Francis or Frans Frederick

Male 1753 - Aft 1833  (> 81 years)


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  • Name Francis or Frans Frederick 
    Born 26 Aug 1753  Warrensbush (now Florida), Albany (now Montgomery), New York, United States. Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died Aft 1833  of Danube, Herkimer, New York, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I2142  Petersen-de Lanskoy
    Last Modified 1 Sep 2015 

    Father Philip Frederick,   b. 26 Aug 1734, of, Palatinate, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. From 7 May 1804 to 6 Nov 1804, Florida, Montgomery, New York, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 69 years) 
    Mother Maria Sophia Saltz,   b. Abt 1731, of Mill Point, Albany (now Montgomery), New York, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Bef 1804, of Florida, Montgomery, New York, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 72 years) 
    Married 11 Nov 1752  High and Low Dutch Reformed Congregation, Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F624  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Susanna Cosaadt or Cossart,   c. 6 Jun 1742, First Reformed Church of Raritan, Somerville, Somerset, New Jersey, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. of Danube, Herkimer, New York, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Married 30 Dec 1774  Reformed Protestant Dutch Church of Caughnawaga, Caughnawaga (now Fonda), Tryon (now Montgomery), New York, United States. Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Children 
    +1. Philip Frederick,   b. 1778, Warrensbush (now Florida), Tryon (now Montgomery), New York, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Aft 1830, of Clarendon, Orleans, New York, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age > 53 years)
     2. Catharina Frederick,   b. 27 Jun 1785, Resenbos (now Florida), Montgomery, New York, United States Find all individuals with events at this location
     3. Frederick,   b. From 1790 to 1800, of Minden, Montgomery, New York, United States Find all individuals with events at this location
     4. Frederick,   b. From 1790 to 1800, of Minden, Montgomery, New York, United States Find all individuals with events at this location
    Last Modified 22 Oct 2015 
    Family ID F231  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Notes 
    • RESEARCH_NOTES:
      1. Censuses:
      1790 US: http://www.rootsweb.com/~nyherkim/census/mohawk1790.html; 1790 Census, Montgomery County, MohawkTown:
      1st No.-Free white males over 16 years 2nd No.-Free white males under 16 years 3rd No.-Free white females 4th No.-All other free persons 5th No.-Slaves
      *illegible
      Brittain, Abraham - 1-2-5-0-0 [Abraham Brinton?] Frederick, Francis - 1-3-3-0-0 Frederick, Peter - 1-3-5-0-0 Frederick, Philip - 1-0-1-0-2
      Marlet, Michael - 1-1-4-0-0 Mower, Hendrick - 1-1-1-0-0
      VanHorn, Cornelius - 2-2-5-0-0 VanHorn, Thomas - 1-1-5-0-*

      1800 US: Minden, Montgomery, New York, p. 10 of 19, these two were next door neighbors and related by marriage, the columns are first male then female 0-9, 10-15, 16-25, 26-44, 45+:
      Francis Frederick: 1-0-1-1-0; 1-1-0-1-0
      Thomas Van Horne: 2-1-0-1-0; 1-1-0-1-0

      1810 US: German Flatts, Herkimer, New York, the columns are first male then female 0-9, 10-15, 16-25, 26-44, 45+, and then other free persons and slaves:
      Philip Frederick, 2-0-0-1-1; 2-0-0-1-0-0-0
      [Could the male that is 45+ possibly be Francis since he does not show up in the 1810 census? Possibly with his first wife deceased and living with his son Philip?) Caution: There were many Philips among the various descendancy lines from the original Johan Peter Frederick.

      1820 US: Danube, Herkimer, New York, p. 13 of 13:
      Francis Frederick, 0-0-1(16-18)-1(18-25)-0-1(45+); 0-0-0-0-1(45+)

      1825 NY State Index: Herkimer Co., NY: Francis Frederick, 002, Danube.

      1830 US: Danube, Herkimer, New York, p. 11 of 20:
      Francis Fredrick, male: 1(70-80); female: 1(50-60).

      2. Warren's Bush, New York was changed to Florida Township in Montgomery County, New York. FHL book 974.761D2G "Early Families of Herkimer County New York, Descendants of the Burnetsfield Palatines," by William V.H. Barker, Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, 1986, preface: "In 1664 the British took control of New York State and the Mohawk Valley area came under the jurisdiction of Albany County from that time until about 1774 when it became Tryon county (in 1784 the area was renamed as Montgomery county, the western portion of which was set off in 1791 as Herkimer County). In modern times, Herkimer County bounded by Oneida County on the west and by Montgomery and Fulton Counties on the east." [N.B. Tryon was changed to Montgomery because Tryon followed the Tory cause whereas Montgomery was a patriot.]

      3. David Frederick in his pension application for the Mexican War specifically mentions his grandfather Francis Frederick who was in the American Revolutionary War and also drew a pension for it. Text is as follows per the following affidavit; see David's notes for full citation. The mention of Francis is at the end of the document: "United States of America, Territory of Utah, Beaver County. David Frederick, a citizen of Beaver County, Utah, being first duly sworn, upon his information and belief states: That all of the commissioned officers of his Company, to wit, Company A, Mormon Battalion who had an opportunity of knowing when, where, on the circumstances under which his disabilities were contracted are dead. And upon like information and belief he further states that all the commissioned officers of said Battalion, who had an opportunity of knowing such facts are dead also; and he states of his own knowledge that but very few of the commissioned officers of said Battalion are now living. And that he knows of but one commissioned officer of said Company A, that is now living, and said commissioned officers, had at the time he contracted his alleged disabilities no opportunity of knowing the facts. This affiant upon his oath further states; that on or about the 15th of October 1846, and while in the line of duty at Santa Fe, New Mexico, he was taken ill with a cold and fever which settle in his right eyes, and caused him to lose the sight thereof, and it is got blind. That his eye was examined by the Regimental Surgeon Dr. George B. Sanders, who is now dead, but owing to the Regiment being on the march at the time, he said surgeon was not able to put him under proper treatment therefore, and but little was, or could be done under the circumstances; and that most of the time while on such march he was too remote from any surgeon to receive any aid or treatment. That on or about the month of November 1846, he, in company with a small detachment of other invalids were sent back from the Rio Grande, in New Mexico, owing to inability to perform further duty. That the order for this return was issued by Col. Cooke, commander at the time, to Lieutenant Willis. That he was taken to the town of Puebla, near the head of the Arkansas River, and remained there during the winter, and was taken the following spring to Salt Lake City, Utah, by said Willis, and discharged, on or about the 27th day of July 1847. That while on the road to Salt Lake City, Utah, at the crossing of Green River near Fort Bridger, by the permission of Lt. Willis, he got into the baggage Wagon to cross the stream, and in getting out of the wagon at the opposite bank of the river, owing to his feeble condition, he fell and injured the lower part of his back and spine, and ever since that time he has been troubled with a weak back, and weariness of the kidneys, which he thinks has resulted in a chronic rheumatism. That he is a native of the State of New York, born at the town of Mindon, Montgomery County in the year 1801, and was an able backed man prior to his enlistment in the service. That for two years prior to his enlistment, he resided in the State of Illinois, and was by occupation a farmer and gardener. That since his discharge, he has been engaged, where able to labor, in gardening and has resided among his friends and relatives all the time since his discharge. That he has lived in Salt Lake County, Utah Territory, and in San Bernardino County, State of California, and in Beaver County, Utah where his now resides, and a short time in Iron County, Utah since his discharge, and from January 1st, 1861 till May 9th, 1865, he resided in Beaver County, Utah to his best knowledge and belief and recollection and was loyal to the United States Government all of said times aforesaid. That he is usually able to perform some light labor, but at no time is able to do any kind of heavy labor, not to do what is termed a day's work, at any kind of labor, and has to subsist upon the charity of his friends and relatives. That he has had no acute attacks, only of rheumatism of the back and legs, since his discharge, and has had no treatment from any physician since his discharge, not being able to employ any, and has managed to treat himself with such simple remedies as he could procure, and his reason would suggest. That he never voted for Secession, nor served in the Confederate Army, nor held office under, nor paid taxes to, nor in any manner aided or abetted the Confederate Government, or manifested any sympathy therewith. That he knows nothing about secession or the Confederate army, except what he has heard, and never had nay sympathy with, or taken any interest in any army or government except that of the United States of America. That his interests and sympathies have ever been, and now are with the U.S. Government. That his grandfather Francis Frederick was a Revolutionary War soldier, and drew a pension from the Government as affiant is informed and believes to be true - and his interests and sympathies have ever been with this Government and Union and he is a temperate man in his habits and has always been such. [Signed:] David Frederick. Sworn and subscribed to before me this 2[?]th day of October, 1880. [Signed:] William Fotheringham, County, Clerk."

      4. FHL book 974.761D2G "Early Families of Herkimer County New York, Descendants of the Burnetsfield Palatines," by William V.H. Barker, Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, 1986, preface, the book gives some general local history per the following excerpts:
      "Herkimer County, in north central New York's Mohawk Valley, received its name in 1791 in memory of General Nicholas Herkimer, the Revolutionary War militia commander... There were probably in excess of 15,000 Indians in the region about the year 1700, but by the time of the American Revolution their population had eroded to about 10,000... due in part to lack of resistance to European diseases. Their numbers then fell sharply during and just after the Revolution as a result of migrations to Canada and points westward, the exodus being necessitated by the fact that most of the Iroquois, except for the Oneidas, took the British side during the War of Independence..."
      "As to the early Europeans, the Dutch traders of Fort Orange (now Albany) initiated commerce with the Mohawk Valley Indians in the early 1600s... The Dutch traded alcoholic beverages, firearms, tools, and fabrics in exchange for land and beaver hides. In 1664 the British took control of New York State and the Mohawk Valley area came under the jurisdiction of Albany County from that time until about 1774 when it became Tryon county (in 1784 the area was renamed as Montgomery county, the western portion of which was set off in 1791 as Herkimer County). In modern times, Herkimer County bounded by Oneida County on the west and by Montgomery and Fulton Counties on the east. Prior to 1760 there was only limited settlement by the Dutch or English to the west of Schenectady, since the Mohawk region was vulnerable to incursion of the French and their Indian allies from Canada..." [N.B. Tryon was changed to Montgomery because Tryon followed the Tory cause whereas Montgomery was a patriot.]
      "With the exception of a few families, such as the Fondas, Schuylers, and Van Slykes, the Dutch and English seem to have been little induced to settle the Mohawk Valley, and so the opportunity fell to a group of immigrant Germans from the Palatinate, or lower Rhineland area in central Europe. Several thousand of these Palatines had left their German homelands, being much reduced in circumstance after years of warfare with France, and had gone to England at Queen Anne's invitation in 1709... The English temporarily housed many of these people in tents outside London and early in 1710 about 2,000 were placed aboard ships for passage to the American colonies, being promised land in New York in exchange for work in Hudson River camps, to be set up for the production of pitch for use in sealing naval vessels. There were delays in embarking and the Palatines were crowded into undersized and ill provisioned ships so that the Atlantic Ocean crossing itself became a tragedy in which, by New York Gov. Hunter's account, some 466 of them perished. From 1710 to 1712 the German immigrants required government subsidy, and the payment records by Gov. Hunter to heads of households survive (as in Knittle) and are referred to throughout this book as the NY Palatine Subsistence List. The pitch operations having failed, the Germans had to fend for themselves, moving for a while to contested lands in the Schoharie Valley west of Albany."
      "The Palatines remained a displaced people without land entitlement until September 1721 when the Albany City council endorsed their petition to purchase Mohawk Valley land, not closer to Albany then 40 miles west of Ft. Hunter. Then on October 16, 1721, New York Governor William Burnet, presumably wishing to see buffer settlements of a friendly population in the central Mohawk area, granted the appropriate license, which allowed the Palatines, in 1722, to purchase land form the Indians in the vicinity of where the West Canada creek flows into the Mohawk River. Upon completion of the survey of these lands in 1723, and in response to the request of Palatine leaders Joseph Petrie and Conrad Richaert, the deeds were prepared under the designation of the Brunetsfield Patent. At about the same time, other Palatines received land grants at Stone Arabia and elsewhere in the Mohawk Valley... the Burnetsfield Patentees... were wholly within the present county of Herkimer [as opposed to other area Palentines in other parts of the Valley]..."
      "From 1723 onwards, until the French and Indian Wars commenced, [the area] was generally at peace and the residents prospered to the extent that some writers have termed the community almost utopian. Wheat grew abundantly in the fertile soil and the accumulation of livestock and goods was extensive..."
      "At 3 a.m. on Nov. 12, 1757, disaster struck German Flats [as Herkimer was then known] in the form of a surprise raid by a French and Indian war party... 40 killed, 150 prisoners, and much booty taken... After the 1757 devastation there were periods of relief such as the negotiated return of some prisoners in 1758 and the building, in that same year, of Ft. Stanwix as a protective outpost about 35 miles west of German Flats. With the French surrender to English forces at Montreal in 1760, relative peace was restored to the Mohawk Valley, although occasional difficulties with the Indians required that the settlers maintain a more vigilant militia than had been required in earlier years..."
      "Of particular note to the modern-day researcher is the fact that many of the early... families both moved and visited up and down the Mohawk Valley, thereby necessitating the search of church records over a wide geographic area for the presence of relevant marriage and baptism entries. Of note also is the information value of the baptismal sponsors, as those individuals were usually of the same generation (except when a grandparent would be sponsor for a grandchild of the same given name) and most often were brothers or sisters of the parents."
      "The second devastation to fall upon ... the surrounding ... area came from alignments brought about by the American War of Independence. The British enrolled most of the area Indians, plus several Mohawk Valley settlers as well, to the Tory cause, and in August 1777 the bloody battle of Oriskany pitted former neighbor against neighbor... Oriskany turned the British back to Canada momentarily, but a year later they were back in a more nefarious form of military tactic, that of the hit and run assault on isolated settlements. From 1778 through 1782, the British waged a war of attrition in the Mohawk Valley, with members of raiding parties paid eight dollars for each scalp taken, regardless of the victim's combative status, sex, or age... Sometimes the settlers had to scramble quickly into the forts..."
      "By the end of the American Revolution, the... region was severely depleted in manpower and resources and a new phase of rebuilding began with the expansion westward of New Englanders, who were lured by the open lands of northern New York which had become available with the departure of the Indians. The resultant shift in population base was evident in the 1790 census when about a third of the... area people appear to be new arrivals of English extraction..."

      5. http://www.rootsweb.com/%7Enymontgo/mont1841a.html: "This profile of Montgomery County and accompanying engravings comes from an original crumbling copy of the book "Historical Collections of the State of New York," owned by the coordinator. It was printed in 1841 by S. Tuttle, 194 Chatham Square, New York, Publisher. The authors were the well-known John W. Barber (author of the Connecticut and Massachusetts Historical Collections) and Henry Howe (author of 'The Memoirs of Eminent American Mechanics'). A later, more commonly found, edition of this work was published in 1845.
      In their preface Mr. Barber and Mr. Howe credit earlier gazetteers as sources of some information - Spafford's Gazetteers of 1813 and 1824, and Gordon's Gazetteer of 1836. The engravings were "with few exceptions, copied from drawings taken on the spot by the compilers of the work."
      Montgomery County was named after the lamented Gen. Montgomery, who fell at the attack on Quebec, in the revolution. Its greatest length is 34 E. and W., greatest breadth N. and S. 13 miles. It was originally taken from Albany and named in honor of William Tryon, then governor of the province. Its name was changed in 1784. It embraced all that part of the state lying west of a line running north and south nearly through the centre of the present county of Schoharie. It was divided into five districts - subdivided into precincts. The Mohawk district included Fort Hunter, Caugnawaga, Johnstown, and Kingsboro'; Canajoharie district embraced the present town of that name, with all the country southward, comprehending Cherry Valley of Otsego, and Harpersfield of Delaware counties; Palatine district, north of the Mohawk, extended over the region so called, and Stone Arabia, &c.; German Flats district and Kingsland covered the most western settlements. The Erie canal crosses the county on the south side of the Mohawk, and the Schenectady and Utica railroad on the north side. The Erie canal passes the Schoharie creek through a pond formed by a dam across the stream below. Its fall within this county is 86 feet, by 12 locks. The county is divided into ten towns. Pop. 35,801.
      [The Township of] Florida, taken from Mohawk in 1793; from Albany 35 miles. Pop. 5,162. The town was settled by some Dutch families from Schenectady, who in 1750 were joined by some Germans, subsequently by Irish and Dutch, and lastly by New Englanders. Fort Hunter, 5 miles SE. of Fonda, is a small settlement. Port Jackson, on the Erie canal, is a flourishing village. Minaville, 4 miles S. of the canal, is a village of about 40 dwellings. Fort Hunter, which formerly stood on the line of the canal in this town, was a place of some importance in colonial history. At this place also stood Queen Anne's Chapel, a stone structure, built by Queen Anne of England for the use of the Mohawk Indians. The English Episcopal missions to the Mohawks appear to have been commenced as early as 1702, and continued down to the beginning of the revolutionary war. [The Township of] Mohawk, the ancient Caughnawaga, recently organized, was formerly the southern section of the town of Johnstown, from which it was taken in 1837. Pop. 3,106. Since the formation of the new county of Fulton, the seat of justice for Montgomery county has been located in this town. The above is an engraving of the courthouse and hotel recently erected in the new village of Fonda. The railroad passes between these two buildings. The central part of the village of Caughnawaga is about half a mile eastward of the courthouse, and consists of about 30 dwelling-houses, on the north side of the Mohawk, 40 miles from Albany, and 4 miles S. from Johnstown. The village occupies the site of an ancient Indian village, one of the principal towns of the Mohawk tribe. Its name, Caughnawaga, is said to signify "a coffin," which it received from the circumstance of there being, in the river opposite the place, a large black stone, (still to be seen,) resembling a coffin, and projecting above the surface at low water.
      Ancient Church, Mohawk. The annexed is a representation of the ancient Dutch church in Caughnawaga. It is a massive stone structure, and is believed to have been erected in 1763. The following is a copy of the inscription on the stone tablet which was formerly placed over the door. "Komt laett ons op gaen tot den Bergh des Heeren, to den huyse des Godes Jacobs, op dat hy ons leere van syne wegen, en dat wy wandele in syne paden." ["Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord; to the house of the God of Jacob, and he will teach us his ways, and we will walk in his paths."] The following, relating to the history of this town, is taken from a newspaper published in Schenectady a few years since. "The Caughnawaga flats extend from the western base of Tripe's Hill to the Cayadutta creek, a distance of four miles. A patent for 2,500 acres of these flats, was granted in the year 1713, to John, Edward, and Margaret Collins. These individuals aliened to Myndert Wemple, Douw Fonda, and Hendrick A. Vrooman; and many of their descendants are proprietors at the present day. "Until 1695, there were no buildings on the site where Caughnawaga now stands, except a Dutch church edifice and a parsonage. This church was founded in 1762, by the patronage of Sir William Johnson. Its principal benefactors were the Fonda, Vrooman, Wemple, and Veeder families. The church edifice is still standing, but in a dilapidated condition. Its first pastor was the Rev. Thomas Romeyn, who died in 1794. He was succeeded by the Rev. Abraham Van Horne, of New Jersey, who continued his pastoral duties until a few years since. "Caughnawaga hardly deserved to be called a hamlet until 1795, when Messrs. Douw and Henry Fonda, of Albany, erected several buildings."

      6. The book "Mohawk Land Records," by Maryly B. Penrose, p. 56, bills of sale [note Mohawk District was the predecessor name for Florida Township. Tryon Co. was changed to Montgomery County after the Rev. War.]: "Saltz, Frantz, to Philip Frederick, Francis Cruth, Peter Frederick and Frantz Frederick. Instrument dated 4/28/1784; recorded 3/17/1785. Description: In consideration of several good causes made over all his moveable estate. Signed: Frantz ["X" his mark] Salts. Wit: Wm. Schuyler, Thomas Caine. The instrument was executed in person by Frants Saltz as a voluntary act. (Tryon County Deeds, Book 1, p. 257, 1772-1788)"
      Philip would be his son-in-law, Peter and Francis are grandsons through Philip, and Francis Cruth (Grosch), grandson through son-in-law Peter Grosch.

      7. From the Montgomery Co. Archives, NY, family file for Frederick family: "The book 'Genealogies of the First Settlers of Schnectady,' by Prof. J. Pearson, p. 74: Catharina b. 27 Jun 1785 to Francis Frederick of Remsenbos and Susanna Gresaart - sp: Philip Frederick and Catharina Schuyler.
      Note: Remsenbos is in the southeast corner of Florida Township and the Fredericks may have traveled the short distance to Schnectady to have their child baptized. The pension application of Francis would have believe that he was not residing in Schenectady.

      8. The book "History of Montgomery and Fulton Counties, N.Y.," reprinted 2002 (originally printed in the 1880s):
      A. "The Development of Business Centers [in Glen Township]... Mill Point, on Schoharie creek, was another collection of houses, and necessarily a business centre in early times. A German of some means, named Francis Saltz, having settled on the east bank of the creek, about the middle of the last century, joined with one 'Boss' Putman in purchasing the Shucksburg patent of 1200 acres, across the creek in the present town of Glen. Saltz took the half of the patent furthest up stream, from which he sold the site of Mill Point to a son-in-law named McCready. The next farm back of this to another son-in-law, George Young; a third farm to his grandson, Francis Frederick, and a fourth to Michael Marlett, who married Peggy Frederick. The 200 acres remaining Saltz offered to deed to Peter Crush [or Grosch], if the latter would marry his youngest daughter, a cripple, unable to walk. Crush accepted the offer, and having built a house on the tract, carried his wife to it on his back. They spent their days on the place, and left it to their only son, Francis..."
      B. See my notes of Francis' grandfather Peter Frederick for extensive excerpts regarding the time and places of early Montgomery County. There is much quoted about the Revolutionary War aftermath of which Francis would have been a part.

      9. From the book "Mohawk Valley Revolutionary War Pension Abstracts," comp. by Maryly B. Penrose:
      A. Chronology of the Revolution - Mohawk Valley:
      1776: Jan 20 Sir John Johnson disarmed and paroled by Gen. Philip Schuyler.
      May 19 Sir John Johnson reported to have fled Johnstown.
      Oct. 25 Mohawk Valley residents threatened by Sir John Johnson and Indians.
      1777: June 27 Gen. Nicholas Herkimer and Joseph Brant (Mohawk) met at Unadilla.
      July 6 Ticonderoga evacuated by Gen. St. Clair; fort taken over by Gen. Burgoyne.
      Aug 6 Battle of Oriskany.
      Aug 22 For Schuyler (Stanwix) siege ended.
      Sept 19 First battle of Saratoga.
      Oct 7 Second battle of Saratoga; British defeated.
      Oct 17 Gen. Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga.
      1778: May/June Cobleskill attacked; Springfield burned.
      July 18 Andrustan (near German Flats) burned.
      Sept. 17 Ft. Dayton attacked; German Flats destroyed.
      Oct Unadilla burned.
      Nov 11 Cherry Valley raided.
      1779: Jul 31- Sep 15 Sullivan's expedition to destroy settlements in Six Nation country.
      Apr 3 Riemensnyder's Bush destroyed.
      Apr 5 Harpersfield raided.
      May 22 Caughnawaga attacked; Johnstown burned.
      June Little Falls attacked.
      Aug 2 Ft. Plain attacked; Canajoharie burned.
      Aug 9 Schoharie attacked.
      Oct 15 Middleburg raided.
      Oct 19 Ft. Keyser (Stone Arabia) attacked.
      Oct 21 Battle of Klock's Field.
      1781: Apr 24 Cherry Valley destroyed; Canajoharie attacked.
      Jul 9 Currytown destroyed.
      Jul 10 Battle of (Durlock) Sharon Springs.
      Sep 7 Fort Plain raided.
      Oct 19 British surrender at Yorktown.
      Oct 20 Mohawk Valley invaded.
      Oct 25 Battle of Johnstown (final battle of the American Revolution).
      Oct 30 West Canada Creek (last skirmish of the war in new York)."
      B. "On Oct. 5, 1776 a 'Resolution of Congress' was laid before the Tryon County Committee of Safety appointing Nicholas Herkimer to be Brig. General of the Brigade of Militia. The Tryon County Militia was comprised of five regiments formed according to their geographical locations. Each member of the militia was required to have a gun (with bayonet, sword or tomahawk) and ammunition (one pound of powder and three pounds of bullets). He was also expected to train with his militia company for four hours on the first Monday of each month and for two days each year with his regiment. Several changes were made in the militia laws of New York on July 31, 1777 when all men under the age of 60 were to be enrolled in the militia, and member of the militia were to receive the same pay as their counterparts in the New York Continentals. Measures were also adopted to improved discipline in the militia ranks. The Mohawk Valley was the northern frontier in the American Revolution and the battle of Oriskany was proportionally the bloodiest battle of the war. It was estimated that, out of about 800 Tryon County militiamen, 500 were either killed, wounded, or taken prisoner on Aug. 6, 1777. Brig. General Nicholas Herkimer was wounded on the battlefield and died ten days later following the amputation of his leg. Throughout the war, Mohawk Valley residents were constantly on guard against incursions by the Loyalists and Indians. Tryon County inhabitants experienced the greatest number of enemy attacks and raids, at least 13, from April 1780 through Oct. 1781. The final battle of the American Revolution was fought in the Mohawk Valley at Johnstown on Oct. 24, 1781 and the last skirmish of the war in New York took place at West Canada Creek on Oct. 30, 1781." The Third Regiment was from the Mohawk District, with Col. Frederick Fisher commanding. "Levies were raised from the militia ranks for the purpose of defending the frontiers. These drafted militiamen, serving for a period of eight months or less, were posted at outlying blockhouses and forts for garrison duty." In order "to determine the Mohawk Valley veterans who had applied for pensions, it was necessary to compile an alphabetical listing of the four regiments in Tryon County. These rosters, enumerating over 1800 names, were then compared with the veterans cited in the Index of Rev. War Pension Applications. It was ascertained that over 400 surviving veterans, widows, or their children had made application to the government for pensions based upon military service in the Mohawk Valley." By "the end of the Revolution, it was calculated that the people of Tryon County had paid a high price in the war with 380 wives widowed and 2,000 children left fatherless. They had also sustained the loss of 700 buildings by burning, the destruction 150,000 bushels of wheat, and the abandonment of 12,000 farms."

      10. The book "The Book of Names, Especially Relating to the Early Palatines and the Frist Settlers in the Mohawk Valley," by Lou D. MacWethy, 1933: "Tryon County Militia, 3rd Regiment, Col. Frederick Fisher":
      Fredreck, Jacob
      Frederick, Peter
      Frederick, Francis
      Fredrick, Philip

      11. Some land records received 30 Jul 2003 from Frederick descendant and researcher Mary Lou Spaulding, 1502 Haney Dr., Hays, KS 67601, 785-628-6465. They are transcribed from various FHL films as noted below. They mention various Francis Fredericks who may or may not be our Francis:
      FHL film 0842711:
      1822 Herkimer County, NY Land Records (Grantor) 1804-1838: Francis/Susannah Frederick to William Waldron, Bk. 15, pg. 15.
      1838 Francis D. Frederick to Henry Wick. Bk. 35, pg. 612.
      (Mary Lou's note: It is interesting to see that Francis and Susannah sold some of their land in the same year that Philip purchased the Land in Orleans County from the Holland Land Company.)
      FHL film 0506485:
      1836 Montgomery County, NY - Land Records (deeds): Francis D. Frederick and Elizabeth his wife - Town of Oppenheim (Bk. 39, pg. 1). (Mary Lou's note: Unless Francis remarried this cannot by our Francis.)

      12. Received 30 Jul 2003 from Frederick descendant and researcher Mary Lou Spaulding, 1502 Haney Dr., Hays, KS 67601, 785-628-6465: "FHL book US/CAN 974.761 H2h. History of Herkimer County, New York. The town of Danube was not formed until April 17, 1817, previous to which time it was a part of the town of Minden, Montgomery county; but it was settled almost as early as any part of Herkimer county. Previous to March 18, 1828, it embraced what is now the town of Stark. It is bounded on the north by the Mohawk River; on the east by the town of Minden, Montgomery county; on the south by Stark, and on the west by Little Falls. ...The first settlers in the town were German Palatines, who located on the flats along the river. ...A Dutch Reformed church one existed in the southern part of the town, which was probably organized as early as 1816. There are no records of its life in existence. (Mary Lou's note: In one of my searches I found a quote from Francis saying 'the boundries of Montgomery county and Herkimer county was right through my land, part of my land was in Herkimer Co., and part was in Montgomery Co.")

      13. From the magazine "Mohawk Valley Heritage," vol. unknown; date is approximately Sep. 2007. Francis was involved in the Oriskany battle:
      "Oriskany: A story of America's fight for freedom by Richard Palmer.
      Although the general public perceives the Revolutionary War as having been fought in New England and the Mid-Atlantic States, some of the conflict's bloodiest battles for American freedom were fought in Upstate New York. One of these was the Battle of Oriskany in August, 1777. These days, some 20,000 people visit the 80-acre site between Rome and Utica and walk away with a new perspective of war scenes that changed the history of the American frontier forever.
      Before the Revolutionary War, New York was populated by a landed aristocracy closely tied by birth and marriage to British nobility. Loyal to the Crown, these Loyalists maintained vast estates that granted them enormous wealth and power. To maintain that wealth and power, these aristocrats retained armies of mercenaries who enforced their patrons' designs on the populace.
      Also present at this time and allied with the British were the Native American Indians composing the six tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy- the Mohawks, Senecas, Onondagas, Cayugas, Oneidas, and Tuscaroras -- a confederacy that reached from Canajoharie to Niagara. Loyal to the Crown, having been greatly influenced by the King's Indian agent, Sir William Johnson, they frequently joined Tory militia in attacks on American colonists.
      As the American Revolution took hold, the British decided that they had to put an end to the colonials' insurrection. Subsequently, British Major General John Burgoyne conceived a three-pronged invasion of rebel-held portions of New York State as a means to split the rebelling North American colonies and sold the concept to the British government in London during the winter of 1776-1777. He was sent to Canada to implement it and necessary orders were issued to Sir Henry Clinton, the British commander-in-chief at New York City, to cooperate.
      The principal force, under Burgoyne's personal command, was to move southward from Canada via the traditional Lake Champlain-Lake George gateway and then down the Hudson Valley to Albany. A second force, led by Lieutenant Colonel Barry St. Leger, who was raised to the rank of brigadier general for the occasion, was to move from Montreal, up the St. Lawrence River and through Lake Ontario, to Fort Ontario. From there, St. Leger was to proceed through the traditional Oswego-Oneida-Mohawk route, ravaging the agriculturally rich Mohawk Valley, to Albany. Burgoyne's plan called for a third British force to move up the Hudson River from New York City to Albany.
      Though it was a strategically well-conceived, destiny would not side with the British.
      At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, every community in New York State was required to form a military company of men between the ages of 16 and 60. Militiamen had to have their own muskets and equipment and had to train at least once a month. These militia companies formed the backbone of the state's defenses and could be assembled to meet any threat.
      On August 3, 1777, St. Leger, leading roughly 800 British regulars, Canadians, Mohawk Valley Tories (commanded by Sir John Johnson and Colonel John Butler) and Hanua mercenaries that had been joined by some 1,000 Indians under the command of Chief Joseph Brant, attacked Fort Stanwix (renamed Fort Schuyler), then under the command of Colonel Peter Gansevoort.
      With word of the attack on Fort Schuyler, the 800 militiamen of Tryon County under the command of Brigadier General Nicholas Herkimer converged on Fort Dayton to coordinate a relief effort. Warned of their coming by Molly Brant, the wife of Sir William Johnson and sister of Joseph Brant, the Tories under Johnson and Butler, together with their Seneca allies, devised an ambush near the village of Oriska. (After the battle, Brant appears to have helped his sister, her family, and perhaps his mother to flee from the Canajoharie area to safety among the Cayugas.)
      A strong party of troops from the King's Royal Regiment of New York (Johnson's Greens) and allied Indians were sent from St. Leger's force surrounding Fort Schuyler to ambush the approaching rebel militia. Deployed in the woods on both sides of the road where it dipped through a defile, the troops were well placed to wreak havoc on any force crossing their path.
      When half of Herkimer's men passed beyond the small creek, the first shots rang out. The engagement rapidly became a circumstance of stubborn hand-to-hand combat among the trees bordering the road. In the initial confusion, Herkimer's horse was shot, badly crushing his leg in his horse's fall, but he continued to direct the militia's response while propped against the bottom of a large tree. After several hours of fighting, the Loyalists and Native Americans began to press the militia backward, but a sudden storm allowed Herkimer to regroup his men and turn the tide, thus forcing the Loyalists and Indians to retreat. (The badly wounded American general was later taken to his home near Little Falls where, after an unsuccessful amputation of his leg, he died after a few hours. Immediately regarded a hero and a martyr to the cause of American freedom, his home became a shrine to chroniclers of the American Revolution.)
      Meanwhile, the garrison of Fort Schuyler had sallied against St. Legers camp and, as the word spread to the force engaged against Herkimer, the Indians abandoned the battle and disappeared. The battle consumed roughly three to four hours and there was hardly a family on one side or the other in the upper Mohawk Valley that wasn't affected. St. Leger was left with no alternative other than to abandon the siege of Fort Schuyler and retreat back to Fort Ontario. After a brief pause there to gather its garrison, St. Leger retreated to Montreal.
      Sir Henry Clinton, in command at New York City, was less than enthusiastic about cooperating with Burgoyne and he belatedly sent a combined military and naval force under the command of Brigadier General John Vaughan up the Hudson River. Despite a victorious engagement at Fort Montgomery (during which the Americans abandoned Fort Clinton) and breaking the iron chain that had been strung across the river at Anthony's Nose, Vaughan retired back down the Hudson after burning the village of Kingston and Clermont, the home of noted rebel Robert Livingston, on the opposite side of the river.
      Burgoyne, in the meantime, ran into difficulty when a major detachment from his force was defeated at the Battle of Bennington (actually fought in New York State, not Vermont). He was running short on supplies when he was met by American forces under Major General Horatio Gates in a two-day engagement at Freeman's Farm that resulted in Burgoyne's surrender at Saratoga. No one- St. Leger or Vaughan- had been in place to exert pressure on Albany that might have saved him.
      During the Revolutionary War, most Oneidas fought on the side of the rebellious American colonists. Sixty Oneida warriors accompanied the Tryon County Militia at Oriskany. Among them were Hon Yerry Doxadator (Thawengarakwen), the famous Oneida war chief, and his wife Senagena (Two Kettles Together). It is said that Doxadator was shot in the wrist during the battle but that Senagena helped him continue the fight by reloading and aiming his musket for him. Other Oneidas at Oriskany included Blatcop, Henry Cornelius, and the blacksmith Thomas Spencer, who was killed during the battle. Because the Oneidas had allied themselves with the militiamen, a band of Mohawks who were loyal to the British destroyed the Oneida village of Oriska a few days after the battle.
      Mohawk and Seneca warriors made up the bulk of the British forces at Oriskany. Just a few days before the battle, two Senecas named Old Smoke (Sayenqueraghta) and Cornplanter (Gayentwahga) were appointed as joint war chiefs of the Iroquois Six Nations. Both men had originally favored neutrality and had opposed any involvement in the war, but the arguments of those who favored the British eventually convinced them to side with the King's forces. Together with John Johnson and Joseph Brant, Old Smoke and Cornplanter organized the ambush of the Tryon County Militia at Oriskany.
      Meanwhile, a larger, better organized force from Albany, under the command of Major General Benedict Arnold, began a more careful move through the Mohawk Valley toward Fort Schuyler, although they only reached Fort Dayton after St. Leger abandoned the siege.
      There's the story of Han Jost Schuyler, described as a "simple-minded and half-demented fellow" who was sent into St. Leger's camp, supposedly by Arnold, with his clothes riddled by bullets to spread a tale of the "great army" about to descend upon the besieging force. Native Americans, who always held mentally handicapped people in awe, apparently were shaken by this stratagem. The Battle of Oriskany had taken place on August 6, but it was not until August 22 that St. Leger abandoned the siege. Han Jost had played a useful role.
      St. Leger left behind provisions, hospital supplies, tents, clothing, money, and even private papers- making it appear that a rout rather than a well-organized retreat had taken place. When St. Leger got back to Fort Ontario, his dispatches placed full blame for the failure of the expedition on the Native Americans.
      Some historians regard the Battle of Oriskany as a draw. However, it played a key role in diverting Loyalist and Indian forces that could have been used to defend St. Leger's camp against Gansevoort's rebel sally and, therefore, was a part of the first reverse the British experienced during Burgoyne's three-pronged invasion in 1777. Because of the British failure in the Campaign of 1777 and especially the surrender of Burgoyne's army, Benjamin Franklin was able to conclude a formal alliance with France in February 1778, that assured the United States of money, supplies, and ultimately troops and naval vessels that allowed the United States to win its War of Independence.
      Oriskany Battlefield was designated a New York State historic site in 1927. In recognition of the site's exceptional historic value, the battlefield was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1963. Today, visitors to the battlefield can walk the site, read a series of interpretive signs, and visit a historic encampment during special events. The site is located in New York on Route 69 between the Town of Oriskany and the City of Rome. It is preserved by the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation-Central Region. For more information, contact Oriskany Battlefield State Historic Sit, 7801 State Route 69, Oriskany, NY 13424, or call 315-768-7224.
      (The author wishes to especially thank Nancy Demyttenaere, Regional Historic Preservation Supervisor at Oriskany Battlefield; and Wallace F. Workmaster, historian, former director of Fort Ontario State Historic Site, as well as other sites.)"

      13. The book "Even More Palatine Families, 18th Century Immigrants to the American Colonies and their German, Swiss and Austrian Origins," v. 1, by Henry Z. Jones and Lewis Buncker Rohrbach, copy in Montgomery County, NY, Archives [note that author has an additional two earlier books on the same subject: "The Palatine Families of New York: A Study of the German Immigrants Who arrived in New York in 1710," (1985); "More Palatine Families," (1991), both of which I have reviewed without finding our Fredericks]: "Johann Peter Friederich. Peter Freidrick was naturalized 3 July 1759 (Scott & Stryker-Rodda, p. 29). On 8 Jul 1761, the petition of Peter Frederick was referred (see 'Land Patents' 16:45; also 'New York Colony, Calendar of Council Minutes 1668-1783,' compiled by Berthold Fernow, p. 404). Petter Fredrick was on a tax list of Mohawk in 1766 ('Upstate New York in the 1760s,' by Florence Christoph, p. 129). Johann Peter Frederich and wife Anna Veronica (Phronica) had issue:
      A. Philip, banns registered to marry 11 Nov 1752 Maria Sophia Salzer/Sals (Schoharie Reformed Chbk). Some of their ch. are found bpt. in the Ogilvie Records, Trinity Church, NY City. Philip Frederick was naturalized 11 Sep 1761 (Scott & Stryker-Rodda, p. 29). Philip Fredrick was on a tax list of Mohawk in 1766 ('Upstate New York in the 1760s,' by Florence Christoph, p. 129). The will of a Philip Frederick of Florida was dated 7 May 1804 (Montgomery Co. Wills Vol. 1).
      B. Bernhard, bpt. as 'Barent' July 1739 - sp: Barent Vroman and Engel (Fort Hunter Chbk). A Bernhard Friedrich md. 6 Jan 1771 Dorothea Schenck (Stone Arabia Reformed Chbk).
      C. Anna Magdalena, bpt. June 1741 - sp: Joseph... (Fort Hunter Chbk).
      D. Johann Jacob, bpt. 5 June 1743 - sp: Hans Huber and Jacob Naef and wife (Fort Hunter Chbk).
      E. Ludwig (HJ), the Lodewyck Fredrich who md. 31 March 1774 Alida Miller (Caughnawaga Reformed Chbk).
      F. Frans (HJ), the Frans Fredrick who md. 30 Dec 1774 Susanna Cosaadt (Caughnawaga Reformed Chbk). A chapter on Francis Frederick, b. Aug 1753 at Florida Twp., Montgomery Twp., is to be found in 'The Bloodied Mohawk,' by Ken D. Johnson, p. 410."
      [Kerry's notes: I have seen the book "The Bloodied Mohawk" in regards to Franz and it only contains information from his pension application, which I already have on file. Please also note that the author incorrectly assigns Frans as a child of Peter - he was a grandson, not a son. In regards to Ludwig, this is the only reference I can find of him whatsoever; there does not seem to be any christening record for him and his being listed a child of Peter is possible and perhaps likely but not proven. Please also note that even though some church records for the Fredericks are found in New York City Church records, this is only because clergymen from those Churches would travel up to "Mohawk" land. Note also that the Fredericks would use varying Protestant Churches in the vicinity depending apparently on which direction they were traveling or where there was a clergyman available to perform the rites.]

      14. A painting of the American Revolutionary War Battle of Oriskany in upstate New York was commissioned in 1977 to commemorate the bicentennial of the battle. The artist is Frederick C. Yohn. The painting can seen on the website <http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/79oriskany/79visual2.htm> The image is courtesy of the Utica Public Library.

      15. Family History Library film 971020, Revolutionary War Pension Files for Francis Frederick:
      "File 24395. New York. Francis Frederick of Herkimer Co. in the State of New York who was a Private in the Comp. commanded by Captain Pettingill of the Regm. commanded by Col. Fisher in the New York line for 7 months and 6 days. Inscribed in the Roll of New York at the rate of 24 Dallars 00 Cents per annum to commence on the 4th day of March, 1834. Certificate of Pension issued the 10th day of Dec. 1833. Arrears to the 4th of Sep, '33: $60. Semi-anl. allowance ending 4 M.'34: $12. [Total:] $72. Revolutionary Claim, act June 7, 1832. Recorded by Geo. C. Stiles, Clerk, Book E, vol. 4, page 100."
      "State of New York, County of Otsego. Francis Frederick of Danube in the County of Herkimer and State aforesaid being duly sworn deposeth and saith that his service in the War of the Revolution so far as he can now specify the same were as follows. That they were under the officers set forth and described in his declaration hereunto annexed. Viz.
      At Sir Guy Johnsons the militia being called out - 1 day.
      At Johnstown twenty days - 20 days.
      With a party of militia in pursuing from Johnstown and capturing 12 tories, out at that time - 10 days.
      At the Fish House (Socknedaga) near Johnstown - 15 days.
      On an alarm at Stone Arabia and going from thence to guard a lot of fat cattle from thence to Fort Stanwix eight days - 8 days.
      At the time the batteaux were guarded up the Mohawk river, the deponent with a small party drove cattle on land - 8 days.
      At Fort Plank at one time - 15 days.
      At Fort Plain six times 2 days each time - 13 days.
      At the Block House at Socknedaga at one time - 15 days.
      At the same place at another time - 10 days.
      At Van Alstine's on the Mohawk - 5 days.
      At the time of the OrisKany battle near Fort Stanwix - 16 days.
      At Caughnewaga at the time of the wounding of Col. Fisher six days - 6 days.
      At the time of the burning of Schoharie Settlement - 12 days.
      Keeping garrison at Stone Arabia - 10 days.
      At Johnstown when the troops were removed from that place - 15 days.
      At Tripes Hill at one time - 15 days.
      At Johnstown in the year in which independence was declared, previous to that ___ - 15 days.
      At Fort Herkimer on an alarm Major Fonda being there - 8 days.
      That the above services were performed as a private soldier under Capt. Pettingill until his death and after that under Capt. Snook who succeeded him in command, Thomas Van Horne being first Lieutenant after the death of Capt. Pettingill. That he cannot specify the particular year when each piece of service took place. And he further saith that he has no doubt that he served on other occasions not above specified which are now by him forgotten, or so faintly remember'd that he cannot fully specify the length of each engagement. That the above is all true he is now able to specify as the above services are ___. And further saith not. Sworn this 8th day of November AD 1833. Signed: Francis Frederick 'X' his mark. Selah Haveris, Justice of the Peace."
      "No. 18229, Francis Frederick, Herkimer County, New York. Admitted Private 4 mo. 26 days. William Baker, Springfield, New York.
      "War Department, Pension Office, 183_. Sir: The evidence in support of your claim, under the act of June 7, 1832, has been examined, and the papers are herewith returned. The following is a statement of your case in a tabular form. On comparing these papers with the following rules, and the subjoined notes, you will readily perceive that objections exist, which must be removed, before a pension can be allowed. The notes and the regulations will shew what is necessary to be done. Those points to which your attention is more particularly directed, you will find marked in the margin with a brace. You will, when you return your papers to this Department, send this printed letter with them; and you will, by complying with this request, greatly facilitate the investigation of your claim. A Statement, shewing the Service of Francis Frederick, Herkimer County, New York:
      Enrolled.
      Duration of claimant's service, - years, - months, 2 days.
      Rank of Claimant: Private.
      Period when the service was rendered: 1777.
      Names and Rank of the Company officers under whom he served: Cap. Pettingill.
      Names and Rank of the General and Field officers: Col. Fisher, Gl.[?] Herkimer.
      Battles in which the applicant was engaged: Oriskinny [Oriskany?] Battle.
      Country through which he marched: Marched to Johnstown, Wast[?] Fort Plain, Fort Plank, German Flatts, Stone Arcadia, Little Falls, and other places.
      Place of abode when he entered the service, and age at present period: 79 years, Warrens Bush now Florida, Montgomery County, State of New York.
      Evidence by which the declaration is supported: Traditionary evidence, witnesses certified credible and one living witness not certified credible by the Justice of Peace - papers not properly attached.
      The applicant don't [remember] times and periods of service but thinks he served during the war at least two years. I am respectfully, your obedient servant, J. L. Edwards, Commissioner of Pensions. [Two pages of 'Regulations Under the Act of June 7, 1832' are attached to this letter.]"
      "State of New York, County of Herkimer. On this ninth day of October in the year of our lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty two personally appeared in open court before the Judges of the court of Common Pleas in and for the County of Herkimer now sitting Francis Frederick, a resident of Little Falls [crossed out and 'Danube' written in] in the said County of Herkimer and State of New York aged seventy nine years who being first duly sworn according to law doth on his oath make the following declaration in order to obtain the benefit of the act of Congress passed June 7th 1832. That he entered the service of the United States under the following named officers and served as herein stated. That at the commencement and during the whole continuance of the war he resided at a place then called Warren's Bush, now the town of Florida, south of the Mohawk River within the now County of Montgomery and State of New York. That he was there enrolled as a private in a company of militia commanded by Capt. Samuel Pettingill in Col. Frederick Fisher's regiment. William Snook and Peter Young were officers in this same company. That the first service which he performed was before Independence was declared. He turned out with the militia and went to Sir Guy Johnson's distant about five miles. That he stayed but a day or two and returned. On this occasion a quarrel took place between Sir Guy who was for the King and Capt. Pettingill who was for the country. He believes he was called out on other occasions the same year but has now forgotten the particulars. The next year he turned out with the whole company and went to Johnstown ten or twelve miles off at the time when Gen'l Schuyler was there and disarmed the tories. That he was out to Johnstown, Socknedaga, Caughnewaga, other places in service in the course of this summer, and was once at Johnstown in the winter before on an alarm. That in the summer of 1777 he was at the Oriskany battle near Fort Stanwix at the time Gen'l Herkimer was mortally wounded and Capt. Pettingill his own Capt. was killed. That he was out on duty a good deal during the Campaign of 1777 but it is impossible for him now to mention the places and instances of service. That he was at Fort Plain, Fort Plank, Germanflatts, Stone Arabia, Little Falls, and other places many times each in the course of the war, but how long he staid at each time, or how often he was out he cannot now state. That he remembers one time in particular being with about one hundred militia who guarded the batteaux with provisions up the Mohawk river to Fort Stanwix. That on this occasion this claimant with six or seven other militia men were ordered to drive a pair of fat cattle on land. That the cattle were for the use of the army at Fort Stanwix. That during the whole war he was in actual service every summer a great share of the time, he thinks at least three months from the time spring opened until the fall and was also engaged several times in winter. That while at home he was liable at all times to be called out at a minute's warning, and was constantly prepared for alarms. That he did but little other business. That the settlement within half a mile of where he lived was entirely burnt off by the Indians in one of their incursions. That after the death of Capt. Pettingill who was killed at the Oriskany battle, Lieut. Snook was made Capt. of the company and Thomas Van Horne became the first Lieut. That the most of the service performed by this applicant was under the said Thomas Van Horne as such Lieut., but he was out many times under other officers when Lieut. Van Horne was not present. That he verily believes he actually served his country during the revolutionary war as a soldier at least two years but he has no mode of asserting the time as the service was from time to time more or less almost every month in ____ that he has no documentary evidence of his services. In answer to interrogatories put by the court he states:
      1st. That he was born in the now town of Florida in the County of Montgomery and State of New York. I was born I think the year 1758 and I will in August be eighty years old.
      2d. When called into the service lived at place of my birth.
      3d. That when he was first called into service and during the whole revolutionary war he resided at Warren's Bush on the south side of the Mohawk river in the now town of Florida, County of Montgomery and State of New York. That he has since the revolution resided part of the time at Little Falls [crossed out and 'Danube' added] in the county of Herkimer and State aforesaid at which latter place he now resides.
      4th. That his services were with militia which [were] ordered out from time to time.
      5th. That but few regular troops were stationed at any time along the Mohawk, and he does not recollect the names of any regular officers who were with the troops where he served except he recollects seeing Col. Willett at Fort Hunter.
      6th. That he does not remember of ever receiving a written discharge from service.
      7th. That for persons to whom he is known in his present neighborhood, and who can testify to his character for veracity, and their belief of his services as a soldier in the revolution he refers to Jacob I. Young of Stark, Herkimer County and Lewis Pryne of Danube in the same county.
      He hereby relinguishes every claim whatever to a pension or annuity except the present and declares that his name is not on the pension roll of the agency of any state. Sworn and subscribed the day and year aforesaid. Signed: Francis Frederick 'X' his mark. [Jacob I. Young, Justice of the Peace of Stark, Herkimer Co. and Lewis Pryne of Danube both testify to age and the fact he is known in their locale as a rev. war soldier. The court also states that they concur.]"
      "State of New York, County of Otsego. Thomas Van Horne of Springfield in the County of Otsego aforesaid being duly sworn deposeth and saith that he is well acquainted with Francis Frederick of Little Falls in the county of Herkimer in the said State of New York. That he knew him in the Revolutionary War. That this deponent and the said Francis were privates in the same Company of Militia from the commencement of the war till the death of Capt. Pettingill at Oriskany in 1777. When this deponent took command of the company as the first Lieut. and the said Francis served under him as a private soldier during the remainder of the War. Willam Snook being then the commandant of the company. That the said Francis was in service much of the time under this deponent during each year of the war, and was also to the knowledge of this deponent out on many occasions in service when this deponent was not with him. That the company did not always all go together and when one part of the company were out on one expedition, it sometimes happened that the residue of the company were called to another quarter. That he verily believes the said Francis served faithfully as a soldier at least two years during the War of the Revolution, and further saith not. Sworn and subscribed the 22'd day of September AD 1832. Before me, Walter Holt, J.P. Signed: Thomas Van Horne."
      "State of New York, County of Herkimer. Personally appeared before me the undersigned, a Justice of the Peace in and for the County of Herkimer aforesaid Francis Frederick of Danube in the said County who being duly sworn deposeth and saith that by reason of old age and the consequent loss of memory, he cannot swear positively as to the precise length of his service; but according to the best of his recollection he served not less than two years as a private soldier. And for such service I claim a pension. And this declarant further saith that in the above estimate of his services he has not included any time during which he was engaged in any civil pursuit. And that he has included none other than that during which he was actually engaged doing the duty of a soldier. That he cannot from the loss of memory state the periods of the War wherein he served more particularly than the same he has set forth in his declaration. That from his best recollection the first piece of service mentioned in his declaration Viz. going to Sir Guy Johnson's when the quarrel took place between Capt. Pettingill and Sir Guy was in the year 1775, the year before independence was declared. That in the following year Viz. 1776, he was much more in service, and such service continued at intervals during each campaign of the whole war. That his services were principally performed under some one of the officers belonging to his company, but when detached abroad he served sometimes under other officers whose names he cannot now remember. That the services included in the above estimate were performed in obedience to his commanding officers, and that he has included none other than those services which were thus performed. And this declarant further saith that he has a record of his age in his family bible now in his possession. That his services were performed as a volunteer, or in pursuance of the orders of his Capt. or Commanding Officer of his Company. And further saith not. Sworn and subscribed this 26th day of June AD 1833 before me. And I certify that I am acquainted with the said Francis Frederick, and know him to be a credible person. John Herkimer, one of the Justices of the Peace in and for Herkimer County. Signed: Francis Frederick 'X' his mark."
      "Invalid. Revolution File No. 23643, Francis Frederick, Pri. Rev. War. Act: June 7, '32, Index: - Vol. 2, page 143."

      16. From the Internet: "August 6, 1777 - a turning point of the American Revolution. Content about the Battle of Oriskany is taken from the pamphlet Historical Guide to the Battle of Oriskany by Allan Foote, and from other material found in the Oriskany Museum. January, 1777, British General John Burgoyne is suggesting a plan to divide and conquer the American colonies; a plan which would bring him into the state of New York. The proposal is basically valid, though quite complex in timing and coordination. His proposal is approved by the Crown, and in May, 1777, his ship arrives in Montreal. With a strong force, Burgoyne will sweep south from Canada, capture Fort Ticonderoga and lead a drive on Albany. Any significant American military presence in the colony of New York will be decimated, and New England, considered the hotbed of the Revolution, will be sealed off from the rest of the revolt. In Albany he will come under the command of General William Howe, then based in New York City. Burgoyne's plan also calls for a second column composed of British regulars, Hessians, Loyalists and Indians to come down the Mohawk River from the base at Oswego on Lake Ontario. This secondary force will capture the rich farmland of the Mohawk Valley in New York and link up with Burgoyne in Albany. By 1777 the Mohawk Valley, where Oriskany NY is, was considered the "Breadbasket of the Revolution," a main supplier of food for George Washington's army. To command the western wing of his invading army, Burgoyne chooses Lieutenant Colonel Barry St. Leger who had gained a reputation during the French and Indian War as a solid leader in frontier fighting. On June 2, 1777, St. Leger took command of his soldiers, including Sir John Johnson. They were joined by 100 Tory rangers under the leadership of Colonel John Butler. Around June 21, St. Leger's command began its movement down the St. Lawrence River to Lake Ontario. Upon reaching Fort Oswego, St. Leger's troops were met by about 1000 warriors of the Six Nation Confederacy, who were to join the British on its eastward march against the colonists. On August 3, 1777 St. Leger and nearly 2000 fighting men reached Fort Stanwix in what is now Rome, NY. At three o'clock in the afternoon, Sunday, August 3, 1777, Barry St. Leger formally invades Fort Stanwix, sending Captain Gilbert Tice to visit the garrison's commandant, the young Peter Gansevoort. On the same day, 40 miles away at Fort Dayton, another soldier is also answering his country's call. It is here that Brigadier General Nicholas Herkimer has mustered 800 men of the patriot Tryon County Militia to march to the relief of their compatriots at Fort Stanwix. On the morning of August 4 the rebel militia sets out on their mission. Most of the men are farmers, and most are descended from the original Palatine settlers of the Mohawk Valley. They spend their first night at Staring Creek. The second night finds the men of Tryon County encamped near the Oneida Indian Bear Clan village of Oriska. Earlier in the day, General Herkimer had sent three scouts to Peter Gansevoort at Fort Stanwix with a proposal for disrupting the enemy siege. His plans in proper order, the Brigadier slumbers. However, others in the camp are not so restful. On the fateful morning of August 6, Herkimer calls a conference of his officers to discuss his plan. When the sound of three cannons booming in succession are heard from Fort Stanwix, the militia are to advance westward. At around the same time, Peter Gansevoort will launch a major sortie from the fort. Squeezed between the two forces, the enemy siege will be severely disrupted. Some junior officers and members of the political Tryon County Committee of Safety with the column are impatient. They insist upon an immediate advance. Finally the conspirators go too far when they accuse Herkimer of cowardice and disloyalty. In a rage, Herkimer strides to his white horse, gives the order to march, and the column is on its way westward from the Oriska village toward Fort Stanwix. A new group joins - sixty warriors of the Oneida Indian Nation led by their war chief Han Yerry Doxtader. The presence of the Oneida braves fighting alongside the patriots gives America its first ally in war. It also marks the end of the three-century "great peace" of the Iroquois Confederacy. Perhaps moments after issuing his command, General Herkimer regrets it. He knows the Military Road they now march along quite well. As captain of militia he had helped to build it 19 years before. The men of Tryon County are at risk, for at this moment, 700 of the enemy lie concealed in the tangled woods ahead, waiting in ambush. About two miles west of Oriska, the Crown forces now wait in ambush. They are positioned in a fishhook pattern. The bulk of the Iroquois warriors and Tory rangers are on the high ground, south of the King's Highway. A detachment of the King's Royal Regiment of New York blocks the road to Fort Stanwix. The Mohawk leader, Joseph Brant, has selected this place wisely. His plan