other race, also one of the wealthiest men in the state's history and a figure in the Regulator Revolt that was a precursor of the American Revolution. Was James Adair Jewish and did he write his book to promote intersettlement with the Indians as European Jews' ticket to their "promised land" of freedom?
      Below I am pasting what I have learned about Adair's wife and children. Descendants of James Adair: Generation No. 1:
      1. James2 Adair (Thomas (?)1) was born abt. 1709, and died 1783 in Bladen, later Robeson Co., N.C.. He married (1) Cheraw Woman. He married (2) Ester (or Anna) McBride June 11, 1734 in Antrim, Ireland (not proved) (?). He married (3) Clark Hobson July 29, 1740 in Fairfield, Northumberland Co., Va. Notes for James Adair: The famous Indian trader and author of the book History of the American Indians (1775). The known facts of his life are few, gathered in the main from the personal incidents narrated in his book. Of his later life nothing authentic is recorded. Adair History and Genealogy (1924), by J.B. Adair, gives many biographical details purporting to be based on family tradition, but few of them are verifiable by any available records. Dictionary of American Biography. In South Carolina he was a trader among Indian Nations for about 40 yrs, & wrote the most authoritative history of the America Indian in circulation. He spoke 7 languages, versed in Hebrew & its History, & gave convincing proof that the American Indians are of Hebrew origin. He was Surgeon on staff of King George lll before coming to America, later a surgeon in General Francis Marion's Army in the Revolution. His influence enabled him to buy large tracts of land in Northwestern South Carolina, & invited his people to come from Pennsylvania to live & improve the land. Many Adairs in locality in 1855. The headquarters for his Indian trading was in Charleston, South Carolina as early as 1735. The book "Kendall" 929.273 K334h, states that King George ll made him a large grant of land. This patent was located out in the frontier of the Indian country, on Duncan's Creek in what is now Laurens County, South Carolina, and James had his father and brothers move from Pennsylvania to South Carolina to settle on this land. In Robeson County NC (formerly a part of Bladen) on Highway 710 near the Town of Rowland, there is a historical marker that notes that James Adair, Indian trader and historian is buried nearby. His will was filed in that county in 1778: "Will of James Adair. In the name of God, Amen. 'I, James Adair in Bladen County in North Carolina, being weak but praises be to the Almighty God, in perfect sense and memory, I do humbly make and ordain this my last Will and Testament in manner and form following: I do recommend my soul to God who gave it hoping through the merits of my Lord and Blessed Savior Jesus Christ to obtain pardon of all my sins. My body I commit to the grave to be buried. My Temporal Estate my just debts being paid I do humbly appoint my loving daughter Saranna McTyre my whole and sole Executor of this my last Will and Testament. I give unto Robert Adair or his heirs near the town of Billymansborough and Nutrann a short mile of Gilgoram in the county of Antrim in Ireland ten pounds. I give unto James Box or his heirs in the Island of Bennet the sum of nine pounds. I give unto Alexander Johnston or his heirs in Ireland or his heirs in the county of Chester, Pennsylvania, the sum of seventeen pounds all proclamation money. I give unto my daughter Saranna McTyre, all my lands or improvements in Wilkinsons Swamp together with all my negroes and their increase to wit: Four negroes Pomp, Babby, Sam and Jack, two negro women named Hannah and Nelly, one negro girl named Lucy, my personal and real Estate both within and without doors, crop and stock together with all money, bonds, judgments, notes of hand, book accounts and debts whatsoever and whomsoever during her natural life and when my daughter Saraanna McTyre receives and collects in my money due on judgments, notes of hand and book debts, I desire it may be put out immediately on good security mortgages on improved lands and negroes until there is a fair and open trade from Guinea to this country for negro slaves, then to call in all the money into her hands immediately lay the money out in purchasing and buying negro slaves, boys and girls, and when bought then I give a part of the negroes so purchased and bought as has cost my executrix four hundred pounds proclamation money with their increase unto my daughter Elizabeth Hobson Cade during her life and at her death I give the said negroes with all their increase unto my three grandsons Stephen, James, and Washington Cade, and their heirs lawfully begotten forever, and the residue and remainder of the said purchase and bought negroes, after my daughter Cade has received her part and property as above mentioned then I give unto my daughter Susanna (sic) McTyer with all their increase during her life. I give unto my grandson Adair McTyre the plantation whereon I now live one hundred acres more or less named Pached or Patcherly place on Wilkinson Swamp, together with all the improvements to him and his heirs lawfully begotten forever. After my daughter Saranna McTyer's life I give unto my Grandson one plow horse and one cow and calf two sow pigs and all the working tools within and without doors, suitable for carrying on a crop and corn and provision both without and within doors, should anything happen after my daughter's life. I give all my other lands more or less unto my grandson William McTyer and his heirs lawfully begotten forever whenhe comes of age. I give unto my five grandchildren Adair, Elizabeth, Clark, Katrain, and William McTyer, all my negroes and their increase and my personal estate to be equally divided amongst them, to them and their heirs lawfully begotten forever after Saranna McTyre life. I do give the free use of my means to my daughter Cades family as long as my daughter Saranna McTyre and Elizabeth Hobson Cade live convient one to another. I give unto my daughter Agnes Gibson and to John Gibson one Shilling sterling. I do desire my daughter Saranna McTyer take my daughter Agnes Gibson into her family should it so happen she is a widow and only one child and no good home, and maintain she and her child during widowhood and until her child comes of age, in meat drink lodging washing. I do desire none of my estate may be sold by order of Court, when goods come as cheap as they have in the year 1774. Then I do desire my Executrix will buy each of my daughters, Elizabeth Hobson Cade and Agnes Gibson a gown of Black Crepe and mourning ring. In testimony of this my last Will and Testament I hereunto set my hand and seal, this twenty first day of September one thousand seven hundred and seventy eight. James Adair (seal) Signed sealed and Witnessed Archd McKissack Benilla Bullard (Source: Elizabethtown, Bladen Co., North Carolina, Record of Wills No. 1, p. 476, reprinted in "Kinfolks" by Wm. Harllee, pp. 1245-1247) Note: The will was destroyed in the courthouse fire in 1800. Some records, including James Adair's will were copied from documents held by people who provided them for records.
      More about James Adair: Burial: Fairfields Plantation, Patcherly Place, Wilkinsons Swamp, near Rowland, N.C. Fact: September 21, 1778, Made his will in Bladen Co., N.C. Land: September 22, 1774, Received two tracts of land in a 1769 North Carolina grant sold to William Adair in 1771 after they were resurveyed and found to be in Craven Co., S.C.
      More about Clark Hobson: Burial: Fairfields Plantation, near Rowland, N.C. Children of James Adair and Clark Hobson are:
      i. Saraanna3 Adair, b. October 5, 1743.
      ii. Elizabeth Hobson Adair, b. June 23, 1745.
      iii. Agnes Adair.
      Generation No. 2
      2. Saraanna3 Adair (James2, Thomas (?)1) was born October 05, 1743. She married William McTyre. Children of Saraanna Adair and William McTyre are:
      i. Adair4 McTyre. More about Adair McTyre: Fact: He received his grandfather James Adair's plantation
      ii. William McTyre.
      iii. Elizabeth McTyre.
      iv. Clark McTyre.
      v. Katrain McTyre.
      3. Elizabeth Hobson3 Adair (James2, Thomas (?)1) was born June 23, 1745. She married ___ Cade, son of Mary Gibson. Children of Elizabeth Adair and ___ Cade are:
      i. Stephen4 Cade.
      ii. James Cade.
      iii. Washington Cade.
      4. Agnes3 Adair (James2, Thomas (?)1) She married (?) John Gibson, son of Gideon Gibson (?). He was born 1759 in Marion, S.C. (?), and died 1829 in Campbell Co., Ga. Child of Agnes Adair and John Gibson is:
      i. ___4 Gibson."
      B. The following deals with a James Adair of Connecticut. The first quote is from the very reliable Donald Lines Jacobus, one of the foremost genealogists of New England; it confirms the presence of a James Adair, certainly not ours, in Connecticut. The second quote below seems to blend this man with Robert Adair of North Carolina as well as incorporating the false premises promulgated by William Harllee, who we previously saw in the quote above in item A(a):
      a. James Adair of Fairfield, Connecticut. Thank you to the Fairfield Historical Society who kindly provided copies of these records to me. I am in possession of photostat copies of the following from: "History and Genealogy of the Families of Old Fairfield," vol. II, part 1; compiled and edited by Donald Lines Jacobus, M.A.; Fairfield, CT; 1932; p. 6: Adair, James. He m. 3 June 1744, Ann Carter; or by church record, 18 Oct. 1744, Ann McCarty, which is more accurate. Will 21 Oct. 1766, proved 4 Nov. 1782; wife Ann; four daus. Mary, Esther, Ann and Sarah; son Andrew. Children, rec. Fairfield, bapt. Greenfield: Andrew, b 23 Apr, 1745, bapt. 1745/46; Mary, b. 3 Jan. 1747, bapt. 12 Jan 1746/47; [m. Epaphras Merwin, of Easton]. Esther, b. 2 July 1749; m. 20 Dec. 1770, James Goodsell. Ann, b. 2 Feb. 1752. Sarah, b. 1 Mar. 1755. James, b. 26 Aug. 1757, d.y. From: Fairfield Connecticut First Congregational Church Records, 1694-1806; Hartford Connecticut State Library; 1929; handwritten ledger in Old Script James Adair and Ann McCarty were married Oct. 18, 1744, Noah Hobart, V.D.M. From: Greenfield Hill or Northwest Society and Church Records, 1668-1878; Vol I, Parts I - V, Church Records 1668-1883; handwritten ledger in Old Script, Mr. James Adair born bapt, Ann wife to Mr. Adair born bapt. Their children, Andrew Adair born bapt. 1745/46, Mary Adair born bapt. Jan 12 1746/7, Esther Adair born July 1799 bapt. July 18, 1749.
      b. Referring to "Kinfolks, A Genealogical and Biographical Record," by William Curry Harllee, vol. II, 1935, the following notes were posted on the Internet from "Lisa" and "Ginger":
      Lisa notes: After a long time searching, I made a trip to the Bridgeport, Connecticut Public Library, where I had access to the book KINFOLKS; A Genealogical and Biographical Record Vol II by William Curry Harlee; 1935. The book was very old and brittle, and smelled like history itself! It was a magic moment. Following are some excerpts of a well-documented biography and history of James Adair, Indian Trader. The twists and turns that this information takes answers many questions - and asks many more. Any thoughts? Please drop me a note. The notes were transcribed by fellow researcher, cousin, and friend, Ginger. Thank you Ginger!
      Fairfield(s) Plantation, NC.
      Who Was James Adair's Wife? And other mysteries to solve...
      Ann Carter - Married in Fairfield, Connecticut June 1744. (Fairfield Co. records and will written in 1776; probated 1783; will shown in separate section of this page) children attributed to this union: Andrew (April 1745), Mary (1747), Esther (1749), Ann (1750), Sarah (1752). Were Ann Carter and Ann McCarty the same person? Harllee said they were not. (Kinfolks p. 1292) Ann McCarty - Married in Fairfield, Connecticut October 18, 1744. (Fairfield Co. records.) Ann McCarty had two children by a prior marriage, Elizabeth and John, who were also baptized in Fairfield Co. 1742. Elizabeth, has been confused by some with our ancestor, Elizabeth Hobson Adair. William Harllee, in his book, "Kinfolks," (pp. 1291-1293) accepted Ann McCarty as the wife of James Adair and the mother of Sara Anne. Harllee was influenced by the fact that James had named his manor in North Carolina, "Fairfield" (Note: Ginger has uncovered some information that points to a Fairfields Parish in the VA area where the Plantation was thought to have been located. This is important information) and by concluding the middle initial M. in Ann McTyre's name was for McCarty, as her mother tended to use family names in naming her children. Ginger notes: Under the heading "Who Was Adair's Wife?" Harllee begins "We have seen that Adair's wife was buried at "Fairfields" (p. 191). On p.193 he says, "The circumstances that the marriage of James Adair and Ann McCarty occurred in Fairfield, Conn., and that our James Adair (CA2) named his manor plantation in North Carolina 'Fairfield' or 'Fairfields' suggest that the wife of our James Adair was Ann McCarty." (His other "circumstance" for reaching that conclusion is that his (Harllee's) grandmother has a middle initial M. but, I point to the granddaughter in Adair's will, Clark Adair, as even stronger evidence for Clark Hobson as James' wife.) The manor of James Adair and Hobson (Clark) Adair was named "Fairfield." Wm. C. Harllee in his book, "Kinfolks," believed that the name had some significance, and used it to support the marriage of James Adair and Ann McCarty in Fairfield, Connecticut. However, there is also evidence of a James Adair married to Clark Hobson of Northumberland Co., Virginia, where there was at that time a parish named Fairfield. Chickacoan Parish was one of two of the earliest parishes of Northumberland Co., Virginia. The boundaries, established in 1653, were changed in 1657 and again in 1658. A description of the revised boundaries of Chickacoan Parish, October 21, 1658, refers to a location called Fairfield. "... abutting upon the Northwest side of an Indian field known by the name of Fairfield ..." On February 4, 1644 the following order was issued by the court of Northumberland County: "Whereas a great part of this county is by the Assembly ordered shortly to be taken in and included in Westmoreland County and the parishes in this county formerly laid out and bounded cannot so stand unless one of them be in two counties which may be inconvenient either to the counties or the parishes, it is therefore ordered that this county of Northumberland be divided into two parishes and thus named and bounded namely: The Parish of Chickacoan so formerly called is to be the Parish of Fairfield and the boundaries thereof from the north side of the Great Wiccocomoco River to the upmost bounds of the Country." Parish lists of 1680, 1702 and 1714 include Fairfield Parish. In 1698 St. Stephen's Parish was formed and included the former parish of Fairfield. "However, the parish continued to be known by the old name of 'Fairfield' until well into the eighteenth century." (Source: "Parish Lines, Diocese of VA" by Cocke, pp. 162-164, pp.162-164). That Harllee reached his conclusion based on the stated clues is understandable as the following yet unproved theory used the same approach with different results. It's my opinion the James Adair that married Ann McCarty is not the same person as James Adair, Indian trader and that the mother of James' daughters named in his will was Clerk Hobson of Virginia. Most descendants of Elizabeth Hobson Adair have thought that Hobson was a family surname, and it is true that surnames were often used in naming children. Note that three of James' grandchildren have a first or middle name of Adair. Harllee gave Elizabeth Hobson Adair an unknown mother with the Hobson surname, and encouraged future researchers to search the records in Virginia and Pennsylvania for an Adair-Hobson connection. Taking Harllee's advice, and using the same clues (i.e. the plantation name of "Fairfield" and a middle name (this time, Hobson), the following information was discovered: LDS records show James Adair and Clark Hobson married July 29, 1740 in Northumberland County, VA and had Ann, born October 5, 1743 and Hobson, born June 23, 1745. I have written to Northumberland County for the records to support the Northumberland theories. Clerk Hobson - Married July 29, 1740, in Northumberland Co., Virginia. Their children were Ann, born October 5, 1743, and Hobson, born June 23, 1745. (LDS records) There were Hobsons in Chester County, PA (based on posts from the Hobson GenForum; further documentation needed. Any contributions of documentation would be greatly appreciated!)
      Based on this new found information, and pending further research, I lean heavily towards Clark Hobson being the mother of James' three daughters mentioned in his will, and as the wife buried at "Fairfields." Discussion is welcome and encouraged! Lisa note: I wholeheartedly agree with Ginger on many of these points:
      1. James of Connecticut and James, Indian Trader, were two separate people.
      2. Clark Hobson as the mother of James' daughters, and buried in VA.
      Ginger questions for discussion: (We want your input!)
      Is it possible that Ann and Sara Ann are the same person, and that Hobson and Elizabeth Hobson are also the same person? Or, were they both born later? Clark had older sisters named Sara Ann and Elizabeth; it would have been common practice to name her children after her sisters. Perhaps the names Sara Ann and Elizabeth were added later. It is my understanding that this practice was common when a family member died. Agnes named one of her daughters Clark (mentioned in James' Will). If Ann, born in 1743, is also Sara Ann, she would have been sixteen years old at the time the gift of part of Fairfield was made to Ann and her husband, William McTyre. Sixteen would have been more likely an age for marriage than fourteen, if she was the daughter of Ann McCarty There were Hobsons in Chester County, PA so it is possible that if James and his father Thomas and brothers Joseph and William were also there, that James could have met when Clark was in PA visiting relatives. The Chester County, PA connection also strengthens the case for Thomas Adair and his sons being in PA prior to 1740. Ginger note: Most descendants of Elizabeth Hobson Adair have thought Hobson was a family surname. And, it's true that family names often used in naming children. Note that three of James' grandchildren have a first or middle name of Adair. It's also true that naming their home "Fairfield" had significant meaning. Fairfield was a parish in Northumberland Co., Virginia. Is it possible that Ann and Sara Ann are the same person and that Hobson and Elizabeth Hobson are the same? Or, were they born later? Clark had older sisters, Sara Ann and Elizabeth and naming her daughters for them would be natural. Perhaps the names Sara and Elizabeth were later added. It's my understanding that sometimes occurred when a family member died. Agnes named one of her a daughters Clark (mentioned in James' will). If Ann, born 1743, is Sara Ann, it would make her 16 at the time the gift of part of Fairfield was made to her and her husband William McTyre, a more likely age for marriage than 14 in Harllee's conclusion. There were Hobsons in Chester Co., (Hobson Genforum) Pennsylvania so it's possible, if James and his father and brothers were also there, that they could have met when Clerk was there visiting relatives. The Chester Co. connection also strengthens the case for Thomas Adair and his sons being there prior to 1740.
    • Who are James' Descendants? "His family consisted of three daughters, and with stubborn Scottish pride, he vowed they should not intermarry with their poor neighbors. As, in the primitive state of the country, it seemed impossible for them to form alliances suitable to their rank, they seemed devoted to lives of single-blessedness. But like the three princesses in the town, of whom Washington Irving tells in his stories of the Alhambra, they managed to defy his commands, elude his restraints, and all of the three eloped, leaving not a helpless one behind to bear the weight of the paternal anger, as in the story alluded to." (Source: Letter written before 1877 by Louisa Jane (Harllee) Pearce, a great-great-granddaughter of Sara Anna Adair, reprinted in "Kinfolks" by Wm. C. Harllee, pp. 1241-1242.) Ginger Note: Elizabeth's mother-in-law was Mary Gibson and probably related in some way to her sister Agnes' husband, John Gibson. In trying to determine the ancestry of Mary Gibson I made some inquiries about Gideon Gibson as a possible father or relative of Mary. I was told Gideon Gibson probably wasn't white. Maybe Agnes' husband, John Gibson, wasn't either and her daddy, James, had a fit. The South Carolina Assembly denied Gideon a grant on the basis of his race; but the Governor decided that although he was a colored man, he was not "Negro" and since his wife was white he was allowed the grant. Some of his heirs think he may have been of Gypsy stock or Portuguese. I got sidetracked and never followed up on the information, but was told he is briefly discussed by Vernon Jordon in the book "White Over Black" and is listed in other books. Well, if James called Gideon his trusted friend (Gideon was well-respected) then maybe that wasn't what got James so upset that day after all. Re Gideon Gibson ... I had done some work on Gideon as a possible ancestor because Elizabeth Hobson Adair's mother-in-law was a Gibson. Then when I was pondering what got James' britches in a bunch and caused him to transfer Fairfield and declare he was leaving the country I made a notation in my James file. (I set the work on Gideon aside when I got caught up with James, never thinking he'd surface here. Gideon also was called the trusted friend of one of my Calcote ancestors from Laurens Co.) A Lady in NC - (est. 1755-1763 -- Ginger) Harllee referenced "Adair History and Genealogy" by Dr. James B. Adair, pp. 269-271, who said James married a woman about the time he went to London; a son James Jr., a Miss Kilgore. Harllee seems to refute the later North Carolina marriage. ("Kinfolks" by Wm. C. Harllee, pp.1275-1276). Indian Wife - Est. between 1755 - 1763. Emmett Starr in "History of the Cherokee Indians," p. 403, said, "___ Adair (had sons) John Adair m. Jennie Kilgore (and) Edward Adair m. Elizabeth Martin." Harllee said the name of the father, left blank above, could be "...supplied from a sketch of Joel Bryan Mayes, a Cherokee chief and chief justice of the court of last resort of the Cherokee Nation, in "Appleton's Encyclopedia Biography," IV, p. 275; Mayes was born in the Cherokee Reservation in Georgia, October 2, 1883. His mother was a mixed blood and descended on the paternal side from James Adair, an Indian agent under George III." ("Kinfolks" by Wm. C. Harllee, p.1277). Ginger notes: James seemed to have two personas; his manor/father persona and his trader/warrior persona. James seemed to be a devoted family man, in spite of his extended stays in Indian Country, and that held his wife's memory in high regard as evidenced by his setting aside her final resting place when he transferred Fairfield to Sara Ann and William McTyre. (Kinfolks, by Wm C. Harllee, p. 1256) He probably wouldn't have taken another wife (white or Indian) until he was free to do so. Therefore, it's plausible that James' wife, Clark Hobson, died not too long after 1755 and that he then took one or more Indian wives. I also believe that he did take a wife or wives among the Indians as I believe their oral tradition to be sound. Lisa note: Again, I agree with Ginger. The evidence seems to support Indian wife or wives.
      Lady Caroline Keppell - 1763, England. Harllee asks, "Was he (James) the Dr. Robin Adair, renowned in the song, "Robin Adair," attributed to Lady Caroline Keppell in England with whom "Robin" had a romantic adventure and married and had a son Robert Adair born 1764?" ("Kinfolks" by Wm. C. Harllee, pp. 1256, 1294-1298). Never married - In the Introduction to the reprinted version of James Adair's book Samuel Cole Williams, editor, said that Emmett Starr, the Cherokee historian and genealogist, stated in a letter to him that Adair never married. ("Kinfolks" by Wm. C. Harllee, p. 1276)"