John Mangum, IV (Patriot)

Male 1763 - 1843  (80 years)


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  • Name John Mangum 
    Suffix IV (Patriot) 
    Born 19 Jan 1763  , Lunenburg, Virginia, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died 3 Mar 1843  Fulton, Itawamba, Mississippi, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Buried 6 Mar 1843  Fulton, Itawamba, Mississippi, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I1845  Petersen-de Lanskoy
    Last Modified 16 Jan 2015 

    Father John Mangum, III,   b. Abt 1732, Albemarle Parish, Surry, Virginia, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Abt 20 Oct 1794, , Newberry, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 62 years) 
    Mother Mary,   b. Abt 1734, of Albemarle Parish, Surry, Virginia, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Bef 1794, , Newberry, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 59 years) 
    Married Abt 1755  of, Sussex, Virginia, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F995  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 1 Mary or Polly Murdock,   b. Abt 1767, of Bush River or Newberry, Newberry, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Aft 23 Aug 1803, of Bush River or Newberry, Newberry, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 36 years) 
    Married Bef 1791  of, Newberry, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Children 
     1. James Mangum,   b. 6 Dec 1791, , Newberry, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Oct 1815  (Age 23 years)
     2. Nancy Mangum,   b. 11 Nov 1794, , Newberry, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 25 Jan 1877, Carrollton, Pickens, Alabama, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 82 years)
     3. Elizabeth Mangum,   b. 24 Dec 1798, , Newberry, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Abt 2 Apr 1866, Carrollton, Pickens, Alabama, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 67 years)
     4. Mangum,   b. Abt 1801, of, Newberry, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Abt 1801, of, Newberry, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 0 years)
    Last Modified 22 Oct 2015 
    Family ID F409  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 Gemima Goggans or Goggins,   b. Abt 1763, of, Culpeper, Virginia, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Bef 1809, Bush River, Newberry, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 45 years) 
    Married Abt 1802  of Bush River, Newberry, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Children 
     1. Cyrus Mangum,   b. 5 Jan 1803, , Newberry, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 25 Dec 1862, Moulton, Lavaca, Texas, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 59 years)
     2. Mary Mangum,   b. 17 Jun 1804, , Newberry, South Carolina, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Bef 28 Feb 1877  (Age < 72 years)
    Last Modified 22 Oct 2015 
    Family ID F735  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 3 Rebecca Canida,   b. 10 Oct 1785, , , Pennsylvania, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 23 Feb 1847, Winter Quarters (now Florence), Douglas, Nebraska, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 61 years) 
    Married 19 Jan 1809  Eaton Township, Warren, Ohio, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Children 
    +1. Jemima Catherine Mangum,   b. 14 Sep 1809, , Warren, Ohio, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 28 Apr 1848, Mount Pisgah, Union, Iowa, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 38 years)
    +2. William Mangum,   b. 25 Dec 1811, , Maury, Tennessee, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 26 Feb 1888, Circleville, Piute, Utah, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 76 years)
     3. Rebecca Frances Mangum,   b. 10 Aug 1814, , Giles, Tennessee, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1894, of Nutrioso, Apache, Arizona, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 79 years)
    +4. John Mangum, V,   b. 10 Jun 1817, Springville, Saint Clair, Alabama, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 27 Apr 1881, Alpine, Apache, Arizona, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 63 years)
     5. James Mitchell Mangum,   b. 6 Jan 1820, Springville, Saint Clair, Alabama, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 14 Feb 1888, Nutrioso, Apache, Arizona, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 68 years)
    +6. Joseph Eastland Mangum,   b. Abt 1822, , Pickens, Alabama, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Abt 1848, , , Iowa, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 26 years)
     7. Virginia Jane Mangum,   b. 14 Jul 1824, , Maury, Tennessee, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 9 Nov 1904, Beardon, Okfuskee, Oklahoma, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 80 years)
     8. Lucinda Mangum,   b. 20 Jul 1826, near Pickensville, Pickens, Alabama, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 23 Feb 1903, Saint Johns, Apache, Arizona, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 76 years)
    Last Modified 22 Oct 2015 
    Family ID F755  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Notes 
    • RESEARCH_NOTES:
      1. Lynn Parham, editor of the Mangum Journals and a premier Mangum family researcher as of 14 Mar 2005 takes a different approach to the ancestry of the patriot John Mangum then what most LDS family historians use based upon work done years ago by Delta Hale: "The present best thinking of the lineage is John Mangum the immigrant, John Mangum who married Olive Savidge, John Mangum (1734), John Mangum the Patriot (1763) who married Murdock/Goggins/Canida. I'm speaking from memory here, so ignore minor mistakes in birthyears. Originally, it was thought that John (1734) was a son of William Mangum Sr., but it is difficult to imagine that he at age 14 would not follow his father to North Carolina. The only other option for his father seems to be John Mangum who married Olive Savidge. I was not the one to do that research but I agree 100% with it. I will give you the details if you wish, which is a letter from Joann Hoagland to John Palmer and is published in his Mangum book. This lineage, of course, is not proven, just the best fit of the available records. I do not have family group sheets of the old Mangums on the web [http://home.comcast.net/~lynn.parham/]. My book ["Pleasant Mangum and All His Kin"], which I described last time, is the best current thinking on those lineages. As to the book lineages, I do not take as gospel those lineage connections that 99.999 percent of all Mangum researchers use in their lineages. They do not even mention that there is severe lack of proof in some of those connections, even if it does sound reasonable. I don't even disagree with most of it but it gnaws my gizzard when the lack of proof is not even mentioned. Then another generation of Mangum researchers take this unproven stuff and again recite it as gospel because all these older and wiser researchers said so."

      2. US Census for 1880 for children William, James, and Lucinda show father's birthplace as So. Carolina while Rebecca's shows as Virginia. In 1900, Lucinda shows Virginia.

      3. Enid Beagley Willardson's own history of how she got started in Genealogy: "When I was 17 years old in my Gleaner class. We had a lesson on Genealogy. My teacher was my cousin. We got in an argument about a Revolutionary ancestor. She said that our grandfather served in the Revolution. I said he couldn't because he was only 13 years. I started writing letters to the War Department and the Pension Bureau and found out that he did serve. He ran away from home and went to Virginia and joined the Militia and served during the Revolutionary War..." [Note see transcription in notes below of Delta Hale of a 1933 letter to her concerning John Mangum from the Veteran's Administration.]

      4. May have middle name of Wesley according to some undocumented family histories, but I have not seen anything verifiable showing it.

      5. Censuses and Ohio tax lists:
      1790 US: The following Mangum, Richey, Goggins, and Murdock names occur in Newberry Counties, South Carolina - none with that surname appear in neighboring Laurens county where the Adairs were located:
      P. 57, William Murdock: males over 16: 1; males under 16: 1; females: 1; slaves: 0.
      P. 74, Ambrose Hudgins, 1-1-5-0 (Possible father to Austen Hudgens who married Elizabeth Mangum? On the previous p. 72 [73 is blank], there is a Sam'l Hugghen who could also be a possibility but probably not. In neighboring Laurens Co., there are also two other "Ambros" Hudgins: pp. 433 and 443 with most Adairs in that county occurring on pp. 440-442. There are various Huggins, Hudgens, Hudggens, Huggans in South Carolina - but with none in Newberry or Laurens except as noted above.)
      P. 74, James Goggin, 2-4-5-2. Separated from Ambrose above by 10 names.
      P. 74, Geo. Goggens, 2-3-2-0. (Separated from James above by 26 names.)
      P. 74, William Goggins, 1-3-3-0. (Separated from Geo. above by 6 names.)
      P. 76 (note page 75 is blank), John Mangum, 1-0-1-0. (Separated from William Goggins above by 58 names.)
      P. 76 (note page 75 is blank), Wm. Goggins, 2-2-1-0. (Separated from John Mangum above by 0 names.)
      P. 76 (note page 75 is blank), Wm. Mangum, 2-2-2-0. (Separated from Wm. Goggins by 2 names.)
      P. 76 (note page 75 is blank), Robert Richey, 1-1-6-1. (Separated from Wm. Mangum by 39 names.)

      1800 US: Newberry District, South Carolina, 71 pages, census appears to be grouped by letters of the alphabet with all the "M"s together but not necessarily alphabetically within the "M"s; columns are 5 for males and 5 for females each subdivided as under 10, 10-15, 16-25, 26-44, 45 and over:
      P. 42: John Mangum, 1-0-0-1-0-2-0-0-1-0.
      P. 44: William Mangrum, 2-2-0-1-0-2-1-0-1-0.

      1809/1810: Ancestry.com's "Ohio Census 1790-1890" uses tax lists. We find:
      -1809: "John Mangram; Warren County, Eaton Township; Tax List Page 42." This is the same township found in John's marriage to Rebecca Knowles.
      -1810: "John Mangrum; Clinton County, Chester Township; Tax List Page 9 (Database: OH 1810 Washington Co. Census Index)." Due to uniqueness of name, this is probably for our John. Note: Clinton County was formed on February 19, 1810 from sections of Highland County and Warren County. Townships in Clinton County are: Adams, Chester, Clark, Green, Jefferson, Liberty, Marion, Richland, Union, Vernon, Washington Wayne, and Wilson. The County Seat is Wilmington in Union Township. Chester Twp. borders on Warren County and so was probably part of what was transferred into Clinton. There is no modern day Eaton Township in either Warren or Clinton Counites. It was probably changed in name to Chester.

      1830 US: Pickens Co., Alabama, pages 111-112. The first three related families are all on the same page, the next four related families are on the next page, and James Adair (with son Joseph) is on p. 129:
      Thos. Peeks, males 0-5:1; 5-10:1; 20-30:1; females 0-5:1; 5-10:1; 10-15:1; 30-40:1.
      John Mangum, males 5-10:1; 10-15:2; 15-20:1; 60-70:1; females 0-5:1; 5-10:1; 10-15:1; 30-40:1.
      Cyrus Mangum, males 20-30:1; females 0-5:1; 15-20:1.
      Saml. Carson, males 20-30:1; females 20-30:1; 80-90:1.
      Saml. Adair, males 20-30:1; females 20-30:1.
      Thos. Adair, males 5-10:1; 10-15:1; 15-20:1; 50-60:1; females 0-5:1; 5-10:1; 10-15:1; 40-50:1.
      Daniel Clark (next door), males 0-5:1; 30-40:1; females 0-5:1; 20-30:1.
      James Adair, males 0-5:2; 15-20:1; 20-30:2 (Joseph b. 1806); 60-70:1; females 15-20:1; 20-30:2; 60-7-:1; no slaves.

      1840 US: Northern District, Itawamba Co., Mississippi, related families from full survey of county census. Note that census taker is Joshua Toomer for whom Samuel Adair's son Joshua Tumer Adair may have been named:
      P. 136a: Samuel Adair, males 0-5:2; 5-10:2; 30-40:1; females 0-5:1; 30-40:1. No slaves listed.
      P. 144a: John Mangum, males 15-20:1; 70-80:1; females 10-15:1; 15-20:1; 50-60:1. No slaves listed. Rev. Soldier, age 77.
      P. 144a: John Ewing, males: 2(under 5), 1(5-10), 1(10-15), 2(15-20), 1(50-60); females: 1(40-50). (Son John L. Ewing marries Laney Adair; John is next door neighbor to John Mangum.)
      P. 150a: Joseph Adair, males 30-40:1; females 20-30:1. No slaves listed.
      P. 156a: Thomas Adair, males 20-30: 1; females 0-5: 1; 15-20:1. No slaves listed.
      P. 157a: William Mangum, Jr., males 5-10:1; 20-30:1; females 0-5:1; 5-10:1; 20-30:1. No slaves.

      6. From Joann Oldham, 23 Aug 2005, : "I was reminded of a note I read in a book on Bush River, SC. It told of an itinerant Baptism preacher who traveled thru the country preaching of hellfire and damnation for their part of the country and urging the citizens to follow him to a new country. That is how 1763 John and others got to the Ohio country where he married Rebecca Knowles. I will watch for the story again as I cannot locate it right now."

      7. From Vol. 26, "Mangum Family Bulletin," October 1986, edited by James L. Parham quotes the following from the book "History of Alabama & Dict. of Alabama Biography," vol. 5, by Thomas Mcadary Owens LLD: John Mangum Soldier of the American Revolution. Res. Pickens Co. Private S. C. Militia. 15 March 1883 [sic 1833?].

      8. Some clarification of dates of county formations is important. Many people confuse the correct location in dealing with the original colonial ancestors of this part of Virginia.
      James City County was one of eight original shires designated in 1634. At that time it extended toward the southwest between Charles City and Isle of Wight (then Warrosquyoake), being terminated later by the boundary with North Carolina. South of the James River it was separated from Isle of Wight county by Lawne's Creek and from Charles City County (later Prince George County) by Upper Chippokes Creek. James City was made the capitol of the colony in 1639 by an Act of the Assembly. James City was the original Jamestown founded in 1607, America's earliest English settlement.
      The part of James City County that became Surry County was inhabited by the Quiyoughcohanocks, allies of the Algonquian Powhatan Confederacy, when Jamestown settlers visited in 1607. Early settlers reported that they were entertained very graciously during their first visit. John Rolfe's marriage to Pocohontas in 1614 helped to keep peace between Indians and English settlers for a time. Pocohontas died in England in 1616, however, and by 1622 the Powhatans had decided to rid their lands of the English settlers. On Good Friday, 11 April 1622, Indians living in English settlements all over the small colony rose up and attacked their English hosts, murdering and mutilating them in their homes. At Pace's Pains on the south shore of the James, one Indian, a Christian named Chanco, refused to murder Richard Pace, warning him of the impending massacre instead. Three hundred and forty-seven English people were killed then. A list made the following February showed 1,277 people left alive in the colony.
      Richard Pace was only one of the settlers on the south shore of James River. In May 1625 The Virginia Company of London listed sixteen settlers in the area that became Surry County. The Virginia Company's development of Virginia did not meet the expectations of the company stockholders or the English government. Sir Francis Wyatt, the last governor under the Virginia Company, became the first crown appointed governor 24 May 1624.
      The Crown honored patents issued by the Company and granted more lands to encourage settlement. Individuals could acquire one headright by paying the transportation cost of one person into the colony. One headright could be exchanged for fifty acres of Virginia land. Soon headrights were being sold, the system became corrupted, and in 1705 the General Assembly attempted to reform it. The 1705 act explicitly stated that individuals could not claim an individual headright more than once or claim headrights for sailors, and land claimants were required to submit sworn statements verifying their headright lists in county courts.
      By 1640 James City County's population south of James River was sufficient to support a new parish, and Lawne's Creek Parish was established. Lawne's Creek itself was the dividing line between James City County and the later Surry County from the original Isle of Wight County. John Mangum, the original immigrant, had land strattling Lawne's Creek in both Surry and Isle of Wight Counties. Southwark Parish was separated from James City Parish in 1647. County court records begin with 1652, when Surry was formed from the part of James City County that lay southwest of James River. The south end of Surry County eventually is known as Albemarle Parish within in Surry County. From 1738 the only Anglican parish in the Sussex County area was Albemarle. Soon afterward Arthur Allen built his Jacobean brick house, now known as Bacon's Castle because it was occupied as a fort or "castle" during Bacon's Rebellion in 1676.
      Reports to the Bishop of London by the ministers of Lawne's Creek and Southwark parishes in the year 1724 were recorded by Bishop Meade. They were not prosperous parishes. In 1738 Albemarle Parish was created from those parts of Lawne's Creek and Southwark parishes that lay southwest of Blackwater River. The remaining parts of Lawne's Creek and Southwark were united into Southwark Parish. The entire area of Albemarle Parish was incorporated into Sussex County when it was formed from the southwestern end of Surry County in 1754.
      Sussex County was formed in 1753 from the part of Surry County that was south of the Blackwater River. "Whereas many inconveniencies" attended the inhabitants of the county of Surry, "by reason of the large extent thereof," the General Assembly enacted a law forming Sussex County from the southwestern part of Surry in November 1753. The boundaries of Sussex County followed those of Albemarle Parish established in 1738. Part of Surry County had been added to Brunswick County in 1732. Thus the parish and county were bounded by Surry County on the northeast, by Southampton County on the southeast, Prince George County on the northwest and Brunswick County on the southwest. Brunswick County was divided by an Act of the Assembly in October 1780, forming Greensville County, which now borders Sussex on the southwest. Sussex, Virginia, is the county seat of Sussex County. The Dillard House, built in 1802, was the repository of the clerk's records until the courthouse was built. The county is named for Sussex County in England.
      In some early records of Surry County before Sussex was formed, we see mention of Upper and Lower Parishes of Surry County. I assume the Lower Parish is what was eventually called Albemarle Parish of Surry, then Sussex County. We know that the Mangums had land transactions in Pigeon Creek in the 1740s and Hornet Swamp in the 1760s. Both of these areas were south of the Blackwater River in what was Albemarle Parish of Surry or Sussex County depending on the County formation dates as explained above. Some of the Mangums eventually end up in Lunenburg County, Virginia, which in turns splits the southern part of its Cumberland Parish off in 1761 to form St. James Parish, which in turn and in entirety becomes Mecklenburg County in 1764-65. Brunswick County separates Sussex County from Mecklenburg County to the west. These counties are just above the state line from North Carolina. Some people erroneously put down Albemarle County which is a county in Northern Virginia in no way associated with our family of these Southern Virginia locations.

      9. No source noted for the following history on Lunenburg County:
      "Lunenburg County originally included all of the territory from Brunsweck County westward tot he Blue Ridge Mountains and from the North Carolina line, northward to the divide between the waters of the James and Roanoke Rivers.
      These are now the modern counties of Lunenburg, Mecklenburg, Halifax, Bedford, Charlotte, Pittsylvania, Henry, Patrick, and Franklin.
      Halifax County the first county was created from Lunenburg in Feb. 1752. Bedored in 1754, Charlotte and Mecklenburg in 1765, and Pittsylvania in 1767. After Lunenburg had been divided into Halifax and Bedford, the population of the county became so great that the county was subdivided into three parishes: Cornwall Parish being formed in 1757, and St. James parish being created in 1761. These parishes were later laid off into Charlotte and Mecklenburg Counties respectively...
      A great tide of emigration rolled southward into North Carolina, both into what is now the present state of that name, and into what is now Tennessee, and thence westward into Kentucky and southward and westward into Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas and Louisiana, as well as into South Carolina and Georgia, and many went the more direct route into the Kentucky country over the famous Wilderness Trail, or road, and eventually into Illinois.
      The route into the West which afterward became the Wilderness Road had its beginning at an very early date. The general route of this trail was traveled by Dr. Thomas Walker in 1749, the first explorer into the Kentucky country to record his travels. In time the Wilderness Road became the most noted route to the west.
      The Wilderness Road is shown on Thomas Speed's map as beginning in Philadelphia and running westward in Pennsylvania to the Blue Ridge, crossing this range, and thence southwestward from Pennsylvania across Maryland, and down the valley of Virginia between the Blue Ridge and Allegheny Mountains to Fort Chiswell, to a point of junction with the other branch of the Wilderness Road, indicated as running from Richmond, Virginia, to Fort Chiswell, in Virginia on the New River. From this point westward the route is represented as running westward to Cumberland Gap and thence westward into Kentucky.
      Of Fort "Chissel" (Chiswell), Speed says: "It was an outpost in the wilderness of the West, yet from the point where it stood to Cumbeland Gap was nearly two hundred miles. It is a point of great interest in studying the Kentucky immigration. It was there the immigrants reached the 'borders of the great Wilderness.' From the Potomas to New River along the valley, travel was not attended with difficulty or danger of any consequence. The wild, rough and dangerous part of the journey commenced when New River was crossed at Ingles' (Ingle's) Ferry, and the travelers turned squarely toward the setting sun to make their way across the mountains and streams through the 'uninhabited country.'
      The Wilderness Trace, originally a long hunter's trail, by the decade between 1770 and 1780 had become so important a route into the Kentucky country that the Legislature of Virginia, in 1779, lent the aid of the State to opening it up more adequately for travel.
      Besides the road which passed along the valley of Virginia, and the one which ran out from Richmand to the intersection at New River, tehre were other traveled ways or traces which let up to Cumberland Gap from theCarolinas and through the mountains of East Tennessee. From Virginia and the Carolinas all the immigrants naturally entered Kentucky by Cumberland Gap.
      All of this was true enough, but does not, nor does any other account, so far as investigation has disclosed, call attention to the tide of immigration which flowed from Virginia into North Carolina, and Tennessee, and thence into Kentucky and the West. These Virginians in large measure furnished to those sections the pioneers in leadership and statesmanship of the formative days.
      It is understood that countless thousands trekked over the Wilderness Road from Virginia to Kentucky and Tennessee, but for descendants of Virginians, whose ancestors found their way into the West by "the Wilderness Road" to assume that they traveled that route from the Valley of Virginia to Ingle's Ferry, or from the eastern or southern part of Virginia to that point... is to invite confusion, and possible defeat, in trying ot retrace the steps of particular immigrants. For such an assumption entirely overlooks the enormous streams of emigration which flowed into the West by a far more circuitious and therefore much longer route. For example, [some] reached the western country by going from Brunswick County, Virginia to Wake County...
      Another fact often overlooked in considering the westward migrations is that many of them were not made in one long continuous journey. Often resources were not adequate for that. But the emigrant having turned his face to the west or the southwest made his progress as best he could, often pausing in his course for a season, to raise a crop of corn, kill and cure a supply of meat, and otherwise equip himself and family for making another stage of the journey to some more or less undefined destination. Sometimes what was originally intended as only a temporary stopping place became the permanent residence of the migrants..."

      9. FHL Film 1697868 and book "The Mangums of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Arkansas, Texas, Utah, and Adjoining States," by John T. Palmer, Ph.D. Santa Rosa, CA 95409, 1993, 3rd ed., p. 11: "As John grew older he was apparently active in the Baptist Church as he and his brother Lewis were both listed as members. ("South Carolina Baptists, pp. 165-166 where Bush River Baptists Church Records lists members between 1771 and 1780, 1794, and 1804.)"

      10. From the book "Pleasant Mangum and All His Kin, the Story of the Bennetts, the Mangums, and the Parhams," comp. by James Lynn Parham, Gateway Press, Inc., Baltimore, MD, 1997:
      John Mangum - Revolutionary Soldier:
      "According to some genealogies there was a John Mangum, born in 1732 to William and Mary Mangum in Virginia, His birth is not recorded in the Albemarle Parish record. John apparently married Mary and migrated to Mecklenburg County, Va. and had several children, One of these children was also named John, born 19 Jan. 1763. This 1763 John served on the American side in the Revolutionary War.(13)
      A story is told by a Mrs. Joseph Mangum that there were two brothers, her grandfather and an older brother. When the Revolutionary war was on they both enlisted. The older brother enlisted in the U.S. Army, then after a time he turned Tory and joined the British Army. John Mangum enlisted in the U.S. service at the age of 15 and fought the last five years of the war ending in 1783.
      While John was in the service he was permitted to go home on a furlough, When returning to his unit, he and several of his fellow soldiers were captured and taken prisoners by the British. All were kept for several days. The British then took their prisoners out to a log and laid their heads on it and chained them to it, The commanding officer drew his sword and raked two or three of them across the head and told the Captain to turn them loose. Then the commanding officer took his sword and split the rest of the prisoners' heads open and left them. John Mangum was one of those spared,
      After several days, John Mangum had a chance to talk to the commanding officer and asked him why his life was spared. The officer told him that he knew his brother and he was a pretty good son-of-a-bitch, and thought he would be too. By his brother being a Tory that was what saved his life.
      He soon afterward escaped and returned to the American Army. (William Mangum Jr., possible uncle of John the Revolutionary soldier was a Tory fighting for the British in Georgia. See next chapter for more information about William Mangum Jr., son of William Mangum Sr.)
      Unfortunately, recent research by Mrs. Joann Hoagland has cast some doubt on the theory that the elder John, father of the Revolutionary soldier, was a son of William Mangum Sr. In a letter to John T. Palmer, Mrs. Hoagland states "I have studied carefully the documentation, which is pretty scarce, for placing 1732-John as a son of 1706-William. When 1706-Wm moved to N.C. in 1747-8, 1732 John is a teenager. He would surely have gone with his father to N.C. John never moved to be near his supposed father in N.C., instead moving to Lunenburg, Va. Also, 1732-John seems to align himself with different people, at least in the Albemarle Parish Register, then his supposed father Wm," Mrs. Hoagland goes on to systematically eliminate all other candidates for 1732-John's father except the John Mangum who married Olive Savidge and died in 1744."

      11. The book "Alabama and Mississippi Connections, Historical and Biographical Sketches of Families on Who Settled on Both Sides of the Tombigbee River," by Judy Jacobson, 1999, viewed on the website Ancestry.com contains a good history of the settlement of this area with the counties of Greene, Pickens, and Tuscaloosa in Alabama and counties of Noxubee and Itawamba in Mississippi. Alabama opened for settling after the American victory in the War of 1812 and Mississippi opened up in the 1830s with various Choctaw Indian treaties. This book contains a very good history of these areas as well as genealogies on the Adair, Mangum, Carson, and Richey families. Most of these genealogies are copies of standard LDS Ancestral File; however, the following is new information: "... in 1823 or 1824, [John Mangum] moved to Pickens County, Alabama where he testified for John Wigginton's application for a Revolutionary War pension."

      12. In speaking about the Loyalist Uncle William, the following background is very helpful from the book "Pleasant Mangum and All His Kin, the Story of the Bennetts, the Mangums, and the Parhams," comp. by James Lynn Parham, Gateway Press, Inc., Baltimore, MD, 1997, Chapter 6, William Mangum Sr., Virginia to North Carolina:
      "We believe that William Mangum Sr. was a son of John the immigrant. We first know of him in 1734 when he and his wife Mary record their son James' birth in the Albemarle Parish of Surry County, Virginia.(1) This couple also recorded the births of sons William Jr. in 1736, Arthur in 1741 and daughter Sarah in 1744.(2) We have no definite proof but we think that there may have been at least one other older son named Samuel whose birth was not recorded in the Parish.
      The early records concerning William Sr. and his family are very uncertain. William was born about 1709 although we have no direct evidence of his birth or his parentage. His wife Mary, according to one genealogy, may have been a daughter of Job Person and wife Lucy although we have not been able to document that theory. Another source says she was daughter of John Person who's will was probated in Surry Co., Virginia in 1738, but that theory presently seems doubtful.(3) The available records do suggest that the Person family was close kin to the Mangums.
      William Mangum Sr. and his family remained in Virginia until at least June 1747 when William helped appraise the estate of Arthur Sherrod.(4) By May 1748 the family was in North Carolina.
      By the mid 1700's the available land in Virginia was beginning to run out. Economic opportunities lay elsewhere, on the frontier in middle North Carolina. William Mangum Sr. and family apparently made the trek to the Southwest in 1748. In May of that year William Mangum witnessed a deed in that part of Edgecombe Co., N.C. that is now in Halifax County.(5) They did not stay long there but continued on west into that part of Granville County that is now Warren County. William witnessed a deed there in June of 1748 and began the acquisition of land in 1749 when 350 acres were surveyed for him.(6) The land was granted to him in 1751 by John Earl Granville. The grant calls him a planter of St John's Parish.
      The tax lists for William begin in 1749 when he listed two polls. One poll is William himself and we suspect the other is his son Samuel Mangum. William's last land grant was in 1760 and thereafter he began to sell his land. In 1764 Bute County was created from parts of three counties including the eastern part of Granville County. William's remaining land was incorporated in this new county. Between 1765 and 1780 a William Mangum, whom we believe is our William Mangum Sr., had several land dealings in Bute County...
      SON: William Mangum Jr. [The Loyalist]
      William Mangum Jr. was born 16 May 1736. His birth is recorded in the Albemarle Parish Register of Virginia. His birth, like his brother James' birth was added "after the fact." William Jr. was in the Granville Co. Militia in 1754 and in several tax lists of the period. We know little else about his life in North Carolina. He was a British Tory (sympathizer) during the Revolutionary War. He was in Georgia by 1772. He seems to disappear from the Granville County, N.C. tax lists by 1768. He was recruited into the British Army in 1779 from a group of Georgia back country Tories. He served with the 96th Brigade, Little River Militia.(I7).
      William was married in Georgia to Elizabeth "Letgo," "Ladco," or "Lithgow" and had at least two daughters and one son named Samuel. Samuel was killed in 1780 while fighting as a British soldier. When the British evacuated Charleston in 1782, William and family went to the loyalist refuge in St. Augustine, Fla. His property in Georgia was confiscated by the State of Georgia because of his British service.
      William's 1st wife died about 1784. He left for Nova Scotia and sometime before 1791 he married again but his wife's name is unknown. He lived out his days on bleak Morris Island. His petition for title to the land he occupied on the island (as a reward for his loyalist service) was never acted on.
      One of William's relatives, John Mangum (III?), born in Virginia in 1763, fought for the American side in the war. More information on John was given in the previous chapter. It is possible that they fought opposite each other during the siege of Old Ninety-six, the key British fortress in South Carolina. John was captured by the British, but the British commander saved John's life because he knew and liked his loyalist kin.

      BIOGRAPHY:
      1. Biographical info per the book "John Mangum, American Revolutionary War Soldier and Descendants," 1986, p. 7-16, by Delta Ivie Mangum Hale: "John Mangum was born Jan. 19, 1763 in Mecklenburg County, Virginia. His parents apparently moved to Lunenburg County soon after he was born, as his father, John Mangum, is listed as a member of the St. James Parish, Lunenburg County in the year 1764, the year after John was born. [Should be Lunenburg Co. since Mecklenburg was formed in 1764-65, from the part of Lunenburg that was Saint James Parish. Saint James Parish was formed in 1761 when Cumberland Parish was divided. The area of Mecklenburg is 665 square miles. Boydton is the county seat.] He was the fourth child in a family of six. He had one brother, William, and two sisters, Lucy and Sarah who were older and two brothers William and Lewis who were younger. (The reader may question the fact that the first and fifth children were both named William. It was a practice, especially in England, that when a child died, the next child of that sex would receive the dead child's name.) As John grew older, he was apparently active in the Baptist Church, as he and his brother Lewis are both listed as members. (South Carolina Baptists, pp. 165, 166. Bush River Baptist Church Records listing members between between 1771 and 1780, 1794 and 1804. [Note that book has a picture of the Bush River Church in Newberry, SC; a related Rev. Daniel Mangum was pastor there for some 28 years; also located nearby is a Mangum Plantation, a Mangum store, and 'Granny Mangum Spring'.]) John's father, whose name is also John, was born about 1736 in Albemarle Parish, Surry County, Virginia. His mother's name was Mary. Her maiden name is unknown. His grandfather, William Mangum, was also born in Albemarle Parish, Surry County, Virginia. His grandmother was Mary Person Mangum. His great-grandfather was John Mangum, and his great-grandmother was Francis Bennett Mangum, daughter of Governor Richard Bennett of Virginia. [Kerry's note: The ancestor in terms of Governor Richard Bennett is erroneous in my opinion. See notes for Thomas Bennett, Richard Bennett, Sr., and Richard Bennett, Jr. separately in this database for a detailed Bennett history. Even though both groups of Bennetts lived in Isle of Wight County in Colonial Virginia, there does not appear to be a connection and both Richards are separate and distinct. Also note that William Mangum being the grandfather of John Mangum, the Patriot, is challenged.] This is as far back as the direct Mangum line in America has been determined at present. John served as a soldier for the colonies during the Revolutionary War. He apparently joined at the age of 15. The following brief record of his military service from reading material obtained from the Veterans Administration in Washington, D.C. The data contained herein is from the papers on file in the Rev. War claim for pension number 16939, based upon the military army service of John Mangum in the war... [Kerry's note: I have image copies on file of the seven pages of the document cited and quote directly from it rather than Delta's book which has a few minor transcription errors. The quote is only from the last two pages which was a letter to Enid Beagley.] "August 11, 1933. [Re:] BA-J/ADY, John Mangum, S.16939. Miss Enid Beagley, 34 Cleaves Avenue, San Jose, California, Dear Madam, Reference is made to your letter relative to one John Mangum, a soldier of the Revolutionary War. The data contained herein are obtained from the papers on file in the Revolutionary War claim for pension, S.16939, based upon his military service in that war. John Mangum was born in Mecklenburg County, Virginia, January 19, 1763. The names of his parents are not given. While a resident in Newberry District, South Carolina, he enlisted and served three months in Captain Joseph Hayes' and Moore's Companies, Colonel James Williams' South Carolina Regiment and was discharged in March, 1779. He enlisted early in 1780 and served two months in Captain John Griffin's Company, Col. Robert McRory's South Carolina Regiment. He enlisted the spring of 1781, served two months in Captain David Harris' Company under Colonel Elijah Clarke, and was in the siege of Augusta. He enlisted in Capt. Lauglin Leonard's Company, Colonel Joseph Hayes' So. Carolina Regiment, served four months and until sometime in November 1781, was in the battle of Edge Hill, was wounded on his head by William Cunningham, a Tory, and was taken prisoner; length of captivity not stated. He enlisted and served six months in Captain Joseph Towle's South Carolina Company and was discharged June 1, 1782. He enlisted about the first of July 1782 and served one month in Captain William Irby's South Carolina Campany. In 1805 he moved from Newberry District, South Carolina to Warren County, (afterwards Clinton County) Ohio. In 1811 he moved to Giles County, Tennessee, in 1815 he moved to St. Clair County, Alabama, and in 1823 or 1824 he moved to Pickens County, Alabama. He was allowed a pension on his application executed Sep. 25, 1832 while a resident of Pickens County, Alabama, his post office address: Carrollton, Pickens County, Alabama. The date of the soldier's death is not recorded in the papers in this claim for pension. He was survived by his widow. One Rebecca Mangum was referred to, in 1843, but it is not definitely stated that she was the soldier's widow. There are no further family data. This is the history of the only John Mangum that is found on the Revolutionary War records of this office. In order to obtain the date of last payment of pension, the name of person paid and possibly the date of John Mangum's death, you should apply to the Records Division, General Accounting Office, Washington, D. C., citing all of the following data: "John Mangum, Certificate No. 7214, issued March 15, 1833, rate $60.00 per annum, commenced March 4, 1831, Act of June 7, 1832, Alabama Agency." Very truly yours, A. D. Hiller, Assistant to Administrator." Shortly after the Rev. War, John married Mary Murdock. Mary was known by the nickname of Polly to the family. Her father was Hamilton Murdock. The date of their marriage is not known. Three children were born to John and Mary. The oldest, James Mangum, was born Dec. 6, 1791 at Newberry, So. Carolina. The next Child, Nancy, was born Nov. 11, 1794, and the third Child, Elizabeth, was born on Christmas Eve in 1798. Both Nancy and Elizabeth were born in South Carolina, but the town is not known. John's first wife, Mary, died, and after a time he remarried, this time to Gemima Goggins. John's brother William, was married to Gemima's sister, Anna. These two couples were apparently quite close, as John was the administrator of William's estate following William's death. Copies of the wills of both William and Anna are in the possession of the author. Two children were born to John and Gemima. The oldest, Cyrus, was born Jan. 5, 1805 [probably typo for 1803] at Newberry. He went by the nickname of Russ. After he grew up he married and moved to Texas where he left a large posterity. The other child was born June 17, 1804 [year looks wrong]. John's second wife died, and he was again left a widower. Following her death he moved to Warren County, Ohio, later changed to Clinton County. It was here that he met his third wife, Rebecca Knowles. They were married Jan. 19, 1809 at Lebanon, Warren County, Ohio. (Marriage Licenses of Warren County, No. 1 and 2, p. 30.) Eight children were born to John and Rebecca. In later life he appeared in court to claim his veteran's pension and gave the following statement regarding his places of residence: 'I was born in Mecklenburg County, Virginia on the 19th of Jan 1763, informed by my mother when I was eleven years old, I had it in a book from the time I entered the service. Until 1805 I resided in Newberry District, So. Carolina. In 1805 I moved to Warren County, afterwards Clinton County, Ohio where I resided until 1811. In 1811 I removed to Giles County, Tennessee where I stayed until 1815. In 1815 I came to St. Claire County, Alabama where I stayed until about 1823 or 1824. Then I removed to Pickens County, Alabama where I have lived ever since and now live.' (Package 370, Vol. 3, Veterans Bureau, National Archives, Washington, D.C.) While living at Warren Co., Ohio, John and Rebecca had a daughter, Gemima, born on Sep. 14, 1809. Two children were born after they moved to Tennessee. These were William on Christmas Day 1811 at Murray or Maury, Tennessee, and Rebecca on Aug. 10, 1814 at Giles, Tennessee. Another two children were born at St. Clair, Alabama. These were John, Jr., born June 10, 1817 and James Mitchell, born Jan. 6, 1820. Another son, Joseph, was born about 1822. The record of his birth date, place and picture are not available to date. A daughter, Jane was born July 14, 1824 at Maury, Tennessee, and their last daughter, Lucinda, was born July 20, 1826 at Carlton, Pickens County, Alabama ... John Mangum died on March 3, 1843. Although the cause of his death is not known, it can be assumed with some degree of certainty that the cause was of one usually associated with old age. He died at the age of eighty, which was considered beyond the average life expectancy of his day. The date of his death is established by the following letter form the General Accounting Office Division, Washington, D.C.: 'In reply to your letter requesting information concerning one John Mangum, certificate no. 7214, Alabama Agency, a prisoner [pensioner?] of the Rev. War, you are advised that the records of this office show that the prisoner [pensioner] died on March 3, 1843 and was survived by his widow, Rebecca Mangum. The arrears of pension due the deceased pensioner at date of death covering the period from March 4, 1842 to March 3, 1843 were paid at Tuscaloosa, Alabama on Dec. 5, 1843 to Francis W. Bostick, Carrollton, Alabama, as attorney for the widow. No further information has been found of record in this office.' Further research has revealed that John Mangum is buried at Fulton, Itawamba Co., Mississippi where he died. The histories of John's first two wives, Mary Murdock and Gemima Goggins are not available. All of the available information is included in the history of John Mangum."

      2. Military service per the book "John Mangum, American Revolutionary War Soldier and Descendants," 1986, p. 8-12, by Delta Ivie Mangum Hale: "In 1805 he moved from Newberry District, South Carolina to Warren County (afterwards Clinton County), Ohio. In 1811 he moved to Giles County, Tennessee. In 1815 he moved to St. Clair County, Alabama, and in 1823 or 1824 he moved to Pickens County, Alabama. He was allowed a pension on his application executed September 25, 1832 while a resident of Pickens County, Alabama. His post office address was Carrollton, Pickens County, Alabama. The date of the soldier's death is not recorded in the papers in this claim for pension. He was survived by his widow. One Rebecca Mangum was referred to in 1843, but it is not definitely stated that she was the soldier's widow. This definitely has been since established. Two interesting and exciting stores of his experiences during the war have been handed down through the family. This story is told by Bishop Hugh Richey of St. Johns, Arizona and was originally told to him by his father, James Moroni Richey.
      'My great-grandfather, John Mangum, was a Revolutionary War solider. He enlisted in Marion's Brigade at the age of 16 and served four years to the end of the war. Brigadier General Francis Marion organized his Brigade of Frontiers-men who furnished their own fast horses, arms and food, who could be armed and in the saddle in a matter of minutes upon call. They would destroy the British supply trains, cut off any small detachments, rush into their main camps at night for a raid and be gone before the British could get organized and be in another County before dawn. When the British would chase them with a large force, they would hide in the swamps and mountains or scatter to their own homes until the danger was past and then be at it again. They were the best marksmen, riders and woodsmen on the frontier. Marion was called the Swamp Fox. At one time he was surprised while he and his men were all taking a bath in the river. They all ran for their guns, but didn't have time to get their clothes. He sent a flag of truce to demand their clothes or he would kill ten of their best men. Colonel Sir Banstre Tarleton sent the clothes. The British courier who brought the clothes was invited to eat with Marion and his men. Upon his return to his own lines he told Tarleton that anyone who could eat sweet potatoes like Marion's men did would never surrender and that Marion had said, 'Tell the Colonel Sir Banstre Tarleton that I will only kill eight of his men now,' which of course he didn't. John Mangum fought at the Battle of the Cow Pens. This was a place in a meadow where the settlers grazed their milk cows, and each farmer had a cow pen for his cattle. The cow pens furnished some protection as a breastwork against the British Army. Marion's Brigade was joined with those of Brigadier General Daniel Morgan and Colonel Light Horse Henry Lee with Morgan in command. He placed the new recruits on the front line with instructions to run if it got too hot for them and regroup behind the old veterans. When Tarleton attacked with the British Regulars, the front line gave way and they ran right into the best marksmen in the world who didn't run, and his army was cut to pieces, surrounded and captured. John Mangum was wounded in this battle. Marion's Brigade in the main was a light brigade which operated on the theory that 'he who fights and runs away, lives to fight again another day.'
      John had another brush with death. While he was in the service, he was permitted to go home on a furlough. When returning back to the service, the crew was captured and taken prisoner by the British and was kept for several days. They then took their prisoners out to a log and laid their heads on it and chained them to it. The commanding officer drew his sword and raked two or three of them across the head and told the Captain to turn them loose. The commanding officer took his sword and split the rest of the prisoner's heads open and left them. John Mangum was one of the boys who were spared. After several days he had the chance to talk to the commanding officer and asked why his life was spared. The officer swore and told him that he knew his brother, William, who was a Tory and that he thought he would make a good one too.
      The following is a declaration of John Mangum's Revolutionary War record as found by Milton Mangum in the Veterans Bureau, Washington, D.C.: Declaration:
      'In order to obtain the benefit of the act of Congress of the 7th of June 1832, the State of Alabama, County of Pickens on this 25th day of September 1832, personally appeared in open court before George H. Flournoy, Judge of the county court of said county John Mangum, a resident of Pickens County in the State of Alabama, age sixty-nine years (the 19th of January last) who being first duly sworn accordingly to law, doth on his oath, make the following declaration, in order to obtain the benefit of the act of Congress passed June 7th, 1832. That he enlisted in the service of the United States under the following named officers and served as herein stated—six several tours; to wit:
      1st About December 1778 or January 1779, I volunteered in Captain Joseph Hayes' Company, Lieutenant James Waldrop, Ensign Gillespie, in the Regiment commanded by Colonel James Williams—that I served three months—that at the time of me entering the service I resided in Newberry District in South Carolina when I entered the service—that I marched from this place to opposite Augusta, Georgia—I served with a company of Independent Regulars commanded by Captain Moore, Lieutenant Thomas Prince—no other regulars with said regiment—I know Moore and Prince—The British left Augusta in the night—General Ash of North Carolina pursued and had a fight—while we were at opposite Augusta, the Tories rose and many were taken prisoners by Major Andrew Pickens and brought to us where they stayed while we guarded them and later took them to court—at court the prisoners were tried—five Tories were hanged and the others discharged.—After which I was discharged in March 1779 after having served three months. I did not receive a written discharge.
      2nd Early in 1780 I again volunteered and marched from Newberry District in South Carolina to Augusta, Georgia; thence three or four miles to Cup Board Creek—camped there two months under Colonel Robert McRory [McCrary] in the company commanded by Captain John Griffin—While we lay at the Cup Board Creek we received news that the British had taken Charlestown—When I got home, the British were spread over the country. After having served in this tour two months I was discharged.
      3rd In the Spring of 1781, I volunteered and marched to Keoka Creek in Georgia—thence to Augusta and was at the siege of Augusta in the company commanded by Captain David Harris, Lieutenant John Stutstill, in the Regiment commanded by Colonel Elijah Clark thence quit Georgia and went with the North Carolina troops to Ninety-six in South Carolina, thence went home after having served two months and being discharged—no written discharge.
      4th I volunteered about the first of July, 1781 and continued until the first or middle of November, 1781 at least four months in the Regiment commanded by Colonel Joseph Hays (who was my Captain in the first mentioned tour), in the company commanded by Captain Laughlin Leonard and Lieutenant Isaac Tinsley—was at the Battle at a place called Edgell's [Edgehill's] old field where and when Colonel Hayes and Captain Leonard were killed. I was taken prisoner and received a wound on my head from William Cunningham, one of the Tories.
      5th In December 1781 I enlisted for six months in the company commanded by Captain Joseph Towles, Lieutenant John Satterwhite, Ensign James Carson at Salunda [Saluda] River in Newberry District in South Carolina in the South Carolina line—the colonel not known to me went and built a blackhouse at Anderson's mile in Edgefield District South Carolina—scouted when necessary—stayed six months I was discharged on the 1st of June 1782, by Captain Joseph Towles, but my discharge has been lost or destroyed.
      6th About the first of July 1782, I substituted for William Sims for two months to go to Bacon's Bridge near Charlestown, South Carolina under Major Ford, under the company commanded by Captain William Irby, but was discharged at the end of thirty days or one month - at that time the British were said to be in Charlestown.
      In the first, second, third, fourth and sixth tours I received no written discharge--I have no documentary evidence and I know no person whose testimony I can procure who can testify to my service in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 6th tours or any of them or any part thereof. In the fifth mentioned tour I received a discharge given by Captain Joseph Towles stating that I served six months. This discharge was dated first of June 1782, but it is lost or destroyed. I have no documentary evidence and I know of no person whose testimony I can procure who can testify to my services in said fifth mentioned tour or any part thereof. In answer to questions by the Court I say:
      1st. I was born in Mecklenburg County in the State of Virginia on the 19th of January 1763, as I was informed by my mother when I was about eleven years of age, which information I believe to be true.
      2nd. When I was about eleven years of age my mother told me how old I was, from which information I made record of the time of my birth which record I have in a book in my possession—I know of no other record of my age or birth.
      3rd. From the time I first entered the service I resided in Newberry District in South Carolina—In 1805 I removed to Warren County (afterwards Clinton County) in the State of Ohio, where I resided until 1811—In 1811 I removed to Giles County in the State of Tennessee, where I stayed till about 1815—In 1815 I came to St. Clair County in this state (Mississippi) where I stayed till 1823 or 1824 when I removed to Pickens County (Alabama) where I have lived ever since and now live.
      4th. In the first, second, third and fourth mentioned tours I volunteered—in the fifth I enlisted—and in the sixth I substituted for William Sims.
      5th. I recollect Colonel Henry Lee, a regular officer at Dragoons at the siege of August[a]—he stayed at Augusta till the British gave up. I knew my Captain Joseph Towles and Lieutenant John Satterwhite and Ensign James Carson, regular officers under whom I served in the fifth mentioned tour (the tour in which I enlisted). I do not now recollect any other regular officers. With Colonel Lee came a North Carolina Regiment of Militia under Major Piuk Eaton—Eaton was killed in attempting to cut off the communications between a British Fort and Tory Fort. All the other general circumstances of the services, so far as I can recollect them, I have stated in the foregoing statements.
      6th. I received a discharge given by Captain Joseph Towles on the first of June 1782—said discharge has been lost or destroyed I do recollect I have seen it after I got home from the service. I never received a written discharge for any term of service except the one when I served as a regular under the enlistment under Captain Towles in December of 1781—I believe that it was not the practice of the Militia officers to give written discharges.
      7th. I am known to James D. Staton, Abram Byler, Richard Jones, Freeman Jones, Freeman Jones, Jr., Thomas J. Reynolds, William Johnson, John W. Mann, Charles Stewart, Joseph Stewart, John Rains and Robert E. Stewart.
      I the said John Mangum do hereby relinquish every claim whatever to a pension or annuity except the present; and declare that my name is not on the pension roll of this state or of any state. Sworn to and subscribed this day and year foresaid. John [his mark] Mangum. Francis W. Bostock, Clerk. We John W. Mann, a clergyman residing in the County of Pickins, and Robert E. Stewart residing in the same county hereby certify that we are well acquainted with John Mangum who has subscribed and sworn to the above declaration; that we believe him to be sixty-nine years of age (or more); that he is reputed to have been a soldier of the Revolution by those in this neighborhood where he resides and that we concur in that opinion. Sworn to and subscribed to this day and year aforesaid. John W. Mann, Robert E. Stewart. Francis W. Bostock, Clerk.
      And the said court do hereby declare their opinion, after the investigation of the matter and after putting the interrogations prescribed by the War Department, that the above named applicant was a Revolutionary Soldier and served as he states. And the court further certifies that it appears to them that John W. Mann who has signed the preceding certificate is a clergyman resident in said county of Pickens, and that Robert W. Stewart, who has also signed the same is a resident in the same country, and is a credible person, and that their statement is entitled to credit. George H. Flournoy, Judge of Said Court.
      I Francis W. Bostock, clerk of the County Court of Pickens County in the State of Alabama do hereby certify that the foregoing contains the original proceedings of the said court in the manner of the application of John Mangum for pension. In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and the seal of office this twenty-fifth day of September in the year of our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and Thirty Two, and of American Independence the Fifty-Seventh. Francis W. Bostock, Clerk."
      [Note: FHL Film 1697868 and book "The Mangums of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Arkansas, Texas, Utah, and Adjoining States," by John T. Palmer, Ph.D. Santa Rosa, CA 95409, 1993, 3rd ed., p. 13: "Time and family tradition may have romanticized the Revolution War service of War Veteran John Mangum. His pension application describes six different services, none in Marion's Brigade. Neither does the letter dated 11 August 1933 from the National Archives in Washington, D.C. summarizing John Mangum's Revolutionary War services mention the Swamp Fox's brigade."]

      3. Location of John Mangum's land, presumably that of John Mangum III and father of John Mangum the Patriot, in Newberry county is at longitude -81.78675 lat. 34.30267 at the last upper wye in headwaters of Sandy Run Creek just southwest of the town of Bush River, Newberry, South Carolina. Sandy Run drains into the Little River. The town Bush River can be found due east of Newberry and due south of Kinards per copies of aerial photos and topo maps on file with me. Source of information for this is from the book "Laurens and Newberry Counties South Carolina: Saluda and Little River Settlements 1749-1775," by Jesse Hogan Motes, 1994, Southern Historical Press, Inc., Greenville, SC, p. 99: "Chain of title for Elizabeth Johnston [Johnson]; Lease and release 5 and 6 Aug 1779: Joseph Hays, blacksmith, of the District of Ninety Six, to John Mnagum, planter, of the aforesaid place, for ₤200, 100 acres in Berkley [old name for Newberry Co.] on the waters of Little River, in the fork between Broad and Saludy Rivers and is one-half of 200 acres of land granted to Elizabeth Johnston granted 19 Jun 1772 and conveyed by her unto sd. Joseph Hays by lease and release 24 Feb 1773 and lies on the southside of the main county road that leads from Rebourn's Creek to Charleston, which sd. road is the dividing line through the sd. aforesaid tract of 200 acres; bounded S by land of John Pitts, Timothy Griffin, and David Richardson. Signed Joseph Hays. Wit: Daniel Williams, Samuel Goodman, James Goodman. Proved by James Goodman before William Caldwell, J.P. 4 Oct 1790. Recorded 27 Nov 1790, W. Malone, Clk. Ct. (Newberry Deed Book A; 1060-3. WPA; 79)
      Note that on page 94 and 108 are reconstructed plat maps showing nearby neighbors of John Mangum: James Gogans (1771/100 acres)/James Goggans (1778/150 acres from Robert Johnston 1765 conv.), Hamilton Murdock (1768/350 acres), and Robert Brown (1768/100 acres).

      4. Land transaction records info per the book "John Mangum, American Revolutionary War Soldier and Descendants," 1986, pp. 15-16, by Delta Ivie Mangum Hale: "Although only part of the record of John's land holdings and transactions is available, it is evident that he had possession of a great deal of land during his lifetime. The following is a record of some of these transactions.
      'John Mangum, brother of William, and wife, Mary (Murdock) conveyed 37 acres of land in 1803 in Newberry County, South Carolina, founded a part of original Surrey County and other lands. [Kerry's note: LDS FHL film #24235: Newberry County, SC, Deed Book Grantor Index for John "Mangram": Book F page 208, 23 Aug 1803, 37 acres sold for $111, Mary Mangram signed, witness George Brown.].
      Again in 1805, John Mangum sold 165 acres of land to Thomas Atkinson. [Kerry's note: LDS FHL film #24235: Newberry County, SC, Deed Book Grantor Index for John "Mangram": Book H page 62, 24 Feb 1805, 165 acres, no wife signed, witness Thomas Brown.]
      [Kerry's note: LDS FHL film #24235: Newberry County, SC, Deed Book Grantor Index for John "Mangram" has another transaction not shown in Delta Hale's book: Book E page 554, 26 Aug 1803, 70 acres sold for $210, no wife signed, witness Thomas Brown.]
      John Mangum bought 100 acres of land from Joseph Hayes, blacksmith Aug. 7, 1779 on Little River, now Newberry County, South Carolina, being one half of 200 acres granted to Elizabeth Johnson in 1772 and conveyed by her to Joseph Hayes in 1773. This land is located on the side of the main road from Rayburn's Creek which is the dividing line of the 200 acres.' [Source: Columbia, So. Carolina Court file #4754 of John Mangum before and since the fall of Charleston.] Note: this land may actually be the land of his father John Mangum III judging from the 1779 date of purchase.
      It is interesting to note the price of land at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The following is a recorded land transaction of his brother, William. 'William Mangum, brother of John Mangum, bought from William Johnson a tract of 84 acres for $150 on Jan. 6, 1805. The same being part of an original grant of Jacob Johnson and situated on Little River and bounded by Charles Pitts on the Southwest and all other sides by William Peterson and Daniel Mangum.' [Source: Deed Book G in the Office of the Clerk of the Court, Newberry, South Carolina, p. 264.]
      The following information was received from Enid B. Willardson of National City, California: 'In later years following the death of his brother, William, John assisted his brother's widow in the settling of William's Estate. Anna Mangum, William's widow, relinguished the administration of her husband's estate to John Mangum on July 7, 1827. He settled the estate on Aug. 17, 1831.'
      The following land transaction with his brother's widow is also recorded: 'Signed in the presence of David Carson and Howard Peterson, recorded on Jan. 19, 1838. Anna Mangum of Newberry District sold to John Mangum 82 acres for $7.75. Bounded by Carson's Creek on the south side of the road from Belfast to Newberry, So. Carolina. Delivered Oct. 8, 1828.' [Source: Deed Book in the Office of the Clerk of the Court, Newberry, South Carolina.]"

      5. Copy from National Society Daughters of Utah Pioneers: "The Biography of Cyrus [Cyrus is grandson of this John Mangum] and Sarah Allen Mangum," written by Phillas Mangum Whitehead: "My grandfather Cyrus Mangum was born Sept. 29, 1840, Itawamba Co., Mass. [Mississippi] Son of William Mangum and Sarah Adair, baptized 1848, and endowed Nov. 11, 1872 ... His grandfather was a general and fought under George Washington and Jefferson..." [He was misinformed as to being a "general" and is correct though of participation in the Revolutionary War.]

      6. The book "Roster of South Carolina Patriots in the American Revolution," by Bobby Gilmer Moss, p. 652: "Mangum, John, b. 19 Jan 1763, Mecklenburg Co., VA. He enlisted during March 1779, while residing in Newberry District, and served under Capts. Joseph Hayes and Moore and Col. Williams. In early 1780, he was under Capt. John Griffen and Col. Robert McCreery. In the spring of 1781, he was under Capt. David Harris and Col. Elijah Clarke (of Georgia) and was in the siege of Augusta. Next, he was under Capt. Laughlin Leonard and Col. Joseph Hayes. In the battle at Edge Hill [Haye's Station Massacre in Laurens County] he received a wound on the head from 'Bloody Bill' Cunningham and was taken prisoner. In early 1782, he was under Capt. Joseph Towles and Gen. Pickens. About 1 July 1782, he was under Capt. William Irby. (Moved to Ohio, Tenn., and Ala.)"

      7. Major autobiography with lots of references to Mangums, Richeys, and Adairs and their history by James Richey [see his notes for transcription] speaks of his wife and her family: "Lucinda Mangum Richey Born: July 20, 1826, Carrollton, Pickens County, Alabama; Died: February 23, 1903, St Johns, Arizona; Her father: John Mangum Sr.; Her Mother: Rebecca Canada Knoll [Note: Canida Knowles]. John Mangum was a Revolution War soldier, fought under Gen. Morgan and wounded at the Battle of Cow Pens."

      8. From Don and Carolyn Smith, three part writings of Samuel Newton Adair. [Carolyn referred me to Becky Hamblin [bhamblin79@hotmail.com] to try to locate the original of this; Becky in turn believes Collins Chapman in Mesa may have it since Collins' mother is the granddaughter who handwrote it for Samuel]. The following is one of the three parts [see Samuel Newton Adair's notes for full quotation]: "Luna, New Mexico, October 7, 1919. I, Samuel Newton Adair, will write what I know about my mother's folks. My grandfather's name was John Mangum and he married Rebecca Noles, so my grandmother's name was Rebecca Mangrum, my grandfather Mangum was a revolutionary soldier with General Morgan (one of his minute men.) He was taken prisoner with a lot of other men by the british soldiers and they set them on a log and split their heads open, all but my grandfather's and he had some kind of varmint skin cap on and that and the skull stopped the force of the sword and it glanced off and cut his ear nearly off and they turned him lose. He married after the war was over as stated above. Their children are: Cyrus Mangrum, Joseph Mangrum, John Mangrum, William Mangrum and James Mangrum. The daughter's names were: Jeney Mangrum, Gemima Mangrum, Rebecca Mangrum, and Lucinda Mangum. They were all my uncles and aunts. Joseph Mangrum married Emiline Hanner, William married Aunt Sally Adair, John married Aunt Mary Ann Adair, James Mangrum married Jane Clark, my father's niece. I don't know who uncle Cyrus Mangum married. Jeney Mangrum married George Crawford, Gemima Mangrum married Samuel Jefferson Adair, my father. Rebecca Mangrum married Joseph Adair, my father's cousin. Lucinda Mangrum married James Richey, my father's nephew."

      9. American Revolutionary War Stories involving Mangum and Adair Families in Laurens County Area of South Carolina:
      In John Mangum the Patriot's application for his American Rev. War pension, he mentions serving with several of the following commanders. He specifically states he was with Col. Joseph Hayes when he was killed and that he received a wound under the hands of the Tory leader William Cunningham aka "Bloody Bill." The following accounts help understand John's and the Adair family's patriotic commitment and puts some flesh to names. See separate notes in the Adair family notes for John Mangum's Adair family comrades in arms who signed the James Williams Petition which would mean that the Adair and Mangum families probably first came in contact both knowing and serving under James Williams. Both modern Laurens and adjoining Newberry Counties were in the old District Ninety Six of South Carolina.
      a. "A Laurens County Sketchbook," by Julian Stevenson Bolick, FHL book 975.731-H2b, p. 9, in speaking of the American Revolutionary War: "The people, cut off as they were from the coast and seat of government [KP note: at Charles Town or Charleston as it was later known], were not aware of the many grievances of the colonists toward the mother country. Naturally, in the months to follow, many of the Up Country people remained loyal to England, and particularly those who had been given large grants by the king. These people became known as Tories, and a gentleman's agreement was reached among some of the colonists whereby the Tories in the Carolina "Back Country" should remain in a state of neutrality. Since this agreement was made without the knowledge of Robert Cunningham, a man of high esteem and immense influence among his neighbors in Ninety Six District, he did not feel bound by the agreement. Thus, he continued to urge opposition to the revolutionary movement to the point of being apprehended on an occasion by a group of men dressed as Indians. Learning of Robert's proposed confinement in Charles Town, his brother Patrick gathered a body of friends and set out in pursuit of the group. The pursuers failed to overtake the first group, but Patrick and his men learned of, and captured, 1000 pounds of powder being sent as a present to the Cherokee Indians by the governor. Because of the proximity of the Cherokees, it was customary to make gifts from time to time to the Cherokee Nation to encourage friendship. An amount of gunpowder, included with cloth and trinkets, was intended to be only enough to meet the Indians' needs for hunting, and not a sufficient quantity to incite them to attack the settlers...
      "Unbiased recounting of history must include here the distasteful authority and influence exerted by two Tory leaders over their followers in dealing with their enemies, the Whigs [KP note: pre-Revolution ]. The t