Jean Etienne or Stephen Malan

Male 1835 - 1926  (91 years)


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  • Name Jean Etienne or Stephen Malan 
    Born 8 Jan 1835  Latour, Torino, Italy Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Christened 6 Feb 1835  Angrogna, Torino, Italy Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died 15 Aug 1926  Salt Lake City, Salt Lake, Utah, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Buried 18 Aug 1926  Ogden City Cemetery, Ogden, Weber, Utah, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I2046  Petersen-de Lanskoy
    Last Modified 12 Jan 2015 

    Family Sarah Mary Chestnut,   b. 20 Sep 1845, , , Missouri, United States Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 4 Jul 1886, Ogden, Weber, Utah, United States Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 40 years) 
    Married 20 Dec 1869  Salt Lake City, Salt Lake, Utah, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Last Modified 22 Oct 2015 
    Family ID F878  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Notes 
    • RESEARCH_NOTES:
      1. Censuses:
      1870 US: Ogden, Weber, Utah, 145/145, 12 Jul 1870:
      Stephen Malin, 35, brickmaker, $200/400, Italy
      Sarah, 24, MO.
      Jefferson, 8, UT.
      Aquilla, 4, UT.
      Priscilla, 1, UT.

      1880 US: Can't find in Utah nor nationally.

      1910 US: Ogden Ward 3, Weber, Utah, 925 Grant, 20 Apr 1930, 71/71:
      Stephen Malan, 75, md. 4 times, first married at age 20, IT IT IT, naturalized 1855, laborer.
      Martha A. Malan, wife, 74, md. 3 times, first married at age 20, GA GA GA.

      1920 US: Salt Lake City, ED #113, at age 84 as a widower living with his daughter Cora and her husband Eugene Hileman. He and both parents are shown as born in Italy but all three with french as their mother tongue.

      BIOGRAPHY:
      1. From "Malan Book of Remembrance" by John Daniel Malan, 1993, v. 2, pp. 157 - 160 article: "Stephen Malan - His Life Entwined with Many" by J. Malan Heslop from material provided by Pauline Slade Voorhees and others: "...Little is recorded about his first marriage to Mahala Billings, which lasted less than two years. Married 1863, divorced 1865. He took a second wife on Nov. 28, 1869. She was Sarah Mary Chestnut Slade Foy Trulock, an attractive woman whose history included three previous husbands and survival of a heinous crime. Her thread... starts with the story of Samuel Jefferson Adair and his family. His roots were in Alabama where his father was a prosperous farmer. He married Jamima Catherine Mangum of Ohio in 1829.

      2. Birth and death per Pedigree Resource File. Parents are Jean Daniel (John Daniel) and Pauline Combe. Father died 6 May 1886 in Ogden, Utah and is buried in Ogden Cemetery. Mother died same place 23 Jun 1864.

      3. Typescript received Dec. 23, 2001 from J. Malan Heslop, 80 Edgecombe Dr., Salt Lake City, UT, 84 103-2220 from the Malan Book of Remembrance by John Daniel Malan, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, 1993 [with editorial comments added in brackets by Kerry Petersen, 14540 E. Brian Dr., Palmer, AK 99645 who is a an Adair and Chestnut family researcher]: "Stephen Malan [birth name was Jean Etienne Malan, b. 8 Jan 1835 at Latour, Torino, Italy and died 15 Aug 1926 either in Salt Lake City or Ogden]- His Life Entwined With Many. By J. Malan Heslop from material provided by Pauline Slade Voorhees and others.
      "Life's loom weaves interesting patterns, its woof and warp of human threads cross paths, become entwined, cross again, and another pattern is formed. Consider Stephen Malan's life, a complex pattern of crossing threads. He married three times. Little is recorded about his first marriage to Mahala Billings, which lasted less than two years. Married 1863, divorced 1865. He took a second wife on November 28, 1869. She was Sarah Mary Chestnut Slade Foy Trulock, an attractive women [sic] whose history included three previous husbands and survival of a heinous crime.
      Her thread that stretched to entwine with Stephen Malan starts with the story of Samuel Jefferson Adair and his family. His roots were in Alabama [and South Carolina before Alabama where his father was a prosperous farmer. He married Jamima [Jemima] Catherine Mangum of Ohio in 1829 [3 Dec.]. They settled in Alabama, raised cotton, struggled on their farm and bore Children. William Jefferson, 27 August 1829 [1830]; John Milton, January 8, 1833; Rebecca Francis, July 6, 1835 [or July 8] and twins, George Washington and Pamela [or Permelia], June 27, 1837.
      When the twins were a year old the family moved to Mississippi and three more children were born: Samuel Newton, December 11, 1839; Joseph J. [Jasper], February [January 23], 1842, and Rufus Columbus Burleson, February 9, 1844.
      It was about this time that James Richie [Richey], a nephew of Samuel Adair came to bring the good news of Joseph Smith and the restored gospel. The Adair family members were converted and baptized.
      They rationalized that their life would be better if they went to Nauvoo to be with the Saints. It was not the case. Mob persecution made life miserable for the Mormons. The Adairs sought refuge in 1846, crossed the Mississippi River, and went on west and settled in Lexington, Iowa. Jemina [Jemima] was expecting their ninth child. A baby girl was born April 27 [6], 1846. They named her after her mother, Jemima Catherine. She lived nine days. [This is incorrect because Jemima died 15 Apr 1926 in Murray, Salt Lake, Utah and was married to Frederick Dickerson Rugg] This was the first child they had lost. It was hard. Before the pain of that death could soften, Joseph J., their seventh son died at age four September 6, 1946 [Sep. 8, 1846 at Mt. Pisgah, Union, Iowa].
      Then, as though sorrow begot sorrow, their oldest son, William, became ill and died on October 31, 1846. He was buried in Mt. Pisgah. The pain was crushing.
      Many friends and relatives were dying. Samuel's mother, Rebecca Brown Adair, died on February 23, 1947.
      The family looked to the birth of another child to brighten their lives. A son, Ezra Taft B. Adair was born on April 25, 1848 at Mt. Pisgah. He died the next day. A day [actually 2 days] later Jemima, the mother, passed away.
      Discouraged, even ravished, Samuel hid his sorrow, packed up his belongings, and with his children and a young boy named David Sechrist, age eight, started for the Salt Lake Valley. Little Jemima was only two years old. [This is incorrect since they are in the 1850 Iowa census with Jemima at age 4 and they don't make the trip until 1852 when Jemima would be 6; after the death of Jemima, they move in fall of 1848 to Council Bluffs from Mt. Pisgah.]
      This trip, with eight [seven since Rebecca Francis had previously died] children to care for must have been difficult. He surely had all he could handle. Yet they made their way without apparent incident until they reached Echo Canyon.
      To Samuel's horror he came across three young children stumbling behind a wandering cow, to which they were tied with a rope.
      In their fear and shock, the oldest of the children, age eight, related bits and pieces of the terrifying experience. She sobbed out the story of their parents being killed, murdered by two men that her father had hired as teamsters to take them west.
      Their parents were William Albert and Johanna Chestnut. When the villains turned to kill the children, Ann Catherine pleaded for their lives with such emotion that they were spared. Instead the cruel men tied the girls to a cow and sent it on its way in the direction of a Mormon settlement, possibly Coalville. Then they ransacked the heavy wagon laden with the family valuables, took what they wanted, scattered the other goods, and with a further threat of death for the children if they ever told what had happened, the cowards drove the wagon away.
      The confused cow and the frightened children were left to wander.
      Imagine the plight of the children, Ann Catherine, 8; Sarah Mary, 5 [7], Alfred, 2 [Abt. 5].
      No wonder Samuel Adair was shocked and amazed when he found them. He released them from the cow, took them in his arms and did his best to comfort the distraught Children. His children no doubt nurtured the tragically orphaned Chestnut children and gave them comfort as they continued on the Salt Lake City.
      John Milton Adair, 15 [19] years old, his sister Rebecca, 13 [I believe Rebecca was long dead before this time] and the twins, George and Pamala [Pamela or Permelia], 11 [15], must have helped.
      When the party arrived in Salt Lake City, on September 21, 1848 [incorrect; should be in fall of 1852], the Chestnut children recognized the fine wagon that belonged to their parents. They started to shout, 'That's our wagon, That's are wagon', but were quickly silenced when two rough men told Samuel to shut them up or they'd be shut up for good.
      The men were soon gone. The children remained with Samuel. He raised them as his own. Most of his relatives and friends had gone south to Payson and Manti, so Samuel and 11 [10] children followed. Sometime that year, Rebecca, his 13 year old daughter died. [Incorrect, she died long before the plains crossing either in Alabama in 1837 or Iowa in 1848 depending on whose data one follows.]
      Farming was different than it has been in Alabama and Mississippi, but Brigham Young gave Samuel Adair a call to lead a company to Washington County to raise cotton. They arrived on April 15, 1857 and settled at what became known as Adair Springs. That was not successful. they moved to Pine Valley. In time, Samuel moved to Arizona. He married twice more [actually thrice; once in Iowa and twice in Utah] and died at age 83 on July 26 [6], 1889. John Milton Adair married Eliza Jane Richey and moved to Tonaquint, Utah, near Pine Valley. George Washington Adair, whose father had rescued the three Chestnut girls [two girls and one boy], and then raised them, married Ann Catherine Chestnut the oldest of the three. They continued to live [for awhile] in Washington County and had two children. [He later marries Emily Tyler and has 11 more Children.] William Alfred Chestnut, when matured, returned to the east to look for relatives. He did not return. Sarah Mary Chestnut married Jefferson Slade on November 20, 1860, she had just turned 15 years old on September 26. By the time her first child was born the couple separated possibly over polygamy. Following a quarrel, he told her to go back to her former home with Bishop and Sister Bingham in Riverdale, Utah. She did, and after some time passed, she tried to reconcile with Jefferson, but he would have no part of it, she was no longer his wife. Sarah left without telling Jefferson that she was pregnant with his child. He was not notified of the birth which occurred on April 11, 1862, some 16 months following their marriage. Sarah was living with the Bingham family. The boy was named Jefferson Chestnut Slade. He became a successful business man, owner of the Slade Transfer Company. Great-granddaughter, Pauline Slade Voorhees, wrote in 1990 that "Evidence shows that Jefferson was unaware of the birth of this child. I don't know how or when he learned about his son. My father James Jefferson Slade, son of Jefferson Chestnut Slade, said that when he did learn, his son was already a successful business man living in Ogden, and was in his forties. Jefferson Chestnut Slade threw a big party and invited everybody he know to come and meet his father, for he had carried the stigma of 'illegitimate' for all these years. He had been tormented and teased because he didn't have a father. Now he had a father. 'Now all of you know I am no bastard!' he exclaimed. He knew he had been conceived in the bonds of matrimony, and he wanted everyone to know. Upon looking at the two men, there was little doubt that they were father and son. Jefferson Chestnut Slade's life had not been easy, but he had always had a home and family. His mother, Sarah Chestnut Slade married John Moroni Foy in the Endowment House on December 13, 1862. Her son Jefferson, was about eight months old at the time. The marriage gave security. There were no children by this marriage which lasted only two years, and as with her first marriage, there is no record of a divorce. [Unverified but John may have died 25 Dec 1862.] Sarah Mary married a third time in November, 1865 to Dr. Aquila Trulock. A son, Aquila, Jr. was born May 6, 1966 [1866] and a daughter, Priscilla Chesnut Trulock, January 13, 1868. Shortly after Priscilla was born, Dr. Trulock passed away. Sarah was alone again with a new baby and two boys to raise. Sarah Chestnut Slade Foy Trulock married Stephen Malan on December 20, 1869 in the Logan Temple [There is no ordinance record for Logan but there is one for the Endowment House per FHL film 183396]. This marriage endured and six children were born. Three died as infants. Apparently Stephen and his stepson, Jefferson C. did not always get along well. Jefferson relates that he was made to eat out on the door-step like a little animal, and that he was illy treated. 'One day he picked up a loaf of bread from his mother's kitchen, bade her farewell. He left home to be on his own,' Pauline Slade Voorhees wrote. 'He went down on 25th Street in Ogden and obtained a job at the tender age of 11 years, cleaning spittoons, ashtrays, moping [mopping] floors, cleaning out-houses and other odd jobs. He related how on day two gun slingers with side arms, stood drinking in the bar-room. The younger challenged the older man as to who could draw the fastest. They went for their guns - shots rang out, and the young fellow lay dead on the floor. Seeing this, young Jefferson swore he would never in his life take a drink. He maintained that promise his entire life. He also detested cigars with a passion and was quick to take a cigar from a man's mouth and throw it in the gutter.' Jefferson Chestnut Slade married Sarah Barker on September 26, 1883. Her mother was Stephen Malan's sister, Mary Catherine Malan, who was married to James Barker. Sarah was two years older than Jefferson. Their first baby, Mary Pauline, was born May 3, 1884. Sarah's sister Elfrida, 16, helped nurse her back to health and care for the baby. When a second baby was expected, the couple moved into the 'Old Barker' home on 12th Street. A year and a week after Pauline was born, a son, James Jefferson Slade was born on May 9, 1885. The father, Jefferson Chestnut, was an ambitious man and took to work with a vigor. He is described as a, 'self-taught, good businessman, determined, forceful, dominating man, large in stature, barrel chested, approximately 250 pounds, about five feet-ten tall. His word was law. He carried a bullwhip in place of a gun.' On the other hand, Sarah Barker was entirely opposite in background. 'Sadie,' as she was called was artistic. She taught music and could sew. She was beautiful, had a taste for the beautiful, yet she was modest shrinking from praise. There were some who thought she had married beneath herself. The marriage seemed destined for trouble. After four years of mariage they were divorced on May 13, 1887. A month later Jefferson married a young Dutch girl, Marea Ter Bruggen, a convert to the Mormon Church. They set up housekeeping in Ogden and had a family of nine children. Alone, Sarah raised her children, living in the 'Old Barker' home at 468 12th Street. Her living came from her own resources, teaching, sewing fine clothing made from silk she reeled from silk worms that were grown locally, and she worked as a telephone operator for many years. The Slade business did well. Jefferson helped his first family. As a young man, James Jefferson worked at the transfer company cleaning stables and driving excursion wagons up Weber Canyon. The business, like the lives of the families was entwined. Pauline Slade Voorhees wrote: 'Grandpa Jefferson, Jim, Jeff. C, Ed. and Gus, a half brother, all helped in the moving business, Jim seemed to be the main one at first, along with Gus Malan (Stephen and Sarah Chestnut Malan's son). Soon Jeff, Jr. grew up, and Ed became of age. These sons and brothers were the backbone of the workers and builders of the business. Jeff Jr. always looked up to his older half-brother Jim and told of many trips up Ogden Canyon when Jim was driving the tour carriages and excursion wagons.' Sarah became ill with what was diagnosed as 'cancer of the breast and liver.' On her death bed, she called for Jefferson C. and declared her appreciation and love for him. She died June 2, 1904, at age 44. Jefferson C. purchased a family burial plot for her and the two children. She died, perhaps of a broken heart, not knowing the posterity she left. There are more threads tied to the Malan family. Parley Quince, son of Bartholomew and Louisa Hatch Malan married Anna Margaret Slade, the oldest daughter of Jefferson C. and Maria Ter Bruggen. They were married June 23, 1909. Two daughters were born before Anna died of pneumonia on December 1, 1916. Bernice was born May 11, 1911, and Donna on July 25, 1914. 'following the death of our mother, ' Bernice recalls, 'We spent time on Sunday, between meetings, with Grandpa Slade and Baw, as Grandma Slade was called. They bought a Victrola, and we loved to sit by the stove, eat ice cream and listen to the music. We always knew we were loved.' Jefferson Chestnut Slade died Oct. 13, 1936, at age 74, and was buried in the Ogden [cemetery]. When Sarah Chestnut married Stephen Malan on December 20, 1869, she brought with her Jefferson Chestnut [Slade], age eight, Aquilla Trulock, four, and Priscilla Trulock, one year old. This was indicated by the 1870 census. Priscilla died, an infant, in 1870. Sarah bore five children with Stephen. Two of these died in infancy. [Other biographies of Pauline Amaelia Chestnut Malan b. 13 May 1872, d. 17 Aug 1873 and Stephen Eugene Malan b 26 Jun 1874, d. 9 Nov 1931 and several other descending Malan family members continue for several pages. For the narrative above, the biography contains photos of Stephen Malan, Jefferson Slade, Slade's Baggage and Transfer Company's storefront, Sarah Barker, Mary Pauline, James Jefferson Slade, and Anna Slade. A copy of a painting of Sarah Chestnut is reprinted.]

      4. Per "Pioneer Women of Faith and Fortitude; Volume III; International Society Daughters of Utah Pioneers; Copyright 1999; ISBN 0-9658406-1-1; pages 1862 - 1863; Heading "Pauline Combe Malan" with picture accompaning article [mother of Stephen]:
      "Birthdate: 4 Aug 1805 Angrogena, Torino, Italy
      Death: 23 Jun 1864 Ogden, Weber, Utah
      Parents: Jean Combe and Marie Madeleine Ricca Combe
      Pioneer: 29 Oct 1855 James Harper Wagon Train
      Spouse: Jean (John) Daniel Malan
      Married: 28 Apr 1825 Angrogna, Torino, Italy (Death: 6 May 1886 Ogden, Weber, Utah)
      Children: Jean Daniel, 6 Mar 1828; Mary Catherine, 10 Jul 1829; Jean Daniel, 29 Jun 1832; John Stephen, 8 Jan 1835; Madeleine, 25 Sep 1839; Emily Pauline, 25 Sep 1839; Jean Louis, 17 Oct 1842; Jane Dinah, 20 Sep 1844; Bartholomew, 22 Apr 1848.
      [Bio]: Pauline was born in Italy in 1805. She married Jean Daniel Malan when she was nineteen years old. She and her husband were the first family in Italy to accept the missionaries and be baptized as members of the LDS Church. A few days later, many of their neighbors also joined the church. Pauline sang in tongues and then gave the interpretation. Their house became the mission headquarters for Italy. In 1855, the family sailed on the ship, 'Javenta', for Philadelphia and arrived there on the 6th of May. They traveled to Mormon Grove to get outfitted. They arrived in Salt Lake City on Oct. 29, 1855. On their way, her wagon had capsized going down a dugway. It was feared that Pauline and her twin daughters had been crushed under the large box of the company's glass and chinaware. Pauline was given the strength to lift her two young children from the overturned wagon and went about her domestic duties as usual. They arrived in the year of the 'grasshopper war' and suffered much from cold and hunger. By spring they subsisted mostly on weeds, bran, and the fish her husband caught in the Ogden River by using willow traps. Pauline was content to support her husband, raise children with great faith and firm understanding of truth. Pauline died in 1864, at the age of forty-nine."

      5. From the book "On the Way to Somewhere Else, European Sojourners in the Mormon West 1834-1930," ed. Michael W. Homer, The Arthur H. Clark Co., Spokane, WA, 2006, pp. 86-91: "Mormonism became a new foil for Protestant and Catholic writers. Scores of publications challenging the new religion began to appear. Despite this reac­tion, thousands of continental Europeans were eventually converted to Mor­monism, and many of them immigrated to Utah Territory with the assistance of the Perpetual Emigrating Fund. These travelers were not on the way to somewhere else: they were gathering to Zion. William Mulder calls LDS con­verts' "break with the Old World…a compound fracture: a break with the old church and with the old country:'(Mulder, "Through immigrant Eyes;' 47; Mulder, "Mormon Angles of Historical Vision;' 20.) Dean May noted that the converts, unlike other European immigrants to the West who were "moving out of their old life into relative freedom;' found themselves in "tightly structured, hierarchical, closely knit villages where pressures to conform were great." (May, "Mormons," in Eliason, "Mormons and Mormonism," 55.)
      Some, like John Ahmanson, were disappointed with their new lives in Utah and left the territory as bitter critics of Mormonism. Their accounts were loud and derogatory, but they represented a minority among the many immigrant voices. Most remained in the territory and abandoned their national languages and customs to become part of Mormon society. ('Helen Z. Papanikolas noted that "the logic of submerging national origins, languages, and customs to give strength to the new church, reverence for English as the language in which the Book of Mormon had been translated, and the wholehearted acceptance of Utah's Zion as the immigrant's permanent home kept resistance low," Papanikolas, "Ethnicity in Mormonism;' quoted in Eliason, Mormons and Mormonism, 166-67,)
      French revolutionary Louis Bertrand is perhaps the most striking example. In France he was a well-known journalist who was embroiled in the after­math of the revolutions of 1848. Yet, following his baptism, he left his fam­ily (who did not convert) and gathered to Zion. He eventually returned to France as mission president and published his memoirs in which he cele­brated Mormonism in Paris. Other converts, less prominent and with softer voices, will never be heard, but a few stories, such as those written by Stephen Malan and Daniel Bertoch many years after their arrival in Utah as teenagers, are now published for the first time.
      STEPHEN MALAN: The TEST WAS A SEVERE ONE
      In June 1850 Apostle Lorenzo Snow, T. B. H. Stenhouse, and Joseph Toronto arrived in the Kingdom of Sardinia and began proselytizing the only indige­nous Protestants in Italy. The missionaries believed that the Waldensians, with their long history of dissent, were better candidates for conversion than the Catholics. (When Snow arrived in the valleys in July 1850 he estimated they were home to 21,000 Waldensians and 5,000 Catholics. "They appeared to my mind like the rose in the wilderness, or the bow in the cloud," he told Brigham Young. See Snow, "The Italian Mission," 10; and his sister's "Biography and Family Record of Lorenzo Snow. For Toronto, see Toronto, "Giuseppe Efisio Taranto: Odyssey from Sicily to Salt Lake City," in Van Orden, Smith, and Smith Jr., eds., "Pioneers in Every Land," 125-47.) The Waldensians lived under desperate economic conditions, residing in "[a] few narrow valleys, which are, in some places, only a bowshot in breadth" and "[t]he inhabitants are far too numerous, according to the nature of the soil." Much of their land was not suitable for farming. Snow estimated that "two-thirds, or more, present nothing but precipices, ravines and rocky districts, or such as have a northern aspect." (Snow, The Italian Mission, II, 13. The Waldensians produced grapes, wheat. rye, maize, oats, mulberry, barley, potatoes, and fruit trees and raised cows, goats, and sheep. See Monastier, A History of the Vaudois Church, 431-32. Protestant missionaries in Italy reported that some Waldensians were attracted by Mor­monism's program of subsidized immigration to the U.S. See Homer, "The Italian Mission;' 19-21.)
      After Snow and his companions arrived in the valleys, Snow wrote and published a pamphlet, "La Voix de Joseph (The Voice of Joseph)." It explained the Mormon doctrine of gathering converts to America in anticipation of the millennium and the church program - the Perpetual Emigrating Fund - ­that provided financial assistance to those who could not afford to emi­grate. Snow described Great Salt Lake City as "a beautiful valley beyond the 'pass' of the Great Rocky Mountains...where peace and happiness dwell." Concerning life in "Zion" Snow wrote, "Oh, what a life we live! It is the dreams of the poets actually fulfilled in real life. ...Here, too, we are all rich. ...There is no real poverty; all men have access to the soil, the pas­ture, the timber, the water power, and all elements of wealth, without money or price."
      The Malan family lived in the small village of Prassuit in the Val Angrogna and was among the first Mormon converts in Italy. (At least 171 Waldensians joined the LDS church during the seventeen-year history of the Italian mis­sion. Seventy-three immigrated to Utah in three groups during 1854 and 1855. The Italian mission record indicates that between 1850 and 1866, 184 persons were baptized, 58 immigrated, and 7, were excommuni­cated. These figures are inconsistent with the rosters of immigrant ships that name at least 73 Waldensians who migrated between 1853 and 1866, possibly because some of the children were nor baptized Mormons. See "Emigration Records and Ship Roster" and "Record of Membership of the Italian Mission," LDS Archives.) Jean Daniel Malan was a well-respected member of the community prior to his baptism by Mormon missionaries. He was a candidate to be a Waldensian elder before he revealed during an interview that he no longer believed in the church. Jabez Woodard, Lorenzo Snow's successor as mission president, baptized the entire Malan family in February 1851, including Jean Daniel, his wife Pauline, and their seven children: Marie Catherine, Jean Daniel, Jean Etienne, Jeanne Dina, Madeleine, Pauline Amelia, and Barthelemy. Thereafter the missionaries held Sunday services in the Malan home. (Jabez Woodard, born 7 October 1821 at Aldenham, England, joined the LDS church in 1849. He arrived in Italy in September, 1850 and subsequently served as president of the Italian and Swiss missions. Woodard emigrated to Utah in 1854 and died 2 May 1870 in Morgan. Utah.)
      The Malan family left Italy in February 1855 with the second group of Italian converts. (The first group sailed from Liverpool to New Orleans aboard the John M Wood on 22 March 1854; the second left Liverpool on the Juventa on 14 March 1855 bound for Philadelphia; and the third boarded the John J Boyd on 3O December 1855 and sailed for New York. Most of those who did not immigrate, a total of sev­enty-three people, were excommunicated and presumably remained members of the Waldensian church. The stated reasons for these excommunications were negligence, rebellion, infidelity, evil and immorality, apos­tasy, absurdities, unbelief, criticism, nonchalance, cowardice, lying, bad conduct, fear of the world, and deceit. See "Record of Membership of the Italian Mission." Mormon missionaries in Italy converted almost 1 percent of the Waldensian population, which caused great concern among the pastors in the valleys.) They departed from Liverpool aboard the Juventa, arrived in the Salt Lake Valley in October 1855, and settled in Ogden. "We found 'Zion' a comparative desert, but with patient industry, perseverance and heaven's blessings, we've noticed it gradually transformed to a beautiful and most desirable land to dwell on," Madeleine Malan recalled. Amidst a gen­eral famine brought on by drought, the family survived the first winter on a diet of weeds, bran bread, and fish caught with traps made from willow twigs. During these difficult times Madeleine worked for Joseph Toronto, doing domestic chores at his home in Salt Lake and making hay at his ranch near the Great Salt Lake. Despite these hardships, Jean D. Malan Sr. was called in 1857 to return to Italy as a missionary.
      Jean Etienne Malan, now known as Stephen, wrote a holographic autobiography in 1893, almost forty years after arriving in Utah, in which he described his initial disappointment with "Deseret." But one senses in Malan, as well as many other early converts, that they were often more com­fortable discussing church doctrines and beliefs than they were speaking about their own history. In 1912 he published a small book, The Ten Tribes: Discovered and Identified, that he had researched for thirty years.
      STEPHEN MALAN, AUTOBIOGRAPHY and Family RECORD, LDS ARCHIVES.
      "I will not omit to mention here that inasmuch as I had been raised in those fair valleys of Piedmont where nature exhibited so many gifts, where one would inhale the sweet fragrance of the thousands of variegated flow­ers which the ever green meadows produced so exhilarating to the senses, I could not, having witnessed other climes and scenes, form a correct idea of the aspect that an arid western waste would offer to my view. I could not sense the description given while in my native land, of the flowery border of the River Jordan, nor of the virgin prairies of the valleys of Deseret, nor of the dense forest, and shrubs of its mountain dales and limpid water brooks, and salubrity of its climate. Having never seen it, I conjectured something of a similarity to my country's nature's gifts. Hence with this reflection upon my mind after having for weeks traveled over sandy deserts, and the wilderness across the Rocky Mountains, what a contrast would appear to my view when gazing upon Salt Lake, the fine city of the Saints and the lux­urious vegetations covering the surrounding country.
      I was so eager for this contemplation, and so expectant of the contrast which my anxious gaze would witness, that on the day that we were to cross the last summit of the mountains [at] Emigration Canyon I started at day break [and] left the company without my breakfast, and made rapid strides to reach the long sought land of Zion. Somewhere down the canyon, I met Samuel Burt our captain of guard. He peremptorily ordered me to go back and help to drive the loose stock. I answered him that I had as he knew full well that I had always promptly obeyed his orders; but that in this instance I would refuse, saying that I was so near Zion and anxious to see the Salt Lake that I would not return to camp for all the stock was worth. I thought he was only trying a tease, for after hearing my argument, he started off with a laugh, seemingly as to say, "fool, your eagerness will be checked; when you'll see the sagebrush fields."
      I arrived with perspiration and almost breathless; upon a slight elevation at the mouth of the canyon, my eyes surveyed the whole landscape from the spot upon which I stood; nothing but desert was visible; from the East to West mountains, I could not perceive any thing indicative of anticipations. Seeing some teamsters on their way up the canyon I actually inquired of them where was that great valley of Salt Lake and where was the city located; with a burst of laughter they asked me if I was deprived on my eye­sight. "I see," said one of them, "that you appear rather fresh," so he pointed westward; "there," said he, "is the city there a little further off is the Jordan River," but I could not see the flowers on its borders. "You see the lake or part of it, now said he, are you satisfied?"
      I was satisfied, and so much so that the contemplation not only dimmed my eyes [but] actual tears rolled down my cheeks was it joy to be gazing upon Zion's hills that produced the agitation? No! It was disappointment, that was conceived through my ignorance of the aspect which I was to wit­ness and the abortiveness of my sanguine anticipations.
      The test was a severe one but it was momentary. As I walked along the road the fragrance of the sage was beginning to cause a cogitation upon my mind that this indigent plant growing so profusely could be changed into a fruitful orchard, and gardens by man's industry, and that the whole valley could eventually be converted into that condition which I had contem­plated. It is now so to a great extent.
      While thus cogitating upon these matters my eyes were not at all affected by the latent tears; but they otherwise became clearer of vision, but my stom­ach was becoming unruly; and commanded my attention. I first entered the eastern part of Zion's city or tail end. I began to admire the width of the street, and the sparse small dwelling houses. When a man seeing me so absorbed, in observation and as he was standing upon his door step, addressed me by saying "hello there, you must be a stranger in these parts, judging from your scrutiny upon the surroundings:' I said "yes," and was upon studying in what manner, in my then very imperfect language of Eng­lish to ask for something to satisfy the cravings of my stomach, but he antic­ipated my tardy studied sentence and called me in; after a few inquiries about our journey, he invited me to a sumptuous repast the best since I had left home it was considered so after three months journey across the plains; it is sufficient to know that day to this I, whether willingly or forcibly through force of circumstances, [have] adapted myself to the ways and rules which predominated [in] this western climes, and would shed more tears if I had to forsake this vales of the mountains than those I shed for entering them."

      6. Per the book "Malan Book of Remembrance, Descendants of John Daniel Malan," v. II, comp. and edited by J. Malan Heslop, 1993, FHL book 929.273 M237K (FHL film 1697979), p. 153:
      "Stephen Malan's journal, written in 1893, contains his family history and a very descriptive story of his home and youth in Italy, his family's conversion to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and an acoount of their journey to Utah, is found in Volume I - "Malan Book of Remembrance - John Daniel Malan" on page 89.
      By Laura Leone Malon Shearer, granddaughter. Submitted by Afton S. Parsons.
      'My sister Eva and I went often to visit our grandfather Stephen Malan and his wife Martha. Our grandmother, Sarah Chestnut Malan, died on July 4, 1886.
      Grandfather lived in Mound Fort. His cottage was built close to a very high hill. He excavated into the hill and built a cellar of rocks. That was very appropriate because of his trade as a stone cutter.
      He would travel to neighboring communities and cut rock for foundations for new homes. We would have lunch with him then leave early to trek home. Grandfather always gave us each a bottle of fruit and some peppermint and lemon drop candy.
      Grandfather was a great scholar; he loved good books, especially historic literature. At one time he sold books. My mother was the recipient of many gifts of good books from him as she shared his love and appreciation for them. I have in my possession a book entitled 'Poems we Love' from the world's best authors, presented to her December 25, 1905 as a Christmas gift.
      Grandfather is the author of a book entitled 'The Ten Tribes Discovered and Identified.' Thirty years of research, both sacred and profane, went into the book. He felt the facts pointed to the conclusion that the ten tribes were scattered among the nations and are bieng gathered by the missionaries.
      The Malan family is indebted to Grandfather for genealogical records of the Malan family from William born in 1539. These names were drawn from civil and ecclesiastic archives of the Waldensian Church of Piedmont, Italy. They were copied form the archves by John Jolla, Professor of Language and History and a resident to Torre Pellice, Piedmont, Italy. The records are hand written and have been given to each of his grandsons and some relatives. There is a copy in the Church library in Ogden.
      The first seven pages of the record contain the history of the Vaudois, or Waldensians, who came to Piedmont from Germany, France and Switzerland sometime during the middle ages. They were distant from most of the population of the country through their rejection of the orthodox church of Rome. They were persecuted, many burned alive, and some murdered. No life was spared, both young and old, women and Children, became victims of this persecution.
      Grandfather states that it cannot, as present, be discovered whether the Malans came from France or Germany to Italy as they were largely found in both countries for they do not belong to Grecian, Etruscan, or Latin races.
      The genealogical record is so precious and stands as a monument to a man of great knowledge, foresight and concern for his progenitors who died before the gospel was restored in its fullness.
      In 1910 Grandfather went to live with his daughter, Cora Malan Hileman in Salt Lake City. She took excellent care of him until his death.
      Stephen, age 90 and Emily, 85, were honored at the family reunion in the fall of 1924. This event was reported in the newspaper as follows: [Transcript included but of no particular genealogical value to me except the mention of 'A feature of the evening was the presentation of a shower of chrysanthemums to two pioneers. Stephen Malan, aged 90 years, and Emily Malan Farley, aged 85 years.']
      Stephen Malan died on Aug. 15, 1926 at the age of 91. The newspaper reported:
      'Funeral services for Stephen Malan, Utah Pioneer, were held Wed. at 2 o'clock in the Fifth Ward chapel with Bishop William H. Petty presiding. The invocation was given by Lawrence M. Malan and the benediction by Patriarch Thomas A. Shreeve. The speakers were: John J. Barker, Miles L. Jones, John T. Williams of Salt Lake, Bishop K.N. White of Salt Lake, and President Joseph Ririe. Howard Shupe sang, 'Come, Come Ye Saints' and 'One Sweetly Solemn Thought.' Mrs Bertha Luddington sang 'Twill Not Be Long.' A trio composed of Mrs. Bert Leishman, Piano; Mrs Oscar Torgensen, cello; and Dale Wangsgard, violin, played 'Oh My Father.' Interment was in the city cemetery with Ludwig Rueckert dedicating the grave.'
      At the time of his death he was alert, keen of mind, always keeping up with current events and with his reading and writing..."
      [Several photos of Stephen accompany the article as well as a photo of the cover of his 1912 book including the Preface and Introduction.]

      7. Malan Book of Rembrance John Daniel Malan Volume 1, compiled by James Barker Knighton, Lisa Knighton Delap, & J Malan Heslop, 1992:
      Autobiography- Stephen Malan; Verification- Vincy R.S. Barker; Personal Story- Stephen Malan.
      "Mound Fort Ward, Weber Co., Feb. 11, 1893
      Stephen Malan, in a very descriptive way, gives us a glimpse into the grapple of life and the struggle for freedom and truth that faced John Daniel Malan and his family who lived in the high mountain valleys of Piedmont, Italy. He describes, first hand, his experiences and details the struggles of a people seeking religious freedom. He describes the details and the discovery of new and startling truths that changed lives and brought his family and others with them to a new life in America.
      This document was carefully transcribed from a duplicated copy of Stephen Malan's journal and then checked against the original manuscript which is stored at the LDS Church Historical Library in Salt Lake City. Punctuation and paragraphing have been added, as have some limited words and information, which is shown in italics. The spelling of the final transcript was checked by computer. Some individualized words were not corrected. Not all dates and details agree with other accounts. Stephen Malan had an extended vocabulary and correctly used many descriptive words adding interest and color to his story. J Malan Heslop
      My father, John Daniel Malan, a son of John Daniel and Catherine Costable Malan, was born on the 17th day of February A.D. 1806, in the parish of Angrogna, Province of Pignerolo, Piedmont Italy.
      My mother, his wife, Pauline Combe Malan, was the daughter of John Combe and Madeline Ricca. She was born the 4th of August, 1805, in the same parish.
      My mother died the 23rd of June 1865. My father died the 6th of May 1886. Both died in Ogden City, Weber County, Utah. They, together, had 9 (nine) Children. Of these, two males died in their infancy. Seven attained their majority and are according to priority of birth as follows:
      Mary Catherine Malan Barker, born in the same place, July the 10th 1829. Died in Mound Fort, Ogden, June 6, 1883.
      John D. Malan 3rd, and senior, was born in the parish of LaTour de Luzerne, June 29, 1932 is a resident of Ogden.
      Stephen Malan, the writer, was born in the parish of LaTour de Luzerne, January 8, 1835, resides in Mound Fort, Ogden.
      Amelia Pauline and Madeline Malan Farley, twin sisters, were born in the parish of Angrogna, Sept 25, 1839, resident at Mound Fort, Ogden.
      Jane Dinah Malan Hatch, born the same place, October 21, 1844, Mound Fort residence.
      Bartholomew Malan, born the same plae, April 22, 1848, residence Mound Fort, Ogden
      In the fall of 1860, my father married his second wife, Mary Louise Chatelain. Of them were born six children.
      First born (died) in infancy, about 1862.
      Henry Malan Chatelain, born in Ogden, Utah, 22 April 1862.
      Eliza Lydia Malan Krumperman, same place, born 8 May 1865.
      Albert Eli Malan Chatelain, same place, born 18 May 1865.
      Harriet Lydia Malan Davidson, same place of birth and residence, born 24 July 1871.
      The last died in its infancy. Charles David Malan born 17 September 1973, died 17 October 1874.
      I will omit recording in this instance the names, dates of birth and residence of my father's grandchildren and great grandchildren, the which at the time of his death numbered sixty four.
      From my first wife, whom I had sealed to me in the Salt Lake Endowment House by D. H. Wells. She was the daughter of Ivan Chestnut. Her mother's name unknown as she lost her parents in her infancy and was taken care of by strangers. Her name was Sarah Chestnut Slade Turlock. When I married her, she had from two prior husbands, one divorced, from the first one son.
      Jefferson Chestnut Slade, born in Ogden April 12, 1862, and is now a resident of same place.
      Of her second husband deceased Aquila Turlock, she bore two children as follows:
      Aquila Turlock Jun., born May 6, 1866, in Ogden and resided same place.
      Prisella Chestnut Turlock, born in Richmond, Cache County, Utah, Jan. 13, 1868. Died in Ogden City, July 18, 1870.
      We were married on the 28 day of November, 1869. Our first child was stillborn, a daughter. Next were as follows:
      Pauline Amaelia Chestnut Malan, born in Ogden City, May 13, 1872. Died August 17, 1893, same place.
      Stephen Eugene Chestnut Malan, was born in Ogden City, June 26, 1874, resident Ogden.
      Augustus Wilfred Chestnut Malan, born in Ogden City, January the 12th, 1877, resident Mound Fort.
      Cora Maud Chestnut Malan, was born in Bingham Co., Idaho, March 2nd, 1880, resident Mound Fort.
      Ada Flora Chestnut Malan, born in Mound Fort, Ogden.
      Sarah Chestnut Turlock Malan died in Ogden City, July 24, 1886.
      In the Logan Temple, December 17, 1889, Apostle Marriner Wood Merrill solemnized my marriage ceremony with Martha Ann Andrews, the daughter of Harpel Andrews and Adelia Eubanks, born in Warren Co. Georgia.
      Owing to my limited knowledge of the English language, and imperfections of diction and syntax, I do not therefore write this work for publicity, but merely with the view of setting forth my parent's people's antecedents features of religion, moral and sociable institutions and incidents which prepared them to readily accept the fullness of the gospel as taught by the elders of the Church of L.D. (Latter-day) Saints. In order thereto, I will proceed by, in the first place, to remend the Church Historian's agent Bro. Jensen that my elaborate delineation of incidents connenced with the peculiarities of the people we derive of origin, nor of the incidents and circumstances commenced with opening of the door to the promulgation of our principles of the gospel in my native land, the organization of branches of the Church, our emigration and its attendant circumstances and our participation in the improvements of Ogden and surroundings, have not for a motive that it should be inscribed in the History of the Church as essential matters, but simply to call from its contents such items of facts, which shall be proper and of interest, to be inserted amid volumes.
      With this end in view, I will endeavor to briefly transcribe remarks brought forth from writers, in relation to our people with a few sparse information, from my individual knowledge corresponding thereto.
      Upon the western slopes of the Cottian chain of the Alps, which chain of mountains forms the boundaries between France and Piedmont, Italy, lies five valleys of antiquated renown in history from the peculiarity and the exclusiveness of its inhabitants from the rest of the busy world due to their remarkable institution and dogmas of religion.
      These people are known by the Christian world as the Waldenses, as also in other historic productions as Vaudois.
      This people, so called, seems to have been a gathered mixture of different nationalities by the perceivable variety of names and characteristics of French, German, Swiss and a few scattering of English, whom as refugees from the corrupted church of Rome, and in the fastness of those mountains they, for many centuries remained ignored by the Papists. But, eventually in the 11th century of the Christian era, it being formed by Apostate Rome, that they were promulgating abroad their religious views antagonistic to the orthodox Church, they launched their armies against this people and with incessant persecution massacres in war conflicts or by snare and deceptions used. Although fortified in their strongholds in the fastness of the mountain cliffs, they defended themselves as heroic Spartans against overwhelming forces of the Papist soldiery. For six centuries when they were finally, the few remnants, were forced to exile among strangers. Switzerland, Germany, Holland and England extended their arms of protection to the refugees and exiles. Their hospitality was manifested by inviting this sorely afflicted people to remain in their midst and offered them land and house and all other substances. However, with full appreciation of the kind treatment extended unto them by that manifested hospitality and brotherly love, these exiles could not forsake their native land those valleys among those high cliffs and lofty mountains had been the Eden and home of their fathers for many passed generations. Resolving upon an inflexible determination to make an attempt of recovering their homes and territorial possessions, they assembled in the vicinity of Geneva a body of eleven hundred strong and resolute men headed by one of their pastors, Henry Arnaud, who had at this instance act as tactician, a general as well as a reverent doctor of divinity.
      In as much as the passes of the mountains across the alps were strongly guarded by the enemy, whom ere this were apprised of the Waldenses column movements for recovering their natural homes, this intrepid band forced their way through precipices and almost inaccessible acclivities to cross the Alps, beset upon them by the papist soldiery. They however bore down upon their foes, who assault them continually by ambush and upon conflicts of arms in the passes. They cut their way through with sword and muskets, and their onslaught was irresistible. Never was a band of men, with the opposition both of the elements and the natural difficulties of the passes of the mountains, and the armed forces of men to dispute their advance, that could have accomplished the task and come out victorious.
      Having overcome such gigantic opposition and set their foot once more up on their latent possessions, they were yet to contend against an army of 14,000 French troops which they kept at bay by their superiority of endurance and dexterous movements. Evading battle, and harassing the soldiers in skirmishing parties, the ranks of the heroic band, although not conquered nor having as yet relinquished their ground, were now reduced to 500 hundred and had meanwhile with many encounters with the soldering chased the transitory, self constituted possessors of their homes from their ill acquired ownership.
      It was under these conditions of affairs that an overruling providence turned the scale of events. This remnant of the Waldenses whom had proved themselves so valiant were solicited by Victor Amedia, King of Sardinia to help him to fight the French and help drive them out of the country for which he reciprocated by granting unto all the Waldensian refugees amnesty and possession of their former territorial possessions and liberation of those who had been held prisoner in Turin and other places. They did not however recover the full extension of the territory they occupied at the beginning of their strife with the papists. From the time these late incidents occurred until 1845, they were deprived of many citizens rights, and were subjected to severe restrictions and taxed heavily without remuneration, without representation, their churches and school houses, built by foreign assistance as also the pay for Pastors and Teacher.
      At length the voice of some men of eminence and of King Charles Albert, surnamed the Magnanimous, was heard in favor and in behalf of this long oppressed people. From the heretofore absolute monarchial government issues forth a change of system. Charles signed with his royal seal a newly framed constitution whereby the poeple are entitled to representation in enacting laws and are from this time on a free people, and the Waldenses, lauded with praises for their loyalty to the government while they had been oppressed, were, by this act, made equal with other citizens. Freedom of speech, of conscience, their tenets of religion have no restrictions now limits of promulgation abroad. They have their representatives in congress, school and protestant churches are now to be seen throughout Italy, and protected by law.
      The 25th of February, the day following the proclamation of the constitutional act- throughout the realm, was solemnized by the greatest demonstration of joy, gladness and thanksgiving that was ever beheld in these secluded valleys and experienced by the Waldenses. At the sound of the news every town, village, and the most remote hamlets at the foot of the cliffs, resounded with national songs, praises to God, manifestations of their great appreciation of the magnanimity of their sovereign in their behalf. Bonfires upon every hillock, shouts of rejoicing with continual firing of guns and mortars, gorgeous displays of military parades, and thousands of mottoes written upon the walls facing the streets of the towns, with every shade of fantastic lights as illumination, fireworks in full display, discharges of artillery that shook the earth, all things combined to make a nations festival, such as it not often witnessed, and which shall never be forgotten by the Waldensens.
      It was, however, on the twenty seventh day of the month that a delegation of Waldenses, to the number of six hundred, with deployed banners, in marching order arrived at Turin to offer their homage of gratitude to both King and the thousands of people from every part of the kingdom, who were there assembled to receive this representation of the Waldenses with deafening acclamations, hurrahs and with shouts. "Long live the constitution! Long live our brotherhood! Long live our brethren the Waldenses." We feel to open our arms to them as "in eternal love we press them to our bosom." Then all together, "Long live Charles Albert, the champion of freedom, the Magnanimous, our liberator!" This was one of the greatest demonstration Piedmont ever beheld of marked joy and compact union in love and thanksgiving.
      The vast train of upward of thirty thousand arrived in military and civilian attire headed by numbers of martial and brass bands discoursing national airs, followed by the eminent men of the nation. Next, and first to come, the deputation of the six hundred Waldenses in accordance with this remark of the masses: "That in as much as these Waldenses, having heretofore to fall to the rear, it is now for them, for the first time, to be at the head." Hence the whole train with their thousand banners passed the Royal palace.
      Upon the center balcony upon a white horse was seated the stalwart figure of King Charles Albert in his royal vesture, hat in hand with two young princes, one on each side. Upon the right stood the Regal Queen with the ladies of honor, kings household, prices, dukes and prelates, senators, etc. When the 600 hundred passed his august presence an uproar of voices deafening and amid salvoes of artillery in rent the air with, "Long live the Waldenses! Long live the King, Long live our gracious Queen!" and when the banner of the Waldensian column was waved before the Royal family, with an emblazoned eagle upon a blue ground of inscription, "Acknowledgement of devotion of the Waldenses to our Father and King Charles Albert, immortal may ever be his name in the heart of every Waldens." This was waved three times in his highnesses presence, succeeded each time by the same demonstration of joyful acclamation.
      The king, so generous, was so moved as to be unable to articulate his word of thanks to the overjoyed masses. But, his light [hened] countenance was beaming upon them. He extended both hands and said, "What greater glory, what greater joy, what loftier aspirations can a prince possess than to bless a people, a nation, so loyal and so appreciative of a boon that is given with as much pleasure as it is received with joy. My brethren, no longer my subjects, your King as a father blesses you."
      The above narrative is a selection of facts I've called from the history of the Waldenses. I've avoided all references to the hundreds of actions of valor displayed by this people in the defense of their rights, of their country, of their wives and Children, and of their religion. Tens of thousands fell victim to the brutality of the papal soldiery. Thousands perished in dungeons and burnt at the stake from the first persecution in the eleventh century to their instalment and final emancipation.
      No people, according to number, resisted so long and manifested such heroism against an implacable, vindictive and overwhelming enemy forces and became eventually victorious and blessed with such propitious ending. It was but two years succeeding the above conditions of affairs that the fullness of the gospel was introduced among this people.
      I will add to the above narration the words of Professor Edwards in his History of the Redemption page 322, Christian Era, from 450 to 500.
      In every age of this dark time there appeared particular persons in all parts of Christendom, who bore a testimony against the corruption and tyranny of the Church of Rome. There is no age of Anti-Christ, even in the darkest times, but ecclesiastical historians mention many by name who manifested an abhorrence of the pope and his idolatrous worship, and pleaded for the ancient purity of the doctrine and worship. God was pleased to maintain an uninterrupted succession of many witnesses through the whole time in Germany, France, Britain and other countries; private persons and ministers, some magistrates and persons of great distinction. And, there were members in every age who were persecuted and put to death for this testimony.
      Besides these various individuals there was a people called the Waldenses who lived separate from all the rest of the world, and constantly bore a testimony against the Church of Rome though all this dark time. The place where they dwelt was the Vaudois or the five valleys of Piedmont, a very mountainous country between Italy and France. It was compassed about with these exceeding high mountains, the Alps, which were almost impassable and therefore the valleys were almost inaccessible (except by the way of the plain of Piedmont). There this people lived for many ages in a state of separation from all the world having very little to do with any other people. And, there they served God in the ancient purity of his worship, and never submitted to the Church of Rome.
      The professor makes some following observations in regard to this people, having even anterior to Constantine, took refuge thereto from the persecution of pagan Rome with additions thereto as I've referred in the above lines. He continues as follows:
      Living in so secret a place, it was a long time before they were noticed. But at last, falling under observation, the Romanist went out in mighty armies against them, fell upon them with unsatiable cruelty, barbarously massacring and putting to death men, women and children with all imaginable tortures. Their enemies continued persecuting them with but little intermission for several hundred years, by which means many were driven out of the valleys of Piedmont. These fled into all part of Europe, carrying with them their doctrine to which many were brought over. Their persecutors could not by all their cruelties extirpate the Church of God; so fulfilling his word, that the "gates of hell should not prevail against it."
      At the beginning of their organization their principles of theology may have been coherent with true Christianity. However, afterwards they became viciated by contact with modern reforms, so much so that they are now also divided in several denominations and this people principles and their resistance to the Roman Church was but a preserved, glimmering light foreshadowing the Reformation, and this last, a preparative move to usher in the restoration of the gospel in its fullness in the last dispensation and fullness of times.
      Something remarkable occurred among this people at the same time that Joseph Smith began to reveal to the world his commission to preach the new revealed fullness of the gospel. An excitement of the religious revival took place and bitter persecution resulted against the innovators by the true adherent of the Waldensian Church, as also at the time when Joseph and Hyrum Smith were slain. The heaven became red and its reflection upon the earth made it appear like blood. These sign were not understood. To portend what we afterwards discovered to be an incident also was made manifest in the conduct of many in regard to the approaching time of the introduction to the fullness of the gospel. Some received visions, some dreams. Some by sudden inspiration of the spirit awakening to the sense that the religious principles of the day were not in accordance with Holy writ. In particular, my grandfather John Combe awakened to the position loudly denounced the false precepts and unscriptural dogmas of the day, and announced publicly that there were but one true religion practiced according to the pattern of Jesus Christ's primitive Church. He did not know which part of the world it was but that it would be known among this people in the near future. That he would not live to see it, but that those younger would.
      My mother was a God fearing woman according to the light she had. The Lord forewarned her also by dreams and visions of the night, that a time of refreshing was coming. Father was often seen with some intimate friends engaged in religious discussions upon the extant corrupted systems and non conformance to the principles of the Gospel as they were proclaimed by ancient apostles. Such were the divided opinions of the people. Some were let to infidelity through the antagonism of the various sects, others were undecided which was the nearest to truth. Others without withdrawing from their former communicants were waiting for some great reforms in Christianity to take place. Among these were my parents. Until the Elders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints reached our mountains and when they so clearly and understandingly propounded the first principles of the gospel, and testified to the fact that Joseph Smith was instrumental in God's hand to establish the Church of Christ in its purity of principles and doctrine, our eyes were open, our minds and understanding were enlightened and prepared to receive this fullness of the gospel and accept baptism at their hands upon the second sermon they discoursed unto us.
      The foremost of commissioned God servants to introduce the gospel unto our native land was Apostle Lorenzo Snow, accompanied by T.B.H. Stenhouse and Joseph Toronto, arrived at Genoa on the 25th day of June 1850.
      The 1st day of July, Elder Stenhouse and Toronto left Genoa according to appointment to visit the Protestant valley of Piedmont.
      On the 23rd of said month, Lorenzo Snow left Genoa, passing through the city of Turin, the capital of the Sardinian states, and arriving at LaTour (La Torre Pellice) in the valley of Luzerne. Having taken their headquarters at the principal hotel with the sign of the Bear, the host being a gentleman of culture and of kind disposition. The Elders began to study the disposition of the people and to ingratiate themselves with them before attempting to disclose unto them their new system of religious principles, as also to have tracts of our principles and some of our books of doctrine translated in the French and Italian languages printed and published to be distributed among the people, and thereby open the door of the introduction of our principles therewith.
      In the meantime, a three year old boy child of their host, Mr. Guy, fell sick and before the Elders were aware of it became so reduced and momentarily expected to die. Elder Snow, seeing the affliction manifested by the father and mother, took his companion elders and they went out in a secluded place to implore God's assistance in the behalf of the Child's recovery as also to demonstrate the power of the Priesthood when in performing the ministering ordinance of laying of hands upon the sick. Upon their return, Lorenzo sought permission to see the child prostrate and the film of death was already perceivable upon its continence. He deliberately knelt by the child with fervent prayer once more that God would grant him power to restore the child to life, health and strength, and having some consecrated oil about him, poured some of it into his hands, administered to the ordinance and the results were according to his faith and prayer. To the exceeding joy of the parents whom could not but acknowledge that Elder Snow was a man of God, and that the recovery of the child was operated by the power of God and miraculous in its nature, and when the mother thanked him he answered her in the Italian language, "Il Dio di cielo ha fatta questa per voi."- The God of Heaven has done this for you.
      Having found by this time that the people of these valleys were intelligent and hospitably inclined, and also finding out that many were adverse to the animosity so manifest of one sect against another that it augured a practicability to introduce Mormonism among them, and inasmuch as Elder Stenhouse was to be sent to Switzerland open a mission among that nation, and also Elder Toronto to visit his native land, Sicily, Apostle Snow sent for Elder Jabez Woodard of London to join these in the valleys of Piedmont, which he did on the 19th day of September.
      The following day, Elder Snow proposed that they were to organize a Church in that country. Accordingly they ascended the nearest mountain and upon its summit upon a bold projecting rock where upon they could gaze upon the vast plains of Piedmont, Lombardy and Venice (Venetia), or known as the Valley of the River Po. Upon this eminence they proceeded to organize the Church.
      They were to begin it with material marvelously assembled from four different nations, viz- England, Scotland, Italy and America.
      In the proceeding of ceremonies, Apostle Snow first opened by a fervent prayer, offering their thanks for the protection God had manifested in their journeying, and his now solicited assistance in establishing the principles of life and salvation unto the people among which were many of the blood of Israel. While thus imploring these blessings the spirit of prophecy led him to announce that as the work had now commenced that it should continue onward and that many in this land will accept the gospel, the bands of bondage broken, and the scales of darkness fall from their eyes.
      After prayer it was moved by Elder Snow that The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints be organized in Italy, seconded and carried. Moved by Elder Stenhouse that Lorenzo Snow of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles be sustained president of the Church in Italy. Seconded and carried. Then it followed that Elder Stenhouse was appointed secretary for said Church and the brethren, being moved by the spirit, each one prophesied upon the good results that their labors would realize in that land of darkness.
      They also, through having been so blessed by the gift of prophecy and the mountains being now became famous as Mt. Sinai, for upon it originated the beginning of the restoration of one portion of Israel. Hence it was unanimously prophesied and accepted that the mountain should fence forth and forever be known among the people of God as "Mount Brigham" and the rock upon which they stood, the "Rock of Prophecy."
      Having now organized the Church on the 19th of September 1850 with four members, they descended to La Tour, which is the principal town of the Waldenses.
      Elder Snow, according to former deliberation, was to send Elder Stenhouse in Switzerland and have Elder Woodard take charge of the Italian Mission and Joseph Toronto to visit Sicily. But, before